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20-06-2004 03:07 PM

962

962 (351 )
962 Rise of the Ghaznawids : 962 Alptegin, a Turkish commander, founds the Ghaznawid state in Iran and Afghanistan (351 A.H.)
969

969 (358)
969 The Fatimid Conquest of Egypt : 969 Jauhar Al-Siqilli, the Fatimid commander under Al-Mu`iz Li Din Allah, annexes Egypt to the Fatimid domination (358 A.H.)
970

970 (359 )
970 Foundation of Cairo : 970 Commander Jauhar Al-Siqilli founds Cairo as the Fatimid capital, then establishes Al-Azhar Mosque (359 A.H.)
644

( ) (23 )
644 The Conquest of Libya : 644 `Amr bin Al-`As conquers Barca, Tripoli and other coastal cities of Libya, then dispatches `Uqbah bin Nafi` to conquer the southern cities (23 A.H.)

20-06-2004 03:09 PM


20-06-2004 03:09 PM

(11 /632 )

.
The Wars against the Apostates (11 A.H./632 A.D.) : Abu Bakr set out many Muslim armies to confront the apostates and those who refused to pay the Zakah (alms). The Muslim forces, being well-deployed, were successful in completing their task and eliminating the apostates.
(3 /625 )

.
The Battle of Uhud (3 A.H./625 A.D.) : The Quraish marched out of Mecca for revenge for their defeat at Badr. The Muslim army was encamped at Mount Uhud. The Muslims were victorious in the beginning, but when the archers left their positions, the tide of the battle turned, and the polytheists of the Quraish escaped the defeat.
(2 /624 )

: " " " " .
The Expedition of Al-Abwa' (2 A.H./624 A.D.) : This was the first expedition led by the Messenger in the Islamic era. Jihad [Fighting in the Cause of Allah] has been instituted by Islam for one of two reasons: first, to defend Muslims, their women, property or country; and second, to defend the Call to Allah if it is obstructed by someone; if the believers are persecuted; or if the preachers are impeded from conveying their call. Allah the Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an, "Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors." (Surah Al-Baqarah, No. 2, verse 190). The obligation of Jihad was instituted in the second year after the Hijrah when the Quraish continued its hostility to the new religion, persecuting the believers and stopping in the way to the spread of Islam. The permission to fight was initialized by the Qur'anic verse, "To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily, Allah is Most Powerful for the ir aid." (Surah Al-Hajj, No. 22, verse 39). The Prophet (peace be upon him) left Medina - appointing Sa`d bin `Ubadah as his deputy - and headed to the Quraish and Banu Damrah. He mad a treaty with the Banu Damrah.
(6 /628 )

1400 .
The Expedition of Al-Hudaibiah (6 A.H./628 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) and about 1400 of his followers headed for Mecca to perform `Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage). The polytheists of Mecca prepared to block the peaceful party from performing the `Umrah. The Prophet sent `Uthman bin `Affan as his envoy to the Quraish. However, the Quraish's capture of `Uthman led the Prophet (peace be upon him) to mobilize an army to fight them. Mediation efforts resulted in the Hudaibiah Treaty between the Quraish and Muhammad (peace be upon him).
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Al-Khandaq (the Trench) (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Quraish launched another attack on Medina to suppress the rising power of the Prophet and his followers. They allied with several Arab tribes in Hijaz. The Muslims dug a trench at the northern edge of Medina to protect the city. The polytheists could not penetrate the trench and went back in failure.
( 2 )

( ) () .
The Expedition of Al-Sawiq (2 A.H.) : It was reported to the Messenger that Abu Sufyan was preparing to attack the Muslims to take revenge after the defeat of the Quraish at the Battle of Badr. The Prophet made his preparation to meet them but when he reached Qarqarat Al-Kadr, he found that Abu Sufyan and his troops had retreated back to Mecca, leaving behind some of their provisions.
(2 /624 )

.
The Battle of Badr (2 A.H./624 A.D.) : The Battle of Badr took place between the Quraish and the Muslims near the Well of Badr, which was located near Mecca. The Prophet decided that interrupting the trade of the Quraish would be an effective counterattack to their aggression against Muslims. He commanded the capture of a Quraish trade caravan passing near Medina, but the leader of the caravan, Abu Sufyan, managed to escape and called for assistance. The Quraish gathered over one thousand soldiers who marched north to confront the Muslims at Badr. Though the army of the Quraish was three times the size of the Muslim army, they were defeated and the Muslims achieved a glorious victory.
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Banu Quraizhah (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Messenger (peace be upon him) launched this battle to take revenge on the Banu Quraizhah who betrayed the Messenger and allied with the Quraish at the Battle of the Trench. The Messenger attacked and seized them. They were obliged to surrender and agree on the verdict of Sa`d bin Mu`adh - who was their ally. Sa`d's verdict was to kill their warriors and capture their women and children.
(9 /630 )

ǡ .
The Battle of Tabuk (9 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) gathered a great army and marched to Mu'tah. The army arrived at Tabuk and camped there. When the Byzantines were informed about this powerful army, they feared to encounter it and preferred to seek the protection inside their forts. Having intimidated the enemy and displayed the Muslim power, the Prophet (peace be upon him) concluded some treaties with bordering cities to the effect that they would stay in their land and enjoy freedom of religion in return for paying Jizyah [Tribute]. Then the Prophet went triumphantly back to Medina.
(8 /630 )

.
The Battle of Hunain (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Muslims, commanded by the Prophet, fought the Hawazin, commanded by Malik bin `Auf, at the Valley of Hunain. At first the Muslims were about to be defeated. However, the Prophet and the true believers proved patient and steadfast in fight, and they were victorious in the end.
(7 /628 )

.
The Battle of Khaibar (7 A.H./628 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) marched to the Jews at Khaibar because they incited some tribes against the Muslims. He conquered their city and concluded a treaty with the Jews of Khaibar to the effect that they would stay in their lands in return for paying Jizyah [tribute].
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Daumat Al-Jandal (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Prophet was informed that some troops were attacking anyone who passed through Daumat Al-Jandal, so he went there with a thousand Muslims to fight them, but they fled away and the Messenger returned back to Medina.
(4 /625 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Riqa` (4 A.H./625 A.D.) : The Prophet commanded an expedition to the tribes of Ghatfan and Banu Sulaim as a reaction for their killing of most of the teaching mission he sent to them. Warriors of the two parties met but no fight took place.
(12 /633 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Salasil (12 A.H./633 A.D.) : The Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid marched to Iraq and defeated the Persians under the command of Hurmuz.
(8 /630 )

.
The Battle of Mu'tah (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent a message to the Ghassanid governor Shurahbil calling him to Islam. Shurahbil, however, mocked the message and killed the Prophet's messenger Al-Harith bin `Umair. In response to this brutal aggression, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent Zaid bin Harithah at the head of an army to the Ghassanids, who asked the help of the Byzantines and were supported with a powerful army. The battle was fought in Mu'tah. Zaid bin Harithah was killed and was replaced by `Abdullah bin Rawahah and Ja`far bin Abi Talib who were also killed. Khalid bin Al-Walid voluntarily took command of the Muslim army and immediately realized that resuming the battle would mean the ruin of the Muslims. A skillful plan for withdrawal was quickly implemented.
() (50 /670 )

.
Conquest of Ifriqiyah (Tunisia) (50 A.H./670 A.D.) : After a series of successful raids in Sudan, `Uqbah bin Nafi` led a Muslim army of ten thousand warriors, and headed to Ifriqiyah (Tunisia). Irresistibly advancing, he stopped at the Qairawan Valley, where he built the city of Qairawan.
(21 /641 )

.
Conquest of Alexandria (21 A.H./641 A.D.) : The Babylon Treaty stipulated the handing of Alexandria over to the Muslims. The Byzantine forces left Alexandria and the whole of Egypt fell to the Muslims.
(58 /678 )

() () .
Conquest of Algeria (58 A.H./678 A.D.) : Abu Al-Muhajir Dinar, Emir of Ifriqiyah (Tunisia), went to fight the Berber tribe of Urbah, which was motivated by the Byzantines to stop Muslim conquests in Africa. The tribe's chief, however, peacefully surrendered and embraced Islam. Abu Al-Muhajir then advanced, seized Tlemcen, and ruined the Berber-Byzantine alliance.
(89 /708 )

.
Conquest of Sind (89 A.H./708 A.D.) : Al-Hajjaj, governor of Iraq, directed an army under the leadership of Muhammad bin Al-Qasim Al-Thaqafi to conquer Sind (in India). Muhammad crossed Makran (Baluchistan), defeated Dahir the King of Sind, invaded the Indus Valley, and conquered Sind.
(857 /1453 )

.
Conquest of Constantinople (857 A.H./1453 A.D.) : On the 29th of May 1453 A.D., the fall of Constantinople was the greatest enterprise undertaken during the reign of Sultan Mehmet II (known as Mehmet the Conqueror).

20-06-2004 03:10 PM

(89 /709 )

.
Conquest of Bukhara (89 A.H./709 A.D.) : Bukhara, Chorasmia, Sijistan, Samarkand and other Transoxiana cities were all conquered by Qutaibah bin Muslim, Emir of Khurasan. He won one battle after the other until the whole region became Muslim territories; then he advanced until he reached the borders of China.
(583 /1187 )

.
Conquest of Jerusalem (583 A.H./1187 A.D.) : Shortly after his sweeping victory at Hattin, Saladin (Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi) conquered Jerusalem following a five-day siege. He drove the Crusaders out and entered the city peacefully doing harm to nobody, in contrary to what the Crusaders had done when they first invaded Jerusalem.
(29 /649 )

.
Conquest of Khurasan (29 A.H./649 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Al-Ahnaf bin Qais, conquered Khurasan after defeating the Persian forces. Al-Ahnaf then chased the Persian King Yezdigird III.
(193 /809 )

.
Conquest of Rhodes (193 A.H./809 A.D.) : Having violated an earlier peace treaty signed with the Muslims, Cyprus was once more subject to Muslim conquest. Humaid bin Ma`yuf Al-Hamdani, commander of the Muslim fleet in the Mediterranean, led successful raids on Cyprus, Crete and Rhodes in 193 A.H.
(93 /712 )

.
Conquest of Samarkand (93 A.H./712 A.D.) : Samarkand was annexed to Muslim territories in Asia by Qutaibah bin Muslim after the surrender of its king.
(104 /723 )

.
Conquest of Caesarea (104 A.H./723 A.D.) : Caesarea was conquered by `Uthman bin Haiyan Al-Murri during the caliphate of Yazid bin `Abdul-Malik.
(19 /640 )

.
Conquest of Caesarea, Palestine (19 A.H./640 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan, conquered Caesarea after a six-month siege.
(23 /644 )

( ) .
Conquest of Libya (23 A.H./644 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under `Amr bin Al-`As, conquered Barca, Tripoli and other coastal cities of Libya. Then `Amr dispatched `Uqbah bin Nafi` to conquer the southern cities.
(54 /673 )

() () 87 .
Conquest of Transoxiana (54 A.H./673 A.D.) : `Ubaidullah bin Ziad, Emir of Iraq and Muslim territories in the East, crossed the Oxus River and conquered some cities in Bukhara (southern Uzbekistan). He was the first Arab to cross the Oxus River. Transoxiana was further conquered in 87 A.H., by Qutaibah bin Muslim, commander of the Muslim army during the reign of the Caliph Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik. Arab conquests in Transoxiana reached the delta of the Oxus River. Maslamah, the caliph's brother, led the armies toward the northeast and conquered Azerbaijan. With these conquests, Islam and Arabic gained considerable ground, and trade routes with China were also opened.
(8 /630 )

ǡ .
Conquest of Mecca (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Quraish revoked the armistice they had previously signed with the Prophet (peace be upon him). In response, ten thousand of the Prophet's followers marched to Mecca. Witnessing the power of the Muslims, the chiefs of Mecca surrendered and no fight took place. The Prophet granted amnesty to the Quraish, circumambulated the Ka`bah and demolished all idols.
(13 /634 )

.
The Battle of Ajnadin (13 A.H./634 A.D.) : The Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid met the Byzantine forces in a fierce battle in Palestine that ended with the victory of the Muslims.
(805 /1402 )

.
The Battle of Ankara (805 A.H./1402 A.D.) : Beginning in 804 A.H./1402 A.D., conflicts arose between Timur and the Ottoman Sultans. These conflicts reached their peak at the decisive Battle of Ankara, which he led against Sultan Bayezid II, who was defeated and captured along with his son and some of his commanders. Later, a compromise was reached.
(591 /1195 )

.
The Battle of Alarco (591 A.H./1195 A.D.) : A decisive battle in which Ya`qub bin `Abdul-Mu'min, the Almohad king, defeated Alfonso VIII, Castilian king, at Alarco and restored four Muslim cities after forty years of occupation.
(36 /656 )

.
The Battle of the Camel (36 A.H./656 A.D.) : Talhah bin `Ubaidullah and Al-Zubair bin Al-`Auwam, along with `A'ishah, rejected `Ali bin Abi Talib's claim to the caliphate and went to Basra, where they found support for their cause. `Ali, supported by the people of Kufa, headed for Basra and fought them in the Battle of the Camel. `Ali won the battle, and Al-Zubair and Talhah were killed. As for `A'ishah, she was escorted back to Mecca with all due respect.
(930 /1517 )

.
The Battle of Al-Raidaniyah (930 A.H./1517 A.D.) : Following his remarkable victory in Marj Dabiq, Sultan Selim I proceeded towards Egypt in 1517 A.D. At Al-Raidaniyah, he faced uncompromising resistance by Tuman-Bay, the last Mamluk sultan, who proved himself a brave knight, but victory went to Selim I.
(132 /749 )

( ) .
The Battle of The Grand Zab (132 A.H./749 A.D.) : The Zab is a place between Mosul and Irbil where `Abdullah bin `Ali, an Abbasid propagator, defeated Marwan bin Muhammad, the last Umayyad caliph in Syria. Marwan fled to Egypt, signaling the end of the Umayyad dynasty and the rise of the Abbasid State.
(479 /1086 )

.
The Battle of Al-Zallaqah (479 A.H./1086 A.D.) : In this year, Emir Yusuf bin Tashfin crossed the Mediterranean with a powerful army and set out for Andalusia to deter the advance of the Christian Restoration Movement. Yusuf defeated the Christian forces under the leadership of Alfonso VI at the Battle of Al-Zallaqah, and then returned to the Maghrib.
(94 /713 )

.
The Battle of Al-Sawaqi (94 A.H./713 A.D.) : Leading a huge fleet and over eighteen thousand warriors across the Mediterranean, Musa bin Nusair invaded Western Andalusia to complete Tariq bin Ziad's mission. They both fought against Roderick at the decisive Battle of Al-Sawaqi, where Roderick was killed and Andalusia became a Muslim state.
(14 /635 )

.
The Battle of Al-Qadisiyah (14 A.H./635 A.D.) : Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas led the Muslim army to fight the Persians in Iraq. After three days of ferocious fight, the Muslims defeated the Persians, killed their commander, Rustum, and conquered Ctesiphon.
(647 /1250 )

.
The Battle of Al-Mansurah (647 A.H./1250 A.D.) : At this battle, the Egyptian army under Turan Shah defeated the armies of the Seventh Crusade commanded by Louis IX, King of France, who was taken captive and imprisoned in Dar bin Luqman in Mansurah.

20-06-2004 03:11 PM

(200 /815 )

.
Battle of Al-Nahr (Sardinia) (200 A.H./815 A.D.) : After conquering many islands in the Mediterranean, the Muslim fleet conquered Sardinia under Al-Hakam bin Hisham, the Umayyad caliph in Andalusia.
(38 /658 )

.
The Battle of Nahrawan (38 A.H./658 A.D.) : Having failed to convince the Kharijites of his eligibility to the caliphate, `Ali bin Abi Talib fought them at the city of Nahrawan, killing their leader `Abdullah Al-Rasibi and leading to greatly weakening their power.
(15 /636 )

.
The Battle of Yarmuk (15 A.H./636 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmuk in Palestine. The Emperor Heraclius left Syria, which fell totally under the Muslim control.
(82 /702 )

( ) .
The Battle of Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of Kahinah) (82 A.H./702 A.D.) : After his sweeping victory over Kahinah at the Battle of Wadi Al-`Adhara, Hassan bin Al-Nu`man chased her in Massif Aures. A fierce battle took place at Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of Kahinah), where Hassan completed his victory and Kahinah was killed.
(114 /732 )

() .
The Battle of Tours (Balat Al-Shuhada') (114 A.H./732 A.D.) : Leading a 90,000-man Muslim army, `Abdul-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi crossed the Pyrenees, captured Bordeaux, and defeated an army under Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine. The Muslim army was then defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) at the Battle of Tours near Poitiers. `Abdul-Rahman was killed, the Muslims retreated to the Pyrenees, and their advance into Europe was terminated.
(583 /1187 )

.
The Battle of Hattin (583 A.H./1187 A.D.) : It was one of the greatest Muslim victories over the Crusaders. Willing to rid the Muslim world completely of the Crusaders, Saladin (Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi) besieged them in Hattin, to the west of Acre, at night and showered them with arrows during the daytime. He was sweepingly triumphant, and Arnat and the King of Jerusalem were taken captives.
(34 /655 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Sawari (34 A.H./655 A.D.) : The Muslim Egyptian and Syrian fleets were unified under the commander `Abdullah bin Sa`d bin Abi Al-Sarh to meet the Byzantine fleet led by Emperor Constantius III. The Muslim fleet was victorious, spreading its control over the east of the Mediterranean.
(37 /657 )

.
The Battle of Siffin (37 A.H./657 A.D.) : `Ali summoned Mu`awiah once more to swear allegiance to him, but he refused. He marched to Syria with his forces while Mu`awiah's army proceeded towards Kufa. The two factions confronted each other at Siffin, to the west of the Euphrates. `Ali was about to win the battle when Mu`awiah made use of a stratagem worked out by `Amr bin Al-`As. A cavalry detachment rode out from the army of Mu`awiah with copies of the Qur'an tied to their lances, requested arbitration and cried, "Let the Word of Allah decide the matter among us."
(223 /838 )

ǡ .
The Battle of Amoriah (223 A.H./838 A.D.) : Deciding to repel the Byzantine Emperor Teofel, who had attacked a number of Muslim cities bordering the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Al-Mu`tasim mobilized a large army under his own command. Al-Mu`tasim met the Byzantines at Ankara, where he had a sweeping victory and then advanced towards Amoriah, the Emperor's place of birth, to annex it along with Ankara to Muslim territories.
( 658 /1260 )

.
The Battle of `Ain Jalut (the Spring of Goliath) (658 A.H./1260 A.D.) : The Battle of `Ain Jalut took place between the Egyptian army and the Mongols in Syria. The Egyptians defeated the Mongols and saved Egypt, Syria and Europe from the Mongol menace.
(464 /1071 )

ǡ () .
The Battle of Manzikart (464 A.H./1071 A.D.) : Hearing of the Byzantine intention to invade Muslim territories in Asia, Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan assembled a great army and met the Byzantine army under the command of Emperor Romanus Diogenes at Manzikart, north-west of Lake Van. Alp Arslan destroyed the Byzantine army, captured Romanus Diogenes and penetrated into the interior of Anatolia.
(922 /1516 )

.
The Battle of Marj Dabiq (922 A.H./1516 A.D.) : Due to deterioration in Ottoman-Mamluk relations, Sultan Selim I marched towards Syria and Egypt in order to eliminate the Mamluks. Sultan Selim I fought Qansawh Al-Ghuri, the Mamluk sultan, on the plain of Marj Dabiq, Syria in 1516 A.D. Sultan Al-Ghuri was killed during the battle. Consequently, the Ottoman sultan seized Homs, Hamat and Damascus.
(21 /642 )

ϡ .
The Battle of Nehawand (21 A.H./642 A.D.) : The Muslim army, commanded by Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman, met with the Persian troops and conquered the Fort of Nehawand. The Persian army was defeated and their king fled, enabling the Muslims to annex his country to the Muslim state. This battle was called "The Victory of Victories", for it gave the Muslims a final victory over the Persians and sealed the fate of the Sassanid dynasty that had ruled Persia for four centuries.
(20 /641 )

() .
The Battle of Heliopolis (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of `Amr bin Al-`As, won victory over the Byzantines in Egypt, and the Byzantine forces besieged in the Fortress of Babylon [Babilyun] surrendered. Patriarch Cyrus, the Byzantine civil governor over Egypt, was obliged to sign the Babylon Treaty with the Muslims to end the war.
(80 /699 )

(75 ) .
The Battle of Wadi Al-`Adhara (Valley of the Virgins) (80 A.H/699 A.D.) : After his defeat and retreat to Barca in 75 A.H., Hassan bin Al-Nu`man returned to Gabes with a tremendous army to fight the Berber female chieftain Kahinah (Soothsayer). They met near Gabes, where Hassan won a sweeping victory, while Kahinah fled to Massif Aures.
(92 /711 )

.
The Battle of Wadi Bakkah (92 A.H./711 A.D.) : Under the command of Tariq bin Ziad, a Muslim army composed of twelve thousand warriors invaded the Iberian Peninsula and defeated the Visigoth king Roderick at the Battle of Wadi Bakkah near Rio Barbate. Cordova and the capital at Toledo fell to Tariq, who took control over half the peninsula and moved on toward Seville.

20-06-2004 03:13 PM





(1 /622-623 )

.
The Constitution of Medina (1 A.H./622-623 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) declared Muslim Muhajirin [Immigrants] and Ansar [Helpers] as brothers. He wrote a pact laying down the rules for the Islamic Community.
(6 /628 )

1400 . ( 9 ) . 10 . .
The Hudaibiah Treaty (6 A.H./628 A.D.) : In 6 A.H./627 A.D., the Prophet (peace be upon him) and about 1400 of his followers headed for Mecca to perform `Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage). The polytheists of Mecca, however, prepared to block the peaceful party from performing `Umrah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) reached Hudaibiah (9 miles from Mecca), and sent `Uthman Ibn `Affan as his envoy to the Quraish. The Quraish's capture of `Uthman, however, led the Prophet (peace be upon him) to mobilize an army to fight the Quraish. Mediation efforts resulted in the Hudaibiah Treaty between the Quraish and Muhammad (peace be upon him). Among the articles of the Hudaibiah Treaty were an armistice between the two parties for ten years, and the Muslims' performance of `Umrah was to be postponed to the following year. The Hudaibiah Treaty gave Islam an opportunity to flourish inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula.
(588 /1192 )

. . . 588 /1192 .
The Treaty of Al-Ramlah (588 A.H./1192 A.D.) : During the Third Crusade, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had drowned in Asia Minor on his way to Syria. Salah Al-Din defeated the Crusading armies in the Battle of Hittin. Disputes between the kings of France and England erupted. So, Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England, saw no alternative but negotiation. Thus, he concluded the treaty of Al-Ramlah with Salah Al-Din in 588 A.H./1192 A.D., by which the Muslims recaptured Jerusalem.
(626 /1228-1229 )

.
The Treaty of Jaffa (626 A.H./1228-1229 A.D.) : Negotiations between King Al-Kamil and King Frederick II, who led the Sixth Crusade, concluded with an agreement called the Treaty of Jaffa that would be in effect for 10 years. It stipulated that Jerusalem was to be under the Crusaders' control, but Al-Aqsa Mosque and its sanctuary should remain in the hands of Muslims where they should be allowed to perform the rites of Islam.
(1 /622-623 )

. .
A Non-Aggression Treaty with the Jews (1 A.H./622-623 A.D.) : A non-aggression pact was concluded between the Prophet and the Jews in order to guarantee their support in defending Medina against any external danger. Unfortunately, the Jews revoked their pledge.
(648 /1250-1251 )

ء .
Aybag's Treaty with Louis IX (648 A.H./1250-1251 A.D.) : A compromise between King Louis IX of France and King `Izz Al-Din Aybag was reached to be in effect for 10 years. It stipulated releasing the captive king, Louis IX, in return for 300,000 dinars, the Crusaders' evacuation from Damietta, and the release of the Muslim captives in return for the release of the captive Crusaders.
1919

. .
The Treaty of April (1919 A.D.) : The Treaty of April (1919 A.D.) was signed by Italy and Sulaiman Al-Baruni, the head of the Libyan National Movement. In this treaty, Italy recognized the sovereignty of Tripoli over its internal affairs.
(21 )

. .
The Treaty of Alexandria (21 A.H.) : The Treaty of Alexandria was signed by the Muslim commander `Amr Ibn Al-`As and Al-Muqauqas, the Byzantine governor of Egypt. This treaty stipulated an ultimatum of one year to evacuate the Byzantine army from Alexandria, and guaranteeing religious freedom to the people of Alexandria, provided that they pay an annual tribute.
(600/1203-1204 )

.
King Al-`Adil's Treaty with `Amuri II (600 A.H./1203-1204 A.D.) : King Al-`Adil concluded a six-year peace treaty with `Amuri II, king of Jerusalem. By the terms of this treaty Al-`Adil relinquished his claim to Sidon and Al-Ludd.
(20 /641 )

( ) () .
The Babylon Treaty I (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : After the Battle of Heliopolis (`Ain Shams) and the defeat and surrender of the Byzantines who had been under siege inside the fortress of Babylon, the Byzantine governor Kirus (Al-Muqauqas) was obliged to accept a draft treaty for ending the war. Kirus headed for Constantinople to present the draft to Emperor Heraclius who rejected it, accused Kirus of treachery, and eventually exiled him.
(20 /641 )

( ) .
The Babylon Treaty II (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : Kirus was restored to his position in Egypt after the death of Heraclius in order to negotiate peace with the Muslims. He concluded the second Babylon Treaty with the Muslims. One of the articles of the treaty was the evacuation of the Romans from Alexandria and handing it over to the Muslims.
(721 /1321-1322 )

.
A Treaty between Granada and Argonne (721 A.H./1321-1322 A.D.) : The Andalusian King of Granada, Abu Al-Walid Isma`il Ibn Faraj Ibn Nasr, made a co-operation and friendship treaty with Khaimi II, king of Argonne, that remained in effect for five years.
1252 /1837

. .
The Tafna Treaty (1252 A.H./1837 A.D.) : The Tafna Treaty was signed by Algerians led by `Abdul-Qadir Al-Jaza'iri and the French. According to this treaty, France recognized the sovereignty of `Abdul-Qadir over the west of Algeria, and `Abdul-Qadir, in return, recognized the sovereignty of France over the areas under its control.
1325

. 1325 . .
The Treaty of St. Petersburg (1325 A.H.) : The Afghan nationalist movement against the British gained momentum during the reign of `Abdul-Rahman, the grandson of Dost Muhammad. Russia intervened in the conflict, which ended with the Treaty of St. Petersburg in 1325 A.H., with the recognition of Afghanistan's independence and sovereignty.
(585/1189-1190 )

( ). 190 .
Salah Al-Din's Treaty with the Roman Emperor (585 A.H./1189-1190 A.D.) : Upon being informed of the preparations for the third Crusade, Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi (Saladin) concluded a treaty with the Roman Emperor Isaac II Angeles. The treaty stipulated that Salah Al-Din should return 190 Byzantine captives in return for the Emperor's promise to offer protection to the Muslim community living in Constantinople and also to grant permission to Muslims to perform Prayers in the old mosque of Constantinople.
1912

ǡ .
The Treaty of Lausanne (1912 A.D.) : It stipulated that the Ottoman State and Italy should declare a cease-fire in Libya, the Ottoman Sultan should relinquish his rights in Libya, and that Tripoli and Barca should be granted internal independence, while maintaining only a de facto sovereignty for the Sultan.
(305 /917-918 )

.
A Truce with the Byzantines (305 A.H./917-918 A.D.) : The deputy of Emperor Constantine VII came to Baghdad seeking a truce. The Caliph Al-Muqtadir and his attendants received him with a very magnificent celebration at the Caliphate Palace.

20-06-2004 03:18 PM


20-06-2004 03:22 PM



(1) . (2) .
Ab Dar : 1) A footman (servant) who prepares beverages 2) An official who hands over water to the emir for drinking or washing


: - - : - - " " . . . .
Abad : Inhabited. A Persian word used as a suffix for the names of cities and towns largely in India.


: " " : " " : .
Ajdal : A word of "Berber" origin which means a pasture land encircled by walls, lying beside the sultan's palace, and used solely for his horses and cattle.


9 : "" 9 " " " " .
Akhir Al-Nahr : The name of a star


( : " " : ) .
Adhiryun : Calendula in Arab medical writings during middle ages, calendula was considered a tunic and cure-all drug. In popular belief it was thought to have more wonderful powers.


: : .
Azad : A pious and unworldly person


. : . . : .
Afrak : A Berber term meaning a cloth border that separates the sultan's tent from the soldier's tents


: : (). : . : "".
Afrin : Bravo!


: "" " " : .
Akadir : A Berber word meaning: a barricaded enclosure which was used for storing grains and as a refuge in emergencies


" " " " "" : " " " " (: ) " " (: ).
Amdji, Also Khawaja Kanlaq : An official employed in the Ottoman central administration to copy reports and make drafts of minor reports


: " " ( : " " ) .
Abazah : Turkish word for "Abkhaz"


" " " " ( ) .
Abkhaz : Also: Afkhaz, a term referring to Karaj (present Georgia) or its inhabitants


"" "" " " .
Abin, Abn And Aven : An Andalusian Arabic slang meaning: "son of"


- - .
Abna' Al-Daulah : A term by which members of the Abbasid dynasty were called in the early period of the Abbasid rule


: " " () - .
Abu Qalumun : 1) A textile of special brilliance 2) A kind of bird 3) A precious stone


.
Abu Kalb : The name given by the Arabs to a currency from venice
()

.
Ajnad (Al-Halaqah) : The second grade of the regular army. It was formed during the "Ayyubid" period of freeborn mercenaries and Mamluks of previous sultans


: . .
Ajnad Al-Halaqah : Non-Mamluk soldiers who were called to service only in time of war


: .
Ahbas Al-Sabil : Charitable endowments


Arbab Al-Khayal : Chinese shadow players

20-06-2004 03:23 PM



"" "" .
Arbab Al-Dau' : Lighting workers


.
Arba` Al-Kil : Nile boats used to carry timber


.
Asbaslar : Army commander


" " " " : .
Ustadar Al-`Aliah : Master of the sultan's household


: " .
Asfal Al-Ard : The Egyptian delta


.
Ashkarlat : (Cloth) scarlet


: : .
Ashab Al-Arba` : Night guards in a town's quarters


: " " - : " " .
Ashab Al-Qudub : Emirs who rode at official processions of the Fatimid caliphs carrying "Qudub Al-Fiddah" (silver lances)


: " " .
Afkhaz : See: "Abkhaz"


. . . .
Umara' Al-`Asharat : An emir who owned ten Mamluk cavaliers. They were members of the third rank in the hierarchy of the Mamluk emirs.


" " : : : : .
Amir Akhur : One who supervises the stables of a sultan or an emir


: .
Amir Arba`in Or Amir Tablakhanah : A military rank given to an emir who owned forty Mamluks. Its holder was known also as Amir Tablakhanah as he was permitted to have Tablakhanah beaten at his house's gates like the sultan and the emirs of a hundred Mamluks.
()

.
Amir Jandar : Chief court squire


.
Amir Khamsah : A military rank conferred upon an emir who owned five Mamluks. This rank was given to the sons of emirs as a mark of respect to their fathers.


" " " " .
Amir Silah : The emir in charge of the royal armory


() .
Amir-Shikar : Prince of game-keepers


.
Amir Tabr : Emir of battle-ax holders


: .
Amir `Ashrah : A military rank given to an emir who owned ten Mamluks. Many holders of that title were governors of small districts and other minor officials.


: .
Amir `Alam : Chief of the royal Tablakhanah


" " : .
Amir Mi'ah : A supreme military rank from the Seljuk period up to and including the Mamluk period. It was given to any emir who owned one hundred Mamluks, also known as a Muqaddim Alf [Commander of One Thousand], as he also commanded one thousand soldiers of the Halaqah.

20-06-2004 03:24 PM



. .
Amir Majlis : 1) Emir in charge of discipline and protocol of the sultan's council 2) Also supervising medical workers


: " ".
Amin Al-Mulk : See: "Sahib Al-Majlis"


.
Ahl Farsh : Inhabitants of a large area who are incapable of protecting themselves against dangers
( )

( ) .
Aibak : Aybeg


: .
Iqta` Al-Halaqah : The fiefs of the soldiers of the Halaqah


" " .
Iqta`at Al-Halaqah : The fiefs of the Halaqah
( )

: " " .
Ikaf (Al-Himar) : (Pl. Ukuf) donkey's saddle


: .
Al-Athar Al-`Ulwiyah : The title given by the Arabs to the Arabic translation of Aristotle's work on meteorology


" " : ( : ) ( : ). . . . . " " , : .
Al-Alah, Also Al-Adah : Auxiliary sciences needed for religious studies


.
Al-Amid : A cargo loaded ship


: .
Al-Abazirah : Seed merchants


: .
Al-Atabik : Tutor, regent, the major senior Mamluk emir
()

: : .
Al-Atban (Muqarrar) : A tax imposed on fodder harvest


: : : . : : : .
Al-Ajlab : The Mamluk slaves bought by the sultan or emirs


: : " " "" .
Al-Ahbas : Allotments dedicated to certain purposes
()

: : .
Al-Ahdath : Cheap, low, bastard


: .
Al-Ahkar : Enclosures


"" : .
Al-Ahwash : Probably this is the plural of "Hawash", which means the base people


: " " .
Al-Adah : See: Al-Alah


: "" .
Al-Urdu : A royal Mongol camp

20-06-2004 03:24 PM



: : .
Al-Azwar : Swamp; marsh


: : .
Al-Asbab : Intimate friends and supporters (during the Mamluk period)


: . : .
Al-Ustadar : An emir of high ranking post, in charge of the distribution of the monthly allowances (of horse-fodder, clothes . . . etc.) to the sultan's Mamluks


"" : (1) " " : "" "". (2) "" "" - - .
Al-Ustadhin : At the Fatimid court, there was a group of slaves, both white and black, who enjoyed tremendous power and influence. Their majority were "Saqalibah". They were of two ranks: those of the higher rank were called "Al-Ustadhin Al-Muhannakin", who for med an inner and exclusive circle and had the right to bear the title of emir. They were so called because of the turban they wore, i.e. "Al-Hanak", which they wrapped under their lower jaw. Those of the lower rank were called: "Al-Ustadhin", and hel d less important jobs.


: .
Al-Ustuwanah : (Pl. Asatin), pillar or column


.
Al-Ustul : Fleet; marine


: : .
Al-Ashum Al-Khatta'iyah : Bone arrows shot from bone bows


.
Al-Ashkari : Title for the Byzantine emperor, used by Muslim historians from the 7th century A.H. onwards (perhaps from "Lascaris", the name of a family which controlled the Byzantine Empire of Nicea from 1204 to 1261)
()

: .
Al-Ashkuri (Bilad) : The Byzantine Empire


: : : - - .
Al-Ashkif : Armed skiff


: .
Al-Asbahbudh : The title of the kings of Tabaristan


.
Al-Atlab : Commander; regiment


: : : "" : .
Al- A`lam Al-Thalathah : The royal flags
()

" " "" .
Al-Afranti (Al-Dinar) : Frankish coin, also called Al-Dinar Al-Suri because it bears the image of the ruler who issued it


. .
Al-Afrutah : Christian fleet


: "".
Al-Afshin : The title of the kings of Ashrusinah


: : "" .
Al-Aqba` : Hood


: : .
Al-Aqta` : One whose hand has been amputated or a deaf man


: , , ,
Al-Akadish : Hybrid


: .
Al-Ukrah : Peasants

20-06-2004 03:25 PM



: .
Al-Akwar : A chest or sack put on the back of a horse or dromedary


, , .
Al-Amayir : Code


: "" : ".
Al-Amhari : A title for the king of Abyssinia in medieval times
()

: " "
Al-Umara' Al-Barraniyah : The emirs who do not belong to the Khaskiyah


: " " : " " .
Al-Umara' Al-Mutawwaqun : See: Al-Tauq


.
Al-Amir Al-Battal : An emir whose fief was confiscated


.
Al-Anbirur : Emperor


: .
Al-Anjar : 1) An anchor 2) A ship


: - : .
Al-Andab : A sack or a small bag


: " " : .
Al-Anayat : Young Mamluks who were brought up with older Mamluks in the service of the same sultan or emir


: : : "" : .
Al-Ahra' : Emergency storage barns
( )

: " " .
Al-Ahra' (Al-Sultaniyah) : These were silos where the sultan's grain was stored for emergencies


: (1) . (2) .
Al-Auraq : 1) Promissory note 2) Public announcement


: : : "" : .
Al-Ushaqi : A stable boy charged with horse training


: - - .
Al-Ushaqiyah : (Sing. Ushaqi), also Ujaqi, groom
()

.
Al-Ushariyah : One of the twelve Turcoman tribes


: .
Al-Autiah : The sandals


.
Al-Ibriq : Brig


" ".
Al-Ikhraq : Punishment; chastisement


- : . .
Al-Ikhshid : The title of the kings of Farghanah, (king of kings

20-06-2004 03:30 PM



: : : .
Al-Ikhwan : A table or tray or board or plate


: .
Al-Idwah : Water skin


1099 .
Al-Isbitariyah : Hospitaller Knights


: "": " " : .
Al-Itlaqat : Land exempted from taxes


: " .
Al-I`adah : Reader: a university teacher, especially one ranking next below a professor


: .
Al-Ifrinti : A Frankish gold coin


.
Al-Iqamat : Army provisions


: - - "" (: ) (: ) "" "" "" .
Al-Iqta` : The fief


: - - .
Al-Ilja' : Provisional transference of land owned by villagers to a powerful neighbor in return for protection


.
Al-Imam : Imam: a title of the caliph, also given to scholars


: "" "" : "" "". : "".
Al-Inyat : See: Khushdash


: " " .
Al-Ighar : 1) Paying a sum of money in one installment by the landowner, and thus be exempted from taxation 2) Paying taxes directly to the sultan, thus avoiding rapaciousness of the tax collectors. It is also called "Daman Al-Kharaj".


: : : .
Al-Iljiyah : Ambassadors


: .
Al-Irtifa` : Kharaj [taxes]


" " .
Al-Istifa' : The work done by Al-Mustaufi


: " ".
Al-Isfihsilar : Commander-in-chief of the Fatimid army


: : "" : (1) . (2) (3) (4) (5) .
Al-Iltizam : Compulsory service
()

.
Al-Inkitar : The king of England


.
Al-Babiyah : Babes


: "" : "" : .
Al-Badzahr : Stone which is supposed to possess the property of neutralizing poisons

20-06-2004 03:31 PM



: "" .
Al-Badhanj : Skylight: a chimney-like tube used for ventilation
()

"" "" "" "".
Al-Barubiyah : Land previously sown with wheat and barley


.
Al-Bazdar : Falconer


: .
Al-Basiliqat : Large iron balls attached to warships by a chain. They were swung at enemy ships.


.
Al-Bashih : Shackles placed around one's neck or his ankles


.
Al-Bashurah : Bastion, bulwark


.
Al-Baq : A fertile land previously sown with leguminous crops


: .
Al-Baizah : A Mongol term for a small gold tablet with inscription of a lion's head granted to high ranking Mongol officials or carriers of state messages


.
Al-Bukhati : Bactrian camel
()

"" .
Al-Bakhati (Al-Jamal) : Bactrian camel


"" : .
Al-Bakhshiyah : Buddhist monks


"" - "" () - . .
Al-Budanah : A wrapper (or coveralls) woven in Egypt from gold threads, that needed no tailoring. It was mainly made for the caliph.


: .
Al-Badhlat Al-Minah : Clothes ornamented with colored glazed glass


.
Al-Bara'ah : Receipt given to those who have paid their taxes


: .
Al-Barasim Al-Bahariyah : Marine equipment


: "" .
Al-Baraligh : Royal dispatches concerning high ranking state guests


: - : .
Al-Birjas : A target on the top of a pole
( )

" " : "".
Al-Burjiyah : Mamluks quartered at the various towers of Cairo citadel


.
Al-Burdidariyah : Usher


: : .
Al-Bardhun : Mule, Turkish horse

20-06-2004 03:32 PM



: .
Al-Burshum : Veil


: : : : : .
Al-Bartil : Bribe


: . : .
Al-Barak : 1) Traveler's luggage 2) Army's provision


.
Al-Birkistiwan : Caparison


.
Al-Barkil : 1) Marine trader, marine adventurer 2) A barque


: .
Al-Burnus : Tall cap worn in the early Islamic period, hood


.
Al-Barid : A length measure that equals twelve miles


: .
Al-Baz : (Pl. Buruz) clothes made of linen or cotton
()

" " "" .
Al-Basha'ir : Announcing good news


: .
Al-Bisht : A woolen robe worn by Bedouins


: .
Al-Bashkhanah : A mosquito net


.
Al-Bushmat : Crust or biscuit



Al-Bashmaqdar : The sultan's slippers carrier


: "" .
Al-Battal : Unemployed emirs, soldiers or civil servants, whether because of retirement or being fired
()

.
Al-Battalin (Al-Ajnad) : Unemployed soldiers or emirs who have been deprived of their posts and fiefs as a punishment or because of age


.
Al-Butsah : Botsah: a Spanish kind of ships


- - . .
Al-Baghlitaq : Sleevless or a short-sleeved tunic


: : .
Al-Buqjah : Royal currency stamp


.
Al-Baqt : A tribute imposed on Nubians


.
Al-Buqyar : Turban, carpet

20-06-2004 03:33 PM



: : .
Al-Baktar : A chain-mail hauberk


: : "": .
Al-Buklah : Container or receptacle
()

: "" . : .
Al-Balasiyah (Al-Ajnad) : Soldiers who were in the service of governors of sub-districts for the collection of taxes


: .
Al-Balaliq : Sarcastic popular songs


"" : .
Al-Ballanat : Female supervisors of the sultan's bath
()

: .
Al-Bulq (Al-Abqar) : Spotted, especially in cows


: (: ) .
Al-Bunduqdari : The sultan's or emir's hazelnut sac carrier
()

: "" " " "" .
Al-Bunduqiyah (Al-Darahim) : Venetian currency


: .
Al-Bunud : Flags or large banners


: : .
Al-Bahlawan : A distinguished wrestler


: "".
Al-Bawaqi : See: Al-Qibalah


: : .
Al-Buzah : A fermented beverage made of barely flour, water and sugar


: : " " : : .
Al-Bayadhiq : Lightly armed infantrymen


" " .
Al-Bayadiyah : A Turcoman tribe


: : .
Al-Baidah : Helmet


: .
Al-Bai` Bi Al-Halaqah : Public auction


.
Al-Bikar : War; combat


: : .
Al-Bikariyat : A metal plate shaped as a circle


: : "" : () : .
Bimaristan : Hospital, mental asylum


.
Al-Biutat : Fully-furnished dwellings

20-06-2004 03:34 PM



: : " " : " " : "" "" " .
Al-Taj Al-Sharif : The name of a turban from the Fatimid period. Also see: "Shadd Al-Taj"


.
Al-Tazik : A Mongol term used to refer to Arabs or Persians


.
Al-Taya : Large Nile sailing vessel used to carry freight and timber


: .
Al-Tabyit : To attack an enemy at night


: : "" : .
Al-Tatariyat : A garment resembling the "caftan"


: : .
Al-Tajridah : A military campaign


. .
Al-Tajris : A disgraceful show of a criminal


: : .
Al-Tijfaf : Bard, horse armor


Tahdir : Disposition


: .
Al-Takht : 1) Cloth used for carrying or storing clothes 2) Bedstead 3) Couch 4) Bunk 5) Stand, platform 6) Press


: : : " " : : : : " " : .
Al-Takhfifah : A small turban


, .
Al-Tadhakir : Royal note-reassure


" : . . . . ".
Al-Tarabi : Children of prisoners of war who were raised up and educated in the Fatimid court


, .
Al-Tarasim : To keep under surveillance


.
Al-Trakimin : The Turcomans


: : : : .
Al-Tarawij : Harvested grains before due time


.
Al-Tirak Al-Ahliyah : Estates left by non-Mamluks


.
Al-Turkash : Quiver


: " " : .
Turcoman : Turkish tribal nomads


"" "" "".
Al-Tasabbub : Payment given for a temporary job

20-06-2004 03:35 PM



90 .
Al-Tis`iniyah : A royal military unit of the Abbasid period who were paid every 90 days


.
Al-Taswigh : Exemption from taxes owed on income from a fief


: .
Al-Tasyir : Exile


.
Al-Tashahir : Bands for a horse's breast


.
Al-Tashrif : Robes of honor bestowed by the sultan
()

: . ( )
Al-Tashrifah : Emir formal head dress



Al-Tasqi` : Registration of real-estate for imposing taxes


: .
Al-Tadmir : Training race horses


.
Al-Tadmin : Endorsement for the payment of taxes or tax-farming


, .
Al-Ta`abi : Pieces of cloth



Ta`arij : Difference


Ta`aliq : Memorandum


: - . . . - : "".
Al-Ta`zir : Punishment not stipulated by the Shari`ah"



Al-Tafsilah : A robe


: .
Al-Taqawi Al-Mukhalladah : Stamped royal seeds


(1) . (2) .
Al-Taqlid : A decree giving a person the right to utilize a fief without ownership


"" .
Al-Takarirah : Inhabitants of "Tekror", a territory lying south west of Egypt


: : " " ( / ) " . "
Al-Tix : The duke


: . .
Al-Takafawer : A crowned Armenian king
()

" " ().
Al-Takfur : Little Armenia (Cilicia)

20-06-2004 03:35 PM



: .
Al-Tillis : A sack used for keeping grains and fodder


" " : .
Al-Tamassuk : A receipt


: : .
Al-Tanna' : Fief-holders who live on their fief


Al-Tanazul `An Al-Iqta` : Renunciation of fiefs


: .
Al-Tawabit Al-Abraj : Open top boxes placed at the upper part of masts to shoot missiles at enemy ships


, .
Al-Tuamin : A Mongol army regiment composed of ten thousands soldiers


: .
Al-Tausit : Cutting a condemned person into two halves from his waist


.
Al-Tauqi` : Act of nomination


: "".
Al-Tauqi`i : See: Al-Nashanji


: .
Al-Thaqal : Traveler's baggage


: "".
Al-Thiab Al-Zutiyah : Clothes worn by the "Zuts"


"" : "" : .
Al-Jashinkair : A royal household official who tasted the sultan's food to make sure it was not poisoned


.
Al-Jaliq : A frisky and playful horse


: : .
Al-Jaliah : The People of the Book


.
Al-Jalish : A big flag crowned by a braid of hair


: " " .
Al-Jami` Al-`Atiq : Literally means: the ancient mosque. The term, however, refers to the mosque of `Amr bin Al-`As built in the ancient Fustat, present Cairo.


.
Al-Jamikiyah : Payment (salary)


"" "" .
Al-Jandariyah : Court-squires


, , , - - , .
Al-Jawish : 1) Soldier of inferior rank who served as a messenger 2) A soldier who used to march in front of royal processions


" " "": : .
Al-Jawishiyah : Also known as shawishiyah. They were junior officers of the modern N. C.O. In the Ayyubid period, they were charged with issuing the "call to arms" and encouraging soldiers to fight in battles. In the Mamluk sultan's period, four persons of that category marched in front of the sultan's horse at official processions. They also worked as messengers.

20-06-2004 03:36 PM



: .
Al-Jibayat : Taxes not stipulated by the Shari`ah


.
Al-Jitar : A gilded parasol


: .
Al-Jara'ihiyah : Surgeons


: "" : " ".
Al-Jararif : See: "Kashf Al-Jusur"


.
Al-Jurrafah : Serfdom


: .
Al-Jurubban : A pocket in a cuirass or a coat of mail


.
Al-Jarkhiyah : Crossbowmen
()

"" .
Al-Jarkas : Circassia


: - - . .
Al-Jurm : Also Al-Jurmah, long open armed rowing boat or dinghy, used in Yemen for unloading cargo from ships, and for towing ships which have run aground


: "".
Al-Jurmah : See: "Jurm"


, , .
Al-Jurukh : Crossbows


() 333 .
Al-Jarib : Land measurement unit


" " .
Al-Jaridah : A phrase that means: (traveling) without baggage


: , . : : : .
Al-Juzdan : Portfolio


: " ".
Al-Jazirah : See: "Al-Huf Al-Sharqi"


. .
Al-Jisr : Dike, roadway


: "" ( ) : "" .
Al-Jistal : Regional financial supervisor


: : " " " .
Al-Jusur Al-Baladiyah : Canal embankments built by peasants or fief-holders


: .
Al-Jusur Al-Sultaniyah : Public embankments built by the sultan


: : : .
Al-Jushar : Cattle and horses accompanying an army at war

20-06-2004 03:37 PM



.
Al-Jusharat : Pasture


.
Al-Ji`alah : Payment for a permanent job as a salary, not a fief


: "" : .
Al-Jafawah : Black slaves who marched at the head of the sultan's procession


: .
Al-Jiftawat : Two pages marching in front of the sultan's procession


.
Al-Jiftah : Two Ushaqis similar in age wearing special uniform, who rode in front of sultans on certain occasions


" " . .
Al-Jallasah : Galleass


.
Al-Jalaliqah : Galician


: .
Al-Jalahiq : A "Bunduq" throwing bow


.
Al-Jalb : Food provided by villagers for marching troops
()

: .
Al-Julb : Mamluks bought by the sultan


.
Al-Jalabah : Small boat, small craft


: .
Al-Jamajim : Poll tax paid by non-Muslims


: .
Al-Jummah : Forelock, the portion of hair hanging down on the shoulders


"" "" .
Al-Jamdariyah : Royal wardrobe guards


: " : : : : "" : .
Al-Jamaqdar : Bludgeon-carrier at royal processions


: .
Al-Jamalun : Gable roof


: .
Al-Jana'ib : Horses that accompanied the sultan in wars and processions for emergency usage


: .
Al-Jinayat : Taxes and fines imposed by the sultan as a penalty


: .
Al-Jinayah : A fine


: .
Al-Junbah : A leather case

20-06-2004 03:37 PM



: "" : .
Al-Jinkal : Or "Al-Shinkal". A Turkish word of Persian origin which means: 1) The claws of a bird or animal 2) The five fingers of a human or an animal
()

"" "" .
Al-Jinkiyat : 1) Female slaves who played the harp 2) Male public dancers (Mamluk period) 3) In the Ottoman period it meant female Jewish dance instructors


: .
Al-Junuk : Junk: a big Chinese ship


: .
Al-Janawiyah : Stretcher


: .
Al-Jihat : Royal revenues


: .
Al-Jihah : Regular tax


" " "" .
Al-Jihah Al-`Aliah : The favorite wives of the Fatimid caliph


: : .
Al-Jihah Al-Mufradah : Taxes paid to the Diwan Al-Mufrad


.
Al-Jawali : Poll-tax payers of the People of the Book


" .
Al-Jausaq : Mansion


, .
Al-Jausan : Coat of mail protecting the middle part of the body


.
Al-Jaushan : A breast plate


: .
Al-Juqah : A group of people


.
Al-Juk : Genuflection


. .
Al-Jukandar : Polo, stick, holder


.
Al-Jun : A horse or a dromedary whose body is light colored and whose extremities are dark


: .
Al-Jawandariyah : Boys charged with training the birds of prey


: .
Al-Ha'it : Orchard


( ) ( ) () .
Al-Hajib : Chamberlain whose duty was to admit people to the sultan and settle disputes among Mamluks


"" .
Al-Hakim : A judge

20-06-2004 03:38 PM



: "".
Al-Hami : An official of "Khaza'in"


: .
Al-Habb : Grain


: .
Al-Hujzah : The belt


: .
Al-Hajafah : The shield


: .
Al-Harafish : A man from the low class


: "".
Al-Harraqah : See: "Al`Ushari


: : : .
Al-Harmadan : Wallet


( ) " .
Al-Hisbah : A post whose holder inspects markets, weights and measures


: : : "" - : - : " " .
Al-Hasw : A meal made by boiling flour and water


. .
Al-Hashawi : Riffraff


: .
Al-Hitti : A title of the king of Abyssinia


: " ".
Al-Hafir : See: "Kashf Al-Jusur"


.
Al-Huquq : Fields belonging to a village, also refers to taxes imposed on certain villages while others are exempted
( )

.
Al-Hulwan (Fi Al-Mahlulat) : Collateral, money paid as a pledge for a fief


: "".
Al-Hammal : See: "Al-Juzdan"


: - - .
Al-Himayat : A tax paid on properties or in return for protection given by a sultan or an emir


: : : - - .
Al-Hamal : Tribute paid to the sultan


: - : .
Al-Humul : Small square tents of wood covered with linen, of which two were thrown across the camel to balance howdah


: "".
Al-Hanak : See: "Al-Ustadhin"


: .
Al-Hawa'ij Khanah : Store from where foodstuffs and fuel were issued to the sultan's kitchens, emirs, Mamluks and other soldiers

20-06-2004 03:39 PM



: : .
Al-Hawadith : A kind of tax not stipulated by the Shari`ah


: "" "".
Al-Hawasil : Warehouses


: "".
Al-Hawalah : See: "Al-Tasabbub"


: (: ) .
Al-Hauz : All land and fiefs owned by the sultan


.
Al-Hautah : Confiscation of property
() ( )

.
Al-Huttah : Forfeiture, confiscation


: : (1) : . (2) " " : . (3) " " : . (4) " : , " " " ".
Al-Huf Al-Sharqi : Literally "Huf " means: region, district or sector. In the Islamic period lower Egypt was divided into four sectors: 1) Al-Huf Al-Sharqi: which included the region east Damietta branch of the Nile, (now includes `Ain Shams and the governorates of Al-Qalyubiyah, Al-Sharqiyah, Port Said and Al-`Arish) 2) Batn Al-Rif which included what is now the governorate of Daqahliyah and the northern parts of Al-Gharbiyah governorate 3) Al-Jazirah: the sector that lies between the two branches of the Nile 4) Al-Huf Al-Gharbi: which included the present Al-Bihirah governorate.


: .
Al-Huf Al-Gharbi : See: Al-Huf Al-Sharqi


.
Al-Hiasah : A waist-belt usually bestowed on Mamluk emirs by the sultan


.
Al-Haidariyah : Haidaris: a Sufi group


: "".
Al-Khabiah : See: "Al-Hubb"



Al-Khatimah : Monthly statement


" ".
Al-Khazindar : The sultan's or emir's private treasurer


: - - : " " : " " .
Al-Khaski : Mamluks chosen to become members of the "Khaskiyah" who acted as bodyguards and pages for the sultan


.
Al-Khaskiyah : Royal guards


: .
Al-Khaqan : The title of the Turkish kings


: .
Al-Kham : The tent



Al-Khanat : Places prepared for the rest of travellers


: : .
Al-Khanqah : A Sufi convent


: .
Al-Khiba' : A tent made of wool or hair

20-06-2004 03:39 PM



: : .
Al-Khubz : Fief or salary


: : .
Al-Khatm : (Sing. Khatmah) Completing the recitation of the entire text of the Holy Qur'an once


"" : : . . . "" : : " ."
Al-Khidmah : Salutation, gift


.
Al-Kharaj : Tax imposed on agricultural land



Al-Kharaji : The agricultural year


.
Al-Kharbushtah : Tent


: : .
Al-Khurj : Saddlebags
()

: " ()".
Al-Khurjiyah : Emirs not of the "Khaskiyah"


: : .
Al-Khurdafushi : Scrap merchant. In the Mamluk state period it generally meant small pits of colored marble.


: .
Al-Kharaz : A Turkish word meaning rooster


: . : "".
Al-Khurs : Weedy lands which can only be planted after clearing it from weeds. In case the clearing process is expected to cost high amounts, the land is then used as a pasture. It is called: "Al-Ghalib".
( )

: (: ) : .
Al-Khurs : Silver or gold bracelet, earring


: : .
Al-Kharkah : A portable wooden cabin used in travel


: : : .
Al-Kharrubah : A small brass coin


: "".
Al-Kharitah : See: Kis


: .
Al-Khuz : (Pl. Khuzuz), material made of pure silk or silk and wool


: "" "" "" "" : "" "" " " "" " " .
Al-Khaza'in : The warehouses (or stores) of the Fatimid caliph


"" .
Al-Khazzan : Treasurer


" " - - - " " .
Al-Khizanah Al-Zhahirah : One of the two departments included in "Khazanat Al-Kasawat". In it the official dresses worn by the Fatimid caliph and his high ranking officials on official occasions were manufactured.


- - .
Al-Khushdash : Comrade

20-06-2004 03:40 PM



: "" : .
Al-Khushdashiyah : Mamluk barracks comrades


"" .
Al-Khitta : Chinese territories


: : .
Al-Khammarah : Cabaret, bar


.
Al-Khawaja : Title borne by important merchants


.
Al-Khawati : Prostitutes
()

. " "
Al-Khawaniq : Angina pectoris


: 721 " " .
Al-Khukhah : Wicket


Al-Khuli : Overseer


"" .
Al-Khawand : Chief, master


: .
Al-Khail Al-`Itaq : Purebred horses


: : : .
Al-Darkah : A courtyard in front of a sultan's palace


: : .
Al-Daliah : Water wheel, noria


: .
Al-Dibab : The cry of hyena


.
Al-Dabbabah : A moving stage-tower


: () : .
Al-Dubasi : Reddish black pigeon; male dove


: .
Al-Dabbus : A club with an iron head


: .
Al-Dabbuqah : Plaited hair


: "".
Al-Dithar : Garment worn over "Al-Shi`ar"


: : .
Al-Durra`ah : (Pl. Darari`) a Jubbah [garment] with an opening down the front


: " " .
Al-Darahim Al-Bid : See: "Al-Dinar Al-Abyad"

20-06-2004 03:41 PM



: .
Al-Darahim Al-Lankiyah : Coins struck by the kings of the Timurid dynasty


: : .
Al-Durband : Small track or path


: "" .
Al-Darak : To police ports and frontiers


: : .
Al-Darka' : Vestibule of a grand building


.
Al-Daramunah : A large boat used for transporting agricultural products to royal stores


: .
Al-Daruj : Scroll


, .
Al-Diryaqat : Antidote


: "".
Al-Dizdar : Fort commander


, , .
Al-Dist : Courtiers accompanying the sultan


: .
Al-Dastur : A permit or consent


. : .
Al-Dikkah : A piece of furniture resembling a bed or a bench


: : .
Al-Dalil : A local employee charged with registering names of cultivators who exploit each portion of a surveyed land.


: . .
Al-Damastaq : Senior leading patriarch, from the Latin "domesticus", usually used for a senior Byzantine officer or the commander of an imperial guard regiment


- - .
Al-Dihliz : The royal tent during combat


: .
Al-Duwwaj : A kind of clothes


"" , . . . .
Al-Dawadar : Royal writing-case holder


: : .
Al-Dawalib : Manufacture or tools based on wheels


.
Al-Dawawin : Government employees, especially of high rank


1119 .
Al-Dawiah : Knight Templar
()

- - .
Al-Daulabah (Zakat) : Industrial tax

20-06-2004 03:41 PM



.
Al-Dibaj : Silk brocade
()

"" "" "" .
Al-Daibaqi : A textile manufactured in a town in north eastern Egypt


"" .
Al-Dailam : 1) Cold mountainous region to the south-west of the Caspian sea 2) Ethnic group which inhabits this area


" " .
Al-Dinar Al-Abyad : There was a mention of Al-Darahim Al-Bid, which contained a large amount of silver, thus lowering their value, what made people call the dinar also Al-Dinar Al-Abyad [the white dinar].


- - : . . . .
Al-Dinar Al-Jaishi : A hypothetical dinar, whose value differed according to the status of the various classes of the Ayyubid society


: .
Al-Diwan : State employees


: .
Al-Diwan Al-Khass : A Diwan charged with the administration of the personnel finances of the sultan. The personnel funds of the sultan were sent to the Khizanah Al-Khass or private treasury.


.
Al-Diwan Al-`Aziz : The Diwan of the caliphate


: 24 - - " " : " " " " " " . . . . .
Al-Dhira` : A length measure that equals around 80 cm.


: "".
Al-Dhahabiyah : See: Al-`Ushari


:"".
Al-Dhuwabah : See: "Al-`Udhbah"


" " .
Al-Ra'id : The general supervisor of a Fatimid caliph's stable. He was called "Amir Akhur" during the Mamluk period


: : : .
Al-Ribat : 1) Frontier fort garrisoned by "the Mujahidin" 2) A building for accommodating the poor Sufis


"": .
Al-Riba` : Apartments built over shops in markets which served as homes for common people


.
Al-Rabi` : Pasture


: .
Al-Rahhalah : Leather saddle used for fast riding


: .
Al-Rukh : Citadel, fort; a chess piece


: .
Al-Rakht : Possessions, effects


.
Al-Rakhtiwaniyah : Those in charge of organizing major official celebrations


: "" " ."
Al-Rizaq : Agricultural land or fiscal allowances bestowed by the ruler whose revenues are exempted from taxes

20-06-2004 03:42 PM



: : : " " , " " " " " " ( 175 / 791 ) " " .
Al-Rizqah : Land bestowed by a caliph or sultan to certain persons by a legal document. These were exempted from taxation. If such kind of land could not be passed to the holder's heirs, they were then called "Al-Rizaq Al-Ahbasiyah".


, : " " .
Al-Rasatiq : (Sing. Rustaq), a Persian word meaning: village or trading center


"" .
Al-Raqa'iq : Emotional exhortation


.
Al-Raqayi` : Complaint submitted to the sultan


- - .
Al-Raqabah : A golden neck-cover for horses


" " .
Al-Rikab Khanah : A storehouse where needs of riding horses are stored


: " ".
Al-Rikabiyah : Also called: "Sibyan Al-Rikab Al-Khass". They represented one of two groups who marched at official "Fatimid" processions. They were composed of one thousand men who encircled the caliph forming two wings carrying swords. See: Hamilu Al-Silah Fi A l-Mawakib.


: .
Al-Rakkabin : Stableman, groom


" ".
Al-Rukbadariyah : Horsemen carrying "Al-Ghashiah" in front of the sultan at grand official processions


- - : " " : " " .
Al-Rammahah : A group of forty Mamluk cavalrymen who rode at the "pilgrim's" caravan as it left Cairo performing lance and sword exercises. Their commander was called "Mu`alim Al-Rammahah", who had four assistants who were "Amir Tablakhanah", each one which was called "Bash".


: - .
Al-Rami : Compelling people to buy certain goods


"": " " () " ": .
Al-Runk : Distinctive sign or mark


: "" : .
Al-Ruk : Cadastral survey


: .
Al-Za`ir : See: Al-Zu`ar
()

: .
Al-Zafuriyah : Distinctive dress worn by butchers


.
Al-Zibdiyah : Cup


.
Al-Zahhafat : A mobile tower for attacking forts


: " " .
Al-Zarrafah : A flame thrower: bronze tube used to throw combustible substances. It was mounted at the bow of a ship, aft or amidships.


.
Al-Zarraqin : Naphtha tube-throwers


: .
Al-Zarbaft : A textile spindled with golden threads

20-06-2004 03:43 PM



: "" .
Al-Zarbiyah : A wall built by the owners of dwellings close to the Nile for protection from flood


: : : .
Al-Zardakhanah : Armory


.
Al-Zardakash : Squire


: .
Al-Zaradiyah : Chain mail


: : .
Al-Zaribah : 1) Fold 2) A kind of a hut made of palm branches, in which a sultan or an emir sought rest


: "" " ". : .
Al-Zut : A black ethnic group from "Sind" (now part of modern Pakistan). Some scholars believe they came from Sudan.


( ) : : "" "" .
Al-Zu`ar : (Sing. Al-Za`ir), thief or swindler, see also Al-Zu`r, Al`iyar and Al-Harfush


: : .
Al-Zu`ar : Highway men


: : .
Al-Zughal : Forged currency


: : .
Al-Zammam : A eunuch who guards the "harem" of the sultan or emirs


.
Al-Zamman Dar : Harem guardian


- - "" .
Al-Zumurrud Al-Dhubabi : Beryl. A kind of emerald which is found only in a hill near the town of "Qus", upper Egypt.


: .
Al-Zamna : The crippled or those who suffer from chronic diseases


" " : .
Al-Zunnar : Also "Al-Zunarah", pl. "Zananir": a belt worn around the waist by non-Muslims


- : .
Al-Zunari : Cloth covering a horse's hind legs


: .
Al-Zanjir : An iron chain


, , .
Al-Ziar : Crossbow


: . - - : : .
Al-Ziq : A thread of a different color bordering a shirt's neck


: .
Al-Sabat : An arcade connecting the tops of two buildings


.
Al-Sasam : Ebony

20-06-2004 03:43 PM



.
Al-Saqi : The sultan's cup bearer who filled the sultan's cup at meal times. He also supervised the preparation of banquets, the cutting of meat and the distribution of beverages.


: .
Al-Saman : The title of the kings of Samarkand
()

: "" .
Al-Saman (Al-Husur) : A kind of bamboo reeds of which the finest types of mats were made


: - , : - " " " " .
Al-Samirah : A Jewish sect that inhabited "Samaria"


: - - : "" "" " .
Al-Sibakh : Land affected by high salinity, and therefore became of low quality. It is mainly used for planting mushroom and eggplant.


: - "" - "" : "" . "" : "" " " " ".
Al-Sabarbariyah : Also called: "Al-Saririyah". A group of sixty infantrymen who marched on the two wings of the Fatimid caliph's procession playing with wooden lances called: "Qantariyah". However, "Al-Saririyah", sometimes mean "the throne guards".


.
Al-Sata'ir : Curtains


: (" ") - : "" - .
Al-Sudasi : A long headdress which falls down to the heels worn by the favorite wives of the Fatimid caliph. It was ornamented with gold illustrations.


: ( ) : : .
Al-Surabatiyah : Cleaners of water canals and drains


: "".
Al-Sarabadaran : See: "Al-Shatir"


: "" : : "" : . : .
Al-Sarakhur : Senior of those responsible for feeding horses



Al-Saraquj : A Tartar bonnet


" " .
Al-Sarab : A discrete path used in siege


: .
Al-Sirwal : Trousers, drawers


: . : .
Al-Sarir : Throne


: "".
Al-Saririyah : See: "Al-Sarbariyah"


: .
Al-Safatij : Bill of exchange


, .
Al-Saqtiyin : Tripe butcher


.
Al-Saqlatun : A gold threaded silk cloth


. .
Al-Sakkah : The iron die used in minting coins

20-06-2004 03:45 PM



: : : .
Al-Sakradan : A container, especially one used for preserving sweets


.
Al-Sakrajah : Platter


.
Al-Sikak : A stake to which a horse is tied


: "".
Al-Silah Khanah : Armory
()

"" : : : .
Al-Silahdar : Arms bearer, one who carries the arms of a sultan or an emir. They were also charged with the supervision of the Silah Khanah


: " " .
Al-Salayih : See: Al-Sharaqi


: "" .
Al-Salwarah : A kind of river boats


: .
Al-Sallurah : A type of fast medium sized vessel with three masts and forty oars used for military and peaceful purposes.


.
Simat : A row of dishes laid on the floor


: : " " .
Al-Sammur : A sable


.
Al-Sanajiq : Small yellow flags


, .
Al-Sunbadij : A polishing stone


.
Al-Sinjal : 1) Viceroy 2) Warrantor, Guarantor


.
Al-Sanjaq : The small yellow silk flag attached to a lance that carried the sultan's titles


.
Al-Sant : Acacia


: : () .
Al-Siham Al-Nariyah : Flaming arrows


"" " .
Al-Suwwal : Army-camp followers (riffraff; rabble)


: " " " " .
Al-Sayabjah : People from Sind who lived in Basra


: .
Al-Saibah : Parasol


: .
Al-Sih : Pure and running water

20-06-2004 03:46 PM



: " " "" : " " : " " " " : "" "" "" : " " : : " ".
Al-Saifi : 1) A short form of the surname: "Saif Al-Din", often used as an honorary title when referring to an emir. 2) If this surname came after a Mamluk's name, it signified that its holder was a member of the "Al-Saifiyah" corps.


: , : , " " : .
Al-Saifiyah : One of the corps of Mamluks who formed the sultan's army troops. They were Mamluks who were dedicated to the sultan's service following the death of their masters.


: "" : : .
Al-Shadrawan : A pipe that carries water from a reservoir to a basin


: : : " : : " " : " " .
Al-Shatir : A group of deceitful and devious people who wore distinctive dress. They were called "Futtak" in Iraq, "Al-sarabidaran" in Khurasan and "Al-Suqurrah" in Morocco.


: (2) : .
Al-Shakiri : 1) Courier or messenger 2) Curved saber


.
Al-Shahid : Financial clerk


: .
Al-Shawishiyah : See: Jawishiyah


.
Al-Shabbarah : A kind of vessels used in the Tigris


.
Al-Shubbah : A chain holding a horse's leg


.
Al-Shabak : A tobacco-smoking pipe


.
Shatuniyah : Land previously irrigated and fallowed


.
Al-Shihnah : Police


: " ".
Al-Shaddah Al-`Arabiyah : See: "Shadd Al-Taj"


.
Al-Sharabi : Apothecary; pharmacist, soft drinks manufacturer


: , : " " .
Sharqi : (Also: Salayih) unirrigated land


: .
Al-Shirak : Sandal straps


: .
Al-Sharb : A fine piece of cloth made of linen


.
Al-Sharbadar : Beverage-worker


.
Al-Sharbush : A fur-edged felt cap with a triangular front


"" "" "" " " . " " .
Al-Shurtah Al-Suflah : Soldiers responsible for maintaining law and order in Fustat during the Tulunid and Fatimid periods. Al-Shurtah Al-`Ulyah was responsible for maintaining order in the cities of "Al-`Askar" during the Tulunid period, and "Al-Qahirah" (Cairo) during the Fatimid period.

20-06-2004 03:46 PM



: "" : " " "" " " .
Al-Shurtah Al-Sufla : Policemen responsible for maintaining law and order in the city of "Fustat". When the early Arab rulers built the royal city of "Al-`Askar", its polices forces were called "Al-Shurtah Al-`Ulya". After Cairo had been built, the headquarters of "Al-Shurtah Al-`Ulya" was moved and remained there throughout the Fatimid, the Ayyubid, and the Mamluk sultans' periods


: " ".
Al-Shurtah Al-`Ulya : See: "Al-Shurtah Al-Sufla"


: : "" : .
Al-Shartuniyah : To ordain a priest by laying hands on him; the gratuity paid for that


: .
Al-Shurfat : A rail made of triangles on top of walls and palaces


: : " " - : . : .
Al-Sharkafalak : Barricades made of wooden logs


() : : .
Al-Shurik : A kind of soft bread or "cookies".



Al-Shitarah : Cleverness, highway robber; messenger


: .
Al-Shatir : An outsider


: .
Al-Shi`ar : Underwear


: "" - - "" "" : .
Al-Shift : The Jews


: " ".
Al-Shuqqah : A short dress


: .
Al-Shakarah : A purse


: : (1) . (2) .
Al-Shalanj : 1) A headdress ornamented with jewels 2) "Shararib"


: .
Al-Shimsah : Large ornament sent to Mecca during the pilgrimage season to be hung on the Ka`bah


.
Al-Shumu` : Mince-pillar


: : " " .
Al-Shanabir : A silk black or dark red band that women wound around their headgear


() : "" .
Al-Shannik : Celebrations in which colored fireworks and cannons were fired


: "".
Al-Shinkal : See: "Al-Jinkal"


(1) : : "" () "" () : - . (2) : " " : " " .
Al-Shankal : Or: "Al-Jankal". A steel hook. A Turkish word that literally means: the flower called "Shankal". The word was used metaphorically to refer to the corpse of a man executed by a torture tool called the "Shankal".


.
Al-Shuhud : Registrars or inspectors employed at the custom or financial administration

20-06-2004 03:47 PM



.
Al-Shawani : Galley


: .
Al-Shiwan : (Sing. Shunah) see: "Al-Ahra'"


: : : .
Al-Shiyat : The distinguishing color of a horse


, , .
Al-Shayafat : 1) A formula used as a cure for eye ailments 2) Suppository


: .
Al-Shaib : Whip lash


.
Al-Shit : A term of Indian origin which indicated Indian and Turkish print silk


: : .
Al-Shini : It is the oldest type of ships. It was the most important kind of ships in the Byzantine fleet. It was also the main type of the Islamic warships.


: "" : ( ) - - .
Al-Sayah : A Turkish term given to collectors of taxes imposed on sheep and cattle. They dressed uniform made of coarse broadcloth.


: " ".
Al-Suhbah Al-Sharifah : See: "Nazhir Al-Nuzhar"


() " " .
Al-Safaya : The portion of land or spoils of war which a ruler reserves for the treasury or himself


.
Al-Suffah : Sofa


: .
Al-Safariyah : 1) A brass pot. 2) A brass sphere fixed on the top of a tent


: ( ) : "" "" .
Al-Safqah : See: "Zimam"


: "".
Al-Saqurah : See: "Al-Shatir"


() .
Al-Silah : What a ruler dispenses in money or property as charity or as a payment for a job
()

: "" : " " " " : .
Al-Sina`ah : Arsenal


: . : - - " .
Al-Sawaliq : A leather sac attached to the girth


: : .
Al-Subashi : A farm steward


: .
Al-Sul : A title and form of address for the kings of Jurjan


: " " .
Al-Saulaj : A stick used in a game similar to polo

20-06-2004 03:48 PM



: "".
Al-Saulajanah : See: "Saulaj"


: ( ) : .
Al-Damin : Endorser for the payment of taxes or tax-farmer


: - - : .
Al-Darrab : A coinage artisan


Al-Daribah : Levy


: " ".
Al-Dawiyah : Lighting workers


: : : .
Al-Dai`ah : 1) Fertile land 2) Profitable enterprise


: : .
Al-Tari' : The sultan's daily meals


.
Al-Tarmah : Rotunda, circular building


: .
Al-Taqiyah : A small cap


: .
Al-Talsan : See: "Al-Tailasan"


: () .
Al-Tahir : A title for the head of the Alawites


.
Al-Taba'i`iyah : Physicians


: : : : .
Al-Tibaq : Royal Mamluk's barracks and schools


- - .
Al-Tabrdar : Battle-ax holder


: (: ) "" .
Al-Tabrizinat : The name given to war axes in the Maghreb


: " " .
Al-Tabaqiyat : Turbans with a length of cloth rolled above it
()

"" : () : : .
Al-Tablakhananh : Musical band


.
Al-Tara'id : A horse transport fast vessel


: .
Al-Tarrahah : Mattress


.
Al-Tarrad : Milit ary transport vessel

20-06-2004 03:48 PM



: (: " " ) " " " " : " " .
Al-Taraz : Embroidered dress


: .
Al-Turrah : A margin left at the top of official correspondence


: .
Al-Tarrahat : A kind of head cover worn by judges during the Mamluk period


: .
Al-Tarhah : A head cover worn by judges


: : - - : .
Al-Tarkhan : A retired prince


.
Al-Turaqiyah : Street-entertainers who perform acrobatic games for money


: : : .
Al-Tusuj : 1) An area of land 2) A small coin


: - : "" - .
Al-Tusuq : Grain measure


: : " " ( ) .
Al-Tisht Khanah : A royal laundry room


" " : .
Al-Tisht Dar : Low-ranking officials of the "Tishtkhanah", i.e. the cloth washers


: : .
Al-Tughra' : Monogram


: "".
Al-Tughra'i : See: Al-Nashanji


: .
Al-Tafal : The time from the afternoon until the evening


.
Al-Tulab : An emir's private battalion or bodyguard


: : , .
Al-Tamgha : Royal edict (Mogul)


: : .
Al-Tamghah : A verdict of amnesty


.
Al-Tamgha' : A title for the Chinese kings


(: ) : .
Al-Tamghat : A Mongol royal order giving high-ranking messengers a power of authority


: .
Al-Tawahin Al-Khalifiyah : The royal mills


: .
Al-Tawari' : Immigrant peasants

20-06-2004 03:49 PM



: : . .
Al-Tuwwaf : An unofficial police force that helps in keeping order


" " " " .
Al-Tauq : A neckband made of gilt cloth. It was worn by high-ranking emirs called Al-Umara' Al-Mutawwaqun in the Fatimid period


- - : . : . : .
Al-Tailasan : A dress that envelops the body worn by scholars and judges


: .
Al-Tin : Agricultural land


: " " , .
Al-Tuyur Al-Mukhallaqhah : Perfumed post pigeons


: : : : .
Al-Zha`inah : Camels carrying women


: .
Al-Zhahr : Beasts of burden


: .
Al-`A'if : One who divines the flight direction of birds


: "" .
Al-`Atibah : Roofing


: .
Al-`Ashir : Tax collector


.
Al-`Aqid : One who draws contracts


: " ".
Al-`Amil : 1) Governor 2) Financial clerk


, , .
Al-`Aba'ah : A coat with short sleeves


: : .
Al-`Ibrah : Income, revenue
()

: "".
Al-`Utq : Broken pieces of red or yellow copper used as coins


"" "" "" : : 9 .
Al-`Uthmaniyah : Ottoman currency


.
Al-`Idad : An annual tax collected for the sultan on the cattle of the Bedouin and Turcoman tribes


.
Al-`Udul : Supervisors of stores in the Fatimid palaces


: : .
Al-`Udhrah : A feast held on the occasion of circumcising a boy


: .
Al-`Aradah : Trebuchet

20-06-2004 03:51 PM



- - .
Al-`Arrafah : A group of frontier guards numbering 10 to 15


: : , " " : : "".
Al-`Arrif : Clerk


: .
Al-`Ashar : A tax collector who collects one-tenth of the value of the goods displayed at public markets


: " .
Al-`Ashari : An old Arab ship or boat


: : ( ) : : .
Al-`Ushr : One tenth paid as a tribute


: : .
Al-`Ashir : Bedouins of Syria; the Druzes


: .
Al-`Isabah : A head dress


:
Al-`Usi : Scepter


: : .
Al-`Ala'iq : Dromedaries
()

.
Al-`Alamah: (Al-Sultaniyah) : Exclusive signature for the sultan, emirs, or fief holder


: .
Al-`Ilj : A strong, huge, non-Arab and non-Muslim male


.
Al-`Ammariyah : Howdah


( ) : ".
Al-`Umariyun : In the Mamluk state these were people who claimed descent from `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab


: : : : "" "" "" .
Al-`Amal : Lists made by the finance clerks


.
Al-`Anbar : Ambergris or luxury silk


"" .
Al-`Anbariyin : Amber merchants


" " " " "" "" " " " " .
Al-`Awam or Al-`Ammah : Plebs or town-dwellers as it was used in the Mamluk period


: : .
Al-`Uiyaq : Brigand


.
Al-`Ain : The golden dinar


: - - .
Al-Ghashiah : A cover placed on the horse's saddle

20-06-2004 03:51 PM



: "".
Al-Ghalib : See: "Al-Khurs"


: .
Al-Ghibtah : Selling an article with increase in price
()

: : : "" "" : " ". .
Al-Ghatmi : A non-Arab person


.
Al-Ghurab : A bird-like military ship


: : : .
Al-Ghuzz : 1) Name for Turks, Turcomen and Qipchaqs 2) Children of non-Arab urban women 3) Non-Arabs
()

: .
Al-Ghitas (Lailat) : A Coptic feast



Al-Ghifar : Coat
()

.
Al-Ghulamiyat (Al-Jawari) : Young girls dressed in boys' clothes


- - ""
Al-Ghilman : Slave boys


: .
Al-Ghalwah : The farthest distance reached by an arrow


: .
Al-Ghiar : Dress worn by non-Muslims to differentiate them from Muslims


: .
Al-Ghait : Orchard


: " " .
Al-Fa's Al-Mutanatih : See: "Al-Lijjam"


.
Al-Fa'lati : A fortune-teller


: "" "" : : .
Al-Fazah : A sunshade raised on a pole at barracks


: .
Al-Faludhaj : A sweet dish made of flour, water and honey


: " " .
Al-Fattak : See: "Al-Shatir" a highway robber or thief


: 400 : .
Al-Faddan : A land measurement


: : "" : " ".
Al-Fidawiyah : A subsect of the Isma`ilites


"" : " " "" .
Al-Farashkhanah : Royal furniture store


04:09 PM.

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