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01-03-2006, 02:48 AM

01-03-2006, 02:50 AM



Isolation wards : Muslim scientists were the first to establish isolation wards for communicable diseases.



Leprosariums : Muslim scientists were the first to establish leprosariums.



Acids : Developed for use in cauterization by Muslim scientists.



Irrigation devices : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Printing devices : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Glass-making devices : Devices introduced to the West by Muslims.



Surgical instruments : Muslim scientists introduced many surgical instruments to the West.



Cardiac medicines : Muslim scientists were the first to make systematic use of cardiac medicines.



Iron tablets : A dietary supplement for anemia, developed by Muslim scientists.



Intra-abdominal tubes : Muslim scientists invented intra-abdominal tubes for drainage of abdominal abscesses.



Test tube : A clear, cylindrical glass tube, used in laboratory experimentation. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Cataract extraction : Muslim scientists were the first to perform surgery for cataract removal.



Animal experimentation : Muslim scientists were the first to use animal experimentation for determining drug actions and/or toxicities.



Hydrocephalus : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of hydrocephalus.


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Equinoxes : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the precession of equinoxes.



Leather shoes : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Rice : A cereal grass, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Astrolabe : An instrument used to determine the altitude of the sun or other celestial bodies. It was introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Artificial teeth : Devices introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Tri-linear figures : Muslim scientists contributed to the solution of tri-linear figures




Plant dyes : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Negative numbers and symbols : Muslim scientists contributed to the use of negative numbers and symbols.



Nerve : Muslim scientists were the first to make an accurate description of nerve supply to the viscera.



Opium : A narcotic drug from the fruit of the poppy. It was developed as an anesthetic by Muslim scientists.


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Pharmacopoeias : Muslim scientists contributed to the production of the first pharmacopoeias.



Aconite, or monkshood : The dried poisonous roots of perennial herbs. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Veins : Muslim scientists were the first to make correct description of the anatomy of veins.



Blood vessels : Muslim scientists were the first to make a correct description of history of blood vessels.



Spinach : A plant having succulent, edible leaves. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Diarrhea : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of diseases of which diarrhea is a symptom.



Psychoses : Muslim scientists were the first to treat psychoses with narcotics.



Boils and skin tumors : Muslim scientists were the first to use cautery as a treatment for boils and skin tumors.



Crystal : A mineral having a crystalline structure. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Pendulum : A weight suspended from a point so that it swings back and forth. It is one of the devices introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Porcelain : Objects made of a hard, white, translucent ceramic, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Compass : A device used to determine geographic directions. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Anesthesiology : The medical study and application of anesthetics, originated by Muslim scientists.



Inhalation anesthesia : Muslim scientists were the first to use inhalation anesthesia.



Vaccination : Muslim scientists introduced vaccination as a treatment for smallpox.



Almanac : An annual publication including calendars with weather forecasts, astronomical information, tide tables, and other related tabular information, introduced to the West by Muslims

01-03-2006, 02:51 AM



Tamarind : A substance from a tropical tree. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Otitis media : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of otitis media (middle era infection).



Pericarditis : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of pericarditis.



Algebra : A mathematical science originated by Muslim scientists.



Smallpox : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of smallpox. Also, they made the first accurate diagnosis of this fatal disease.



Leprosy : Muslim scientists were the first to determine leprosy a solely physical disease.



Square roots : Muslim scientists contributed to the development of the concept of square roots.



Surgery : The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of injury, deformity, and disease. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Solar parallax : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of solar parallax



Trauma : Muslim scientists wrote the first treatise on trauma surgery in patients.



Jalap : A plant whose roots are used as a cathartic. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Cables : For use in shipping, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Ink : A pigment used especially for writing or printing, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Silk : A fine, shiny fiber produced by fibrous secretion of silkworms. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Measles : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of measles. Also, they made the first accurate diagnosis of this disease.



Enema : The injection of liquid into the rectum through the anus for cleansing the bowels. This medical procedure was introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.


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Buckwheat : The edible fruits of an annual Asian plant, introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Map : A representation, usually on a plane surface, of a region of the earth or heavens. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Calligraphy : The art of fine handwriting. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Tuberculosis : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of tuberculosis.

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Steel (light-weight) armor : Military defensive covering introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Rudder : A vertically hinged plate mounted at the stern of a vessel for directing its course. It was first introduced to the West by Muslims.



Pulmonary circulation : Muslim scientists were the first to make a correct description of pulmonary circulation.



Thermodynamics : Physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Rhubarb : A herb developed for medical use by Muslim scientists.


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Quadrant : An early instrument for measuring altitude of celestial bodies, consisting of a 90 graduated arch. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientist.



Western symbol for Zero : Muslim scientists contributed to the invention of the western symbol for Zero.



Symbols for multiplication and addition : Muslim scientists contributed to the use of symbols for multiplication and addition.



Colored glass : A substance introduced to the West by Muslims.



Satin : A smooth fabric woven with a glossy face and a dull back. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Clock : An instrument for measuring and indicating time. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Carpets : A thick heavy covering for the floors, introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Sextant : A navigational instrument containing a graduated 60-degree arc, used for measuring the altitudes of celestial bodies. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Saddles : A leather seat for a rider, secured on an animal's back by a girth, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Scammony : A root introduced for medical purposes to the West by Muslims.



Sugar : Muslim scientists were the first to describe the presence of sugar in blood.



Sumac : A substance used in tanning leather and dying. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Obesity : Muslim scientists were the first to observe that excess consumption of dietary carbohydrates causes obesity.



Gonorrhea : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of Gonorrhea.



Retina : Muslim scientists made the first correct description of the anatomy and physiology of the retina.

01-03-2006, 02:52 AM



Paralysis : Muslim scientists were the first to describe paralysis as due to brain stem or spinal cord injury.



Hemlock : A plant used as an anesthetic by Muslim scientists.



Soap : A cleansing agent introduced to the West by Muslims.



Public health : The science of protecting and improving the health of a community. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Tourniquet : Muslim scientists invented tourniquets.



Bubonic plague : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of communicable nature of the bubonic plague.


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Veterinary medicine : The branch of medicine that deals with the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of animals, especially domestic animals. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Medical examiners : Muslim scientists established the first board of medical examiners.


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Psychiatry : The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Preventive medicine : Medical practice that focuses on preventing physical or mental illness in the individual or the community. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Mites : Muslim scientists were the first to recognize scabies as being caused by mites.



Irrational numbers : Muslim scientists contributed to the introduction of irrational numbers.



Lenses : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Optic nerve : Muslim scientists were the first to make a correct description of the anatomy of the optic nerve.



Psychotherapy : Muslim scientists made the first use of psychotherapy.



Paper money : Currency in the form of government notes and bank notes. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Caesarean section : Muslim scientists were the first to systematically perform caesarean sections.



Ambergris : A waxy substance formed in the intestines of sperm whales. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Extraocular : Muslim scientists made the first description of the number and specific function of extraocular muscles.



Gastric lavage : Muslim scientists were the first to use gastric lavage for the treatment of poisoning.




Hernia : Muslim scientists introduced surgery for hernia repair.



Strawberry : Fruit that consists of a red, fleshy, edible receptacle, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Compass : A V-shaped device for describing circles or circular arcs and for taking measurements. It was introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.


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Mosaic : A picture or decorative design made by setting small colored pieces, as of stone or tile, into a surface. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.


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phlebotomy : Muslim scientists invented a technique for phlebotomy for stopping cerebral hemorrhage.



Pepper : A spice introduced to the West by Muslims.



Flask : A small container, such as a bottle, having a narrow neck and usually a cap. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.


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Secant : A straight line intersecting a curve at two or more points, introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Melon : A fruit having a hard rind and juicy flesh. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Domes : A structural design in the shape of a hemispherical roof or vault, introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Celestial sphere : An imaginary sphere of infinite extent with the earth at its center on which the stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies appear to be located. The concept was introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Cinnamon : The dried aromatic inner bark of certain trees. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Urinary catheters : Muslim scientists invented urinary catheters.



Cotton : Soft, white, downy fibers, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Ribbed vault : An architectural structure introduced to the West by Muslims.



Camphor : An aromatic crystalline compound. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Sulfur : A nonmetallic element. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Organic sulfur : Muslim scientists were the first to treat scabies with organic sulfur.



Linen : Thread made from fibers of the flax plant, introduced as a cloth to the West by Muslims.



Alcohol : A colorless, volatile liquid. It was developed as an antiseptic by Muslim scientists.

01-03-2006, 02:55 AM



Globe : A body with the shape of a sphere representing the earth in the form of a hollow ball, introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Cumin : A herb whose seeds are used in cooking and were developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Cholera : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the communicable nature of cholera.



Cautery : Muslim scientists were the first to use cautery for wound coagulation.



Kerosene : A thin oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Venomous bites : Muslim scientists were the first to treat venomous bites with garlic extract.



Tonsillectomy : Muslim scientists were the first to perform tonsillectomies.



Citrus fruit : Edible fruits including the orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime, and kumquat, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Medical ethics : A concept originated by Muslim scientists.



Velvet : A fabric introduced to the West by Muslims.



Medical schools : Muslim scientists were the first to establish medical schools.



Myrrh : An aromatic gum obtained from the trunk of several trees. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Glass mirror : A surface capable of reflecting images of objects placed in front of it. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Lateen sail : A triangular-shaped sail introduced to the West by Muslims.



Distance between moon and earth : Muslim scientists contributed to the calculation of distance between moon and earth



Modern Hospitals : Muslim scientists contributed to the design and operation of the prototypes of modern hospitals.



Ruler : A straight-edged strip, as of wood or metal, for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Calipers : An instrument consisting essentially of two curved hinged legs, used to measure thickness and distances. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Surgical knives : Muslim scientists invented specialized surgical knives, retractors and saws.



Racket : A device consisting of an oval frame with a tight interlaced network of strings and a handle. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.




Topical antiseptics : Muslim scientists were the first to use topical antiseptics.



Quadratic equations : Muslim scientists contributed to the solution of quadratic equations.



Solution of Cubic equations : Muslim scientists contributed to the solution of cubic equations.



Cotton clothing : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Catapult : A military machine for hurling missiles, such as large stones or spears. It was first introduced to the West by Muslims.



Handkerchief : A small square of cloth used especially for wiping the nose or mouth. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Bellows : An apparatus for producing a strong current of air. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.


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Protractor : A semicircular instrument for measuring and constructing angles, introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Banana : The long, edible fruit, having a thick yellowish to reddish skin and white, aromatic, seedless pulp, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Encyclopedia : A comprehensive reference work containing articles on a wide range of subjects or on numerous aspects of a particular field, usually arranged alphabetically, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Muslin : A sturdy cotton fabric of plain weave. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Cataracts : Muslim scientists were the first to use hypodermic needles for the removal of cataracts by suction.



Benzoin : A balsamic resin obtained from certain tropical Asian trees of the genus Styrax. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Chronometer : An exceptionally precise timepiece. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Mechanics : The physical science originated by Muslim scientists.



Eye glasses : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Mortar and pestle : A club-shaped, hand-held tool for grinding or mashing substances in a mortar. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Asparagus : Introduced to the West by Muslims.



Engineering : The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Lettuce seed : Developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.

01-03-2006, 02:56 AM



A compass with movable arm : Muslim scientists contributed to the production of the first compass with movable arm.



Bookbinding : The process of enclosing and fastening of books between covers. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Determination of duration of the calendar year : Muslim scientists contributed to the precise determination of duration of the calendar year.



Determination of the stars' positions : Muslim scientists contributed to the precise mathematical determination of the stars' positions.



Silk cultivation : A process introduced to the West by Muslims.



Synthesis of drugs : Muslim scientists contributed to the synthesis of drugs.


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Anatomy : Muslim scientists were the first to make a detailed description of the anatomy of the liver, spleen, kidneys, pancreas, intestines and stomach. Also, they made the first systematic use of human dissection for the study of medical anatomy.



Wounds dressings : Muslim scientists made the first use of cotton for dressings wounds.



Metal inlay : A decorative process introduced to the West by Muslims.



Logarithms and logarithmic tables : Muslim scientists contributed to the production of logarithms and logarithmic tables.



Squatting posture : Muslim scientists introduced the squatting position for obstetrical delivery.



Nutmeg : A seed from a tree, developed for medical purposes by Muslim scientists.



Sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent : Muslim scientists contributed to the calculation of tables of sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent.



Sine and cosine : Muslim scientists contributed to the introduction of sine and cosine.



Cubeb : A plant whose dried fruits were developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists to cure bronchitis and urinary disorders.



Calculus : A branch of mathematics advanced by Muslim scientists.



Bladder stones : Muslim scientists were the first to perform the surgical removal of bladder stones.



Water baths : Muslim scientists were the first to use water baths for the treatment of severe fevers.



Acetic acid : A clear, colorless organic acid. Muslim scientists contributed to its development as a medicine.



Sulfuric acid : A highly corrosive, dense, oily liquid. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.




Nitric acid : A transparent fuming corrosive liquid. It was introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Tongue depressor : A thin blade for pressing down the tongue during a medical examination of the mouth and throat. It was invented by Muslim scientists.


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Mediastinal abscesses : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of mediastinal abscesses.



Lunar eclipses : Muslim scientists contributed to the prediction of lunar eclipses.



Sandalwood : A wood from India, introduced to the West by Muslims.



Latitudes and longitudes : Muslim scientists contributed to the rectification of latitudes and longitudes.



Jasmine extract : A plant extract developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Lemon peel extract : Developed for medical purposes by Muslim scientists.



Fig extract : A plant extract developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Wound closure : Muslim scientists were the first to use silk and wool sutures for wound closure.


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Suture : Muslim scientists were the first to perfect suture made from animal intestines (catgut).



Obliquity of the ecliptic : Muslim scientists contributed to the determination of the obliquity of the ecliptic.



Intestinal tuberculosis : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis.



Ceramic tiles : Floor and wall covering introduced to the West by Muslims.



Ginger : A plant of sweet-smelling root. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Darnel : A long-day plant that was developed as an anesthetic by Muslim scientists.



Lavender oil : An oil from flowers developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Musk oils : A substance derived from animal glands, developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Orange blossom water : Developed for medical use by Muslim scientists.



Solder : Any of various fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join metallic parts, introduced to the West by Muslims.

01-03-2006, 02:57 AM



Lithotrity : Muslim scientists developed lithotrity, a surgical procedure for crushing bladder stones for removal.



Colon cancer : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of colon cancer.



Esophageal cancer : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of esophageal cancer.



Genetic deformities of mouth and dental arches : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of genetic deformities of mouth and dental arches



Honey-based syrups : Developed for use as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Pharyngeal paralysis : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of pharyngeal paralysis.



Heart valves : Muslim scientists were the first to make a correct description of the function of heart valves.



Pharmacy : Muslim scientists contributed to the creation of the first pharmacy.



Gauze dressings : Introduced to the West by Muslims.
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Pi squared : Muslim scientists contributed to the calculation of pi squared.



Windmill : A machine that runs on the energy generated by a wheel of adjustable blades or slats rotated by the wind. It was first introduced to the West by Muslim scientists.



Pediatrics : The branch of medicine that deals with the care of infants and children and the treatment of their diseases. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Pulmonary Medicine : A medical science originated by Muslim scientists.


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Ophthalmology : The branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, functions, pathology, and treatment of the eye. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Ear drum : Muslim scientists were the first to perform surgery by lancing the ear drum.



Treatment of poisoning : Muslim scientists were the first to use emetics and laxatives for the treatment of poisoning.



Gastroenterology : The study of the diseases of stomach and intestines, originated by Muslim scientists.



Gynecology : The medical science originated by Muslim scientists.



Cartography : The art or technique of making maps or charts, originated by Muslim scientists.



Embryology : The science that deals with the origin, structure and development of the embryo, originated by Muslim scientists.




Biology : The science of life and of living organisms. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Meteorology : The science that treats atmospheric phenomena, originated by Muslim scientists.


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Pathology : The scientific study of the nature of diseases and their causes, processes, development, and consequences. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Internal diseases : The medical science originated by Muslim scientists.



Dermatology : The branch of medical science related to the skin, originated by Muslim scientists.



Ethnology : The study of racial and ethnic groups, originated by Muslim scientists.



Sociology : The study of human social behavior. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Optics : The branch of physics that deals with light and vision. It was originated by Muslim scientists.


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Taxonomy : The classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates natural relationships. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Obstetrics : The branch of medicine that deals with the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the recuperative period following delivery. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Geography : The science that describes the surface of the earth, originated by Muslim scientists.



Zoology : The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Toxicology : The study of the nature, effects, and detection of poisons and the treatment of poisoning. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Acoustics : The scientific study of sound, its generation, transmission, and reception. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Parasitology : The scientific study of parasitism. It was originated by Muslim scientists.


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Pharmacology : The science of drugs, including their composition, uses, and effects. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Astronomy : The scientific study of matter in outer space. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.


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Physics : The science of matter and energy and of interactions between the two. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Ecology : The study of organisms in relation to their environment, originated by Muslim scientists.



Chemistry : The science of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter, originated by Muslim scientists.

01-03-2006, 02:58 AM



Electrochemistry : The science of the interaction or interconversion of electric and chemical phenomena. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Trigonometry : A branch of mathematics, originated by Muslim scientists who contributed to the systematic use of this science for astronomical calculations.


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Mineralogy : The study of minerals, including their distribution, identification, and properties. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Botany : The science or study of plants, originated by Muslim scientists.



Psychology : The science that deals with mental processes and behavior. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Geometry : A branch of mathematics advanced by Muslim scientists.



Agronomy : The application of scientific principles to the cultivation of land, advanced by Muslim scientists.



Genetics : The branch of biology that deals with heredity. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.


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Anatomy : The science of the shape and structure of organisms and their parts. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Orthopedics : The branch of medicine that deals with the prevention or correction of injuries or disorders of the skeletal system and associated muscles, joints, and ligaments. It was originated by Muslim scientists.



Cardiology : The medical study of the structure, function, and disorders of the heart, originated by Muslim scientists.



Horticulture : The science of growing vegetables, fruits, flowers, and ornamental shrubs, originated by Muslim scientists.



Geology : The science that traces the origin and structure of the earth, originated by Muslim scientists.


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Geophysics : The science that deals with the physics of the earth and its environment. It was advanced by Muslim scientists.



Human physiology : The medical science originated by Muslim scientists.



Emergency rooms : Muslim scientists contributed to the design and operation of the first emergency rooms.



Science of midwifery : Muslim scientists created the science of midwifery



Cassia : A herb developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Iris and cornea : Muslim scientists were the first to correctly describe the anatomy of the iris and cornea.



Sugarcane : A tall tropical perennial of the grass family. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.




Grenade : A missile containing priming and bursting charges. The concept was first introduced to the West by Muslims.



Clove : A plant whose buds are used as a medicine. It was developed by Muslim scientists.



Letter of credit : A letter issued by banks. The concept was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Forge : A furnace or hearth where metals are heated or wrought. It was introduced to West by Muslim scientists.



Borage : An annual, bristly European herb having blue star-shaped flowers. It was developed as a medicine by Muslim scientists.



Insane asylums : Muslim were the first to establish insane asylums.


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Rose water : A fragrant preparation made by steeping or distilling rose petals in water. It was developed for medical use by Muslim scientists.



Needle : Muslim scientists were the first to use hypodermic needles.



Earth's circumference : Muslim scientists contributed to the measurement of the earth's circumference.



Lathe : A machine for shaping a piece of material, such as wood or metal. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.



School of pharmacy : Muslim scientists established the world's first school of pharmacy.



Trauma centers : Muslim scientists contributed to the design and operation of the first trauma centers.



The diabetics : Muslim scientists were the first to observe the presence of sugar in the urine of diabetics.


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Glandular extracts : Muslim scientists originated the use of glandular extracts in the treatment of endocrine diseases.



Deodorant : A substance applied to the skin to mask or suppress body odors. The concept was introduced to the West by Muslims.



Mercury antiseptics : A medicine developed by Muslim scientists.



Equations to the fourth degree : Muslim scientists contributed to the solution of equations to the fourth degree.



Senna : A plant of the genus Cassia. It was introduced as a medicine to the West by Muslims.



Aloe : A plant having rosettes of juicy, often spiny-margined leaves. Muslim scientists were the first to use it for medical purposes.



Turmeric : The root of a tropical plant. It was introduced to the West by Muslims.

01-03-2006, 02:59 AM



Coriander : An aromatic herb having parsley-like leaves. It was introduced to the West by Muslims for use as a spice.



Hemophilia : Muslim scientists made the first accurate diagnosis of hemophilia.



Hemorrhage : Muslim scientists were the first to use ice and cold water to impede or stop hemorrhage.



Radius of the earth : Muslim scientists contributed to the calculation of the radius of the earth.



Arabic numerals : Muslim scientists contributed to the introduction of Arabic numerals to the West.



Modern number theory : Muslim scientists contributed to the creation of the modern number theory.



Sinus theory : Muslim scientists contributed to the invention and synthesis of the sinus theory



Introduction of binomial theorem : Muslim scientists contributed to the introduction of the binomial theorem.



Apogee of the sun and moon : Muslim scientists contributed to the calculation of the apogee of the sun and moon.



Hospital shifts : Muslim scientists were the first to institute the procedure of morning and afternoon hospital shifts.

01-03-2006, 03:00 AM

01-03-2006, 03:02 AM
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(359-361) (970-972) . 1961 . ǡ .
Al-Azhar Mosque : Al-Azhar Mosque was built in Cairo, Egypt by Jauhar Al-Siqilli at the bidding of the Fatimid caliph Al-Mu`izz in the years 359-361 A.H./970-972 A.D. It is considered one of the most famous Islamic mosques and one of the greatest centers of religious learning. Al-Azhar was named after Fatimah Al-Zahra', the Prophet's daughter. Al-Azhar became a university for the first time during the Mamluk era. Secular sciences were introduced in 1961, when it was upgraded to the status of a modern university with a number of different faculties. It has five minarets in different styles, thirteen mihrabs (Prayer niches) and a huge library attached to the mosque.

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Islamic Cultural Center and Mosque, London

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(86-96) (705-714) ( ). ( ) .
The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus : The Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, Syria was built in the reign of Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik from 86-96 A.H./705-714 A.D. It was constructed inside a Roman temple dedicated to the god Jupiter. Its layout was a reproduction of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina. It was the first mosque built in Syria that had three minarets. All four walls of the courtyard were decorated with mosaics. These mosaics were well preserved and had recently been restored. The mosque once contained an extensive library of manuscripts

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(50-55) (670-675) .
The Great Mosque of Qairawan : The Great Mosque in Qairawan, Tunisia was founded by `Uqbah Ibn Nafi` between the years 50-55 A.H./670-675 A.D.during the Umayyad era. It was renovated on behalf of the Umayyad caliph Abdul-Malik Ibn Marwan by the Moroccan governor, who built turrets at the corners of the courtyard in order to give it a fortified appearance. It is considered one of the four great mosques in the Islamic world

01-03-2006, 03:03 AM
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Al-Masjid Al-Jami` (the Great Mosque) in Lahore : Al-Masjid Al-Jami` was founded in the 17th century during the reign of Sultan Jahangir. It has a dome constructed of elaborately carved pieces of stone.

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2793 . . .
The Sacred Mosque : The Sacred Mosque in Mecca was the first mosque built on earth. It was founded by Abraham and his son Ishmael in the year 2793 before the Hijrah (the Prophet's Emigration). The sacred mosque encompasses the Ka`bah, a shrine held sacred by more than 800 million Muslims, to which they are required to make Hajj (Pilgrimage). It has been renovated and expanded several times. It also includes a comprehensive Islamic library.

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(857 - 1453) . . .
Hagia Sophie Mosque in Istanbul : Hagia Sophie was originally the most renowned church in the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. The church building was constructed during the reign of the Emperor Justinian in the sixth century A.D. and was famed for its immense dome. It was richly decorated with mosaics and costly marble. After the capture of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, it was converted into a mosque and continued to function as such until it became a museum during the early years of the Turkish Republic. It is surrounded by tombs of Ottoman rulers and their families, as it was always considered the premier mosque of the Ottoman Empire. Its architecture had a profound influence on the subsequent development of the Ottoman architectural style.

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(263 - 876) (265 - 878) ( ). .
Ahmad Ibn Tulun Mosque : Ahmad Ibn Tulun Mosque in Egypt was founded by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876 A.D./263 A.H.and completed in 878 A.D./265 A.H.It is situated in Al-Saiydah Zainab quarter in southern Cairo, a place in which the ancient city of Al-Qata'i` was once located. The general layout of the mosque was modeled on that of the Great Mosque of Samarra. It has a minaret with spiral staircase winding around its exterior.

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The Sulymaniye Mosque : This outstanding structure was erected in the reign of the Sultan Sulyman Al-Qanuni. Selim I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire, was buried in a tomb to the rear of this mosque. The mosque was erected on a hill near the University of Istanbul. With its four minarets, it is considered one of the major monuments of the Islamic antiquities. The marble used in its construction was brought from the Marmara region, the Arabian Peninsula and Yemen. Hasan Celebi, the student of Ahmet Karah, the most famous of all Ottoman calligraphers, executed the Arabic inscriptions which are intermingled with colorful ceramic decoration. A huge library was constructed in the mosque complex.

01-03-2006, 03:06 AM
()

(192 - 808) . . . .
Al-Qarawiyin Mosque : Al-Qarawiyin Mosque was founded in Fez, Morocco in 192 A.H./808 A.D. by Idris II during the Idrisid Dynasty. One of the greatest achievements of Islamic civilization, it is a center of worship and one of the most ancient universities in the world. It is now a modern university teaching religious and modern secular sciences. Its pulpit is considered a model of the outstanding beauty of Andalusian art. Subsequent Moroccan dynasties have contributed to its renovation.

()

21 () - - .
`Amr Ibn Al-`As Mosque : `Amr Ibn Al-`As Mosque was founded by `Amr Ibn Al-`As in 21 A.H., in the newly established city of Fustat, Egypt. Today nothing remains of its original structure. The Umayyads and the Abbasids renovated it several times. In the Fatimid era it was luxuriously furnished and equipped with scores of lamps.

()

.
Isfahan Mosque : Isfahan Mosque in Iran is also known as 'Masjid Al-Shah Al-Kabir'. Many scholars have been associated with this mosque

()

The Sultan Mosque, Kuala Lumpur

()

1570 1574. . .
The Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, Turkey : The Selimiye Mosque was constructed in 1570-1574 A.D. by the Sultan Selim II. This building was the masterpiece of the great court architect Sinan. He designed many mosques, in addition to over 300 other buildings, including baths, schools, markets, caravansaries and bridges. The mosque is famous for the perfection of its design and the quality of its decorations.

01-03-2006, 03:10 AM
()

( ) (1 - 622) ǡ .
The Prophet's Mosque in Medina : The Prophet's Mosque in Medina was built by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in 1 A.H./622 A.D. It was the second mosque in the Islamic era and the headquarters of the first Islamic government. Moreover, it is considered the center of Muslims and the symbol for their spiritual, political and intellectual unity. In this mosque, the first Islamic constitution was laid down.

()

(1644-1658) .
Delhi Mosque : Delhi Mosque was founded by Sultan Shah Jahan in the 17th century (1644-1658 A.D.) It is the biggest mosque on the Indian subcontinent. It is built in Indian style, which combines Persian, Buddhist and Hindu architectural elements. It has two beautiful, slender minarets, each 40 meters high.

()

(218-228) (833-843) .
The Mosque of Samarra : The Mosque of Samarra was founded in Iraq by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in the period 218-228 A.H./833-843 A.D.in Samarra, Iraq. The mosque has a minaret with a spiral staircase, with sixteen gates opening onto a courtyard. It is considered the most spacious mosque built in the Islamic world

01-03-2006, 03:11 AM
()

(236 - 850) . . .
The Mosque of Sousse : The Mosque of Sousse was built in Tunisia by Abu Al-`Abbas `Abdullah Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Ahmad Al-Aghlabi during the reign of the Aghlabids in 236 A.H./850 A.D. One of the biggest and most beautiful of the surviving ancient mosques, it occupies an important place in the history of Islamic architecture. It has a movable wooden mihrab (Prayer niche), similar to that in Al-Masjid Al-Jami` (the Great Mosque) in Algeria and Jami` Al-Zaitunah (The Olive Mosque) in Tunis.

()

The Mosque of Salah Al-Din, Malaysia

()

The Mosque of `Ibad Al-Rahman, Indonesia

()

(877 - 1472) . .
Qait Bay Mosque : Qait Bay Mosque was founded by Sultan Qait Bay in Egypt during the Mamluk era in 877 A.H./1472 A.D.It is now situated in Maqabir Al-Khulafa' (or the Caliphs' Cemeteries), Cairo. It is the last architectural achievement of Qait Bay, and is especially famed for the beauty of the decorations on its dome. This dome was highly praised by the French archeologist Jaston Wiett.

01-03-2006, 03:12 AM
()

( ) 1 - 622 . . . .
The Mosque of Quba' : The Mosque of Quba' was the first mosque built in the Islamic era. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) built it in 1 A.H./622 A.D.in Quba', about 5 km southeast of Medina. The Holy Qur'an referred to it as: "A mosque whose foundations have been laid on piety from the first day" Surah Al-Taubah (No. 9, Verse 108). The Caliph `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz was the first to construct a minaret on it. It has been renovated several times throughout the ages, most recently by the Saudi Government.

()

(65-86) (684-705) . ( ) 1554.
The Dome of the Rock Mosque (Qubbat Al-Sakhrah) : The Dome of the Rock Mosque was founded by the Umayyad Caliph Abdul-Malik Ibn Marwan in Jerusalem in the period (65-86 A.H./684-705 A.D.) It was built in memoriam of the rock from which the Prophet began his ascent to heaven (Al-Mi`raj). The mosque has been renovated several times. It was decorated with fine mosaics and Turkish faience in 1554 A.H.

()

170 - 786. . 1236 ǡ .
The Great Mosque in Cordoba : The Great Mosque in Cordoba, Spain was founded during the reign of the Umayyad caliph `Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil, in 170 A.H./786 A.D.It was completed over a period of nearly two and a half centuries. This mosque is considered one of the greatest architectural achievements in the Islamic era. The famous "History Tree" was planted in the pillared court [Sahn], later known as the Court of History. The mosque was then converted into a cathedral after the Spanish conquest of Cordoba in 1236 A.D. For many years it was the greatest educational center in Europe. It has been renovated several times

01-03-2006, 03:13 AM

01-03-2006, 03:14 AM



Linen Fibres : Used to make paper for writing


()
Calligraphic exercise : These are exercises written by eminent calligraphers for learners to take as models to better their handwriting.


Andalusian



Modes of movement



Prolongation


Suggestive


Melodious rhythm


414/1032. . . . :
Ibn Al-Bawwab : A very famous Arab calligrapher (died 1032 A.D.), lived during the Banu Buyid rule. He was taught at the hands of Ibn Muqlah. He used the Arabic calligraphies perfectly and added so much to them. He mastered the following: Manthur, Murassa`, Lu'lu'i, Washi, Hawashi, Muqtarin, Mudmaj, Mu`allaq, Qasas, Musalsal.


(272-328/886 -940). . .
Ibn Muqla : A very famous Arab calligrapher who lived during the Abbasid rule (272-328 A.H./886-940 A.D.). He was minister for the Caliph Al-Radi Billah. He was given the nicknames "Prophet of Arabic Calligraphy" and "Master of Arabic Calligraphy".


: , , , , ,
The Six Pens : These are the main Arabic calligraphies: Thuluth, Riq`ah, Naskh, Al-Rihani, Tawqi`, Muhaqqaq.


Perfection


Characters with points and others without points



Rhythm : Rhythm represents the outcome of elements such as similitude, diversity, unity, and harmony gathered together.


Timurid Trend



Balance : This aesthetic value is to be realized through designing the letters' courses and directions.


Inward



El-badie : A name given to Naskh by Ibn Muqlah


Al-Basmalah



Contrast : Moving from bold fonts to other thin ones and from curved to straight ones.



Transcendence




Symmetry



Harmony : Relationships between fonts whether curved, vertical, horizontal, high or low.


, ,
Diversity : This diversity is represented in letters in regard to their being bold, thin, being upward or downward, to the left or to the right. This diversity is meant to save the reader from dullness and boredom.



Al-Jamiado : See also: Morisco



Distinctive shape


.
Movement : These are the positive elements in a manuscript. As the letter, segment and word are positive elements in Arabic script, while the in-between empty places are the negative ones.


Taji (calligraphy)


(857 ). , , , () () () () ()
Diwani : Turks introduced the Diwani script after the conquest of Constantinople by Muhammad Al-Fatih (858 A.H.). This script is derived from the Riq`ah Supreme Office. It was used in writing the sultanic grants, permissions and the divan orders. Hence, it got its present name. Mustafa Ghazlan, the Arab calligrapher, reestablished and added to it many remarkable features and it is also named after him (Ghazlani Script). Also among its famous users were Muhammad `Abdul-Qadir and Muhammad Ibrahim (Egypt), Ibrahim Al-Rifa`I (Syria), Kamil Al-Baba (Lebanon), Muhammad Tahir Al-Kurdi (Saudi Arabia), and Hashim Al-Baghdadi (Iraq).


Al-Raihani script


Arabic Script


, () ,
Farisi : It is called Nast`aliq, taken from Naskh Ta`liq. It is an Arabic script inspired by the Persian calligraphy. The Persian calligrapher Mir `Ali Al-Tabrizi added many rules and much beauty to it. It is distinguished for the various widths of its letters and the clear distinction of its letters.


Kufi script


Muhaqqaq script


Maghribi (script)


Proportional script


Hijazi Naskh Script


Hilali script



Darij (the Current) : The old name of Naskh



Reed pen


Marginal ornaments

01-03-2006, 03:15 AM



Domination : This represents the domination of a certain part of the manuscript over its whole form in a way to attract the attention of everyone.


. ( )
Siaqah (script) : Of unknown origin calligraphy used by the Persian traders (17th and 18th centuries). It is similar to the Mu`amma script. Some of its letters are to be omitted or combined together.


Swastika


( )
Chalk


Static Nature


Infinite nature



Tughra : Signature of the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud Khan II.



Tomar


Outwardness



Sacred art (Arabic Calligraphy)



Al-Qur'ani (old name for Naskh script)


. .
Al-Qar` : A kind of Naskh script. It is subtle, soft and more free than the Naskh in its pen movement. It has no interlaces or curves. It was used for writing signs, seals for copies of the Holy Qur'an, chronologies and writer's name.



A reed pen


Totality


Plain (simple) Kufi



Pearl-like cursive (Persian script)


Formlessness


Infinitude



Color : Color plays an important rule in asserting the aesthetic aspects of the Arabic calligraphy.


( )
Malachite



, , ,
Mudejars : Muslims who remained in Spain after it had been reconquered by the Christians. They stuck to their Arab traditions and transferred the Arab heritage to Europe.



Mozarabs, (Arabized Christians) : Christians who lived with Muslims in Andalusia and adopted certain aspects of Arab culture and used their language. They also showed great care for the Arabic letter.


Visual plane


Deceptive appearances



Al-Mu`amma (vague) : A phrase written in an artistic way that makes it hard to read.


Geometrical equivalent



Module


, ( )
Morisco : Muslims who remained in Spain after the fall of Granada. They used a Romance dialect (taken from Latin). They used Arabic letters called "Al-Jamiado".


Nabato-Arameen



Proportions : Measurement and proportionality found in writing letters and words.



Unity and Harmony : Integrity of the calligraphic piece of work



Fluidity


( )
Aerial fluidity (Persian Calligraphy)


Fusion


(1879 - 1940)
Paul Klee : A famous Swiss artist (1879 - 1940) who was inspired by the Arabic letter in his abstract works.



Primordial


: "1- 2- 3- 4-
Sharpening of the reed pen : A process of preparation for the reed pen to use in inscription. It goes in four steps: Fath (slashing) : In solid pens it is shorter, 2- Naht (scraping): This is to scrape the edges and bottom of a pen. 3- Shaq (cutting): This is to open a cut in the pen's tip, The cut's length is determined according to the pen's solidness. 4- Qat (chamfering).



Limitation



Geometric interlacing



Inscription

01-03-2006, 03:16 AM


Phrase sequence



Interlacement : To connect by or as if by lacing together


Contemplative Implications


Farisi



Talisman
Chant



Disparity : This is the disparity between the spiritual illumination and arts of calligraphy through the Ottoman era.


Prolongation Preference


Dotting (Pointing) of letters


Signature


Fragment


. ( )
Rosetta Stone : A large tablet of basalt found near Rosetta (1799 A.D.). Its polished surface has been carved with Greek, hieroglyphic and demotic characters. Thanks to that tablet it was possiple to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphics.


Precincts of text


Letter


Semi-talking characters


Thuluth (calligraphy)


Al-Jalil (Script)


(1200 ). (1225 ) , (1272)
Riq`ah script : During the regimes of Sultan Sulaiman Al-Qanuni and `Abdul-Hamid I (1200 A.H.), Riq`ah script progressed much. The Turkish calligrapher Abu Bakr Mumtaz bin Mustafa Afandi (1225 A.H.), is considered as the theorist of this script as he devoted himself to study its characters and letters and laid down certain measurements and proportions. It was known as Hamayon Script (1272). It spread all over the Ottoman Empire and replaced the Naskh Script, which then became almost sacred as it was used for writing copies of the Holy Qur'an and Prophetic Hadith.


()
Chikestah : This is a way of writing that emerged at the early days of the 11th century, during the reign of the Saffauid State (Iran). It was used in writing the rulings and messages. First, it was called Chikestah Ta`liq, then, it became Chikestah Nasta`liq.


( )
Qiramuz script : The script from which the Farisi one is derived (uncertain).



Epigraphy



Precise



Tip : Pointed tip of pen or feather


Monotonous


Calligram



Parchment


Symbolism


( )
Graphic emblems (Turkish Script)



Epigraphic Blazon : A writing emblem or mark that includes the sultan's name, titles of honor and is written on all his properties.



Zulfa `Arus (calligraphy)


( )
Vitriol



Nib


Strokes


Arboreal


Palmette



Squirrel Hair : A material for making brushes for writing and painting.



Cipher


Rhomboid


Beauty of scripts


Echo



Arabic Gum : Gum extracted from some acacia trees in Istanbul used in medicine and art

01-03-2006, 03:16 AM


Sacred formula


Proportionment (of letters)



Implicit


Monogram


Pigment


,
Gallnut : Tannic acid, used in ink, is extracted from it


( )
Magic knots (Turkish script)


Vowel points



Vowel point (mark) : Any mark added to the letter to show its correct pronunciation.


( 400) : , , , , , , , , , , ,
`Ilm Al-Kitabah (Science of Script) : Title of the study made by Abu Hayian Al-Tawhidi (died in 400 A.H.) in which he mentioned the Kufi Script types known during his life. They were 12: Isma`ili, Malaki, Madani, Andalusi, Shami, `Iraqi, `Abbasi, Baghdadi, Musha`ab, Rihan, Mujawwad, and Misri.


. .
Ghubar Al-Halabah (calligraphy) : Very small and short script, written in the form of compressed circles. It was derived from Al-Riqa` and Naskh. It used to be written on very small pieces of paper.It was given the name Qalam Al-Janah (Calligraphy of the Wing) for it was used in writing messages carried by the homing pigeons.



Calligraphy


Qur'anic Calligraphy


Phoenician



Reed



Diagonally



Colophon : An inscription placed usually at the end of a manuscript, giving facts about its writer, publisher, author and date of writing.



Standard Proportions : Laid down by Ibn Muqlah



Perfect (description of Naskh)



Interlaced inscriptions



Mirrored lettering


Calligraphy with human face


Calligraphy with human shapes



Cryptography : Science of translating messages into ciphers or codes



Phonetic transliteration (Arabic Script)


Anthropomorph


Pictographic calligraphy


Kufic writing



Pseudo-kufic decoration : Ornaments seem to be writings in Kufic script but are not.


Cursive script



Inscription



Contour


Kufic


Square Kufi (calligraphy)


Floral Kufi


Kufic plaited


Foliate Kufi


( )
Azurite (blue color)


Allah


Frontispiece

01-03-2006, 03:17 AM



Lithography


Softness


Concentric


Orthogonal


Explosive


Symmetrical



Muhkam (Moroccan calligraphy)


. (908 ) 17 .
Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn `Umar Al-Taibi Al-Shafi`i : One of the outstanding figures of Arabic calligraphy. He wrote an important book (908 A.H.) in which he described 17 types of Arabic calligraphy. This manuscript was found in the treasury of the Sultan Al-Ghuri, the last Mamluk sultan who was killed in the Marj Dabiq Battle.


Angular outlines


Manuscript



Cursive


Trembling (tremble)



Murassa` (Inlaid)


Flexibility



Cuneiform : A character or characters formed by the arrangement of small wedge-shaped elements and used in ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian writing.



Trimmed


Calligraphic exercise



Space handling : Matching between letters in complete conformity and harmony.



Moderate (description of Naskh script)



Truncated pen




Pencase : Small case for holding and keeping pens


Touch
Feel


Features


Curves



Proportional



Organized and well-ordered (description of Naskh)


Miniaturist


Luminous


Nabatean


Proportion


Nasta`liq


Naskh


Radii


Dot


Geometry


Lucid
Explicit


Legible


( )
Wafir (Moroccan script)



Recto


Aesthetic Unity



Papyrus


Plenitude



Circumscribe

01-03-2006, 03:19 AM

01-03-2006, 03:20 AM



Backed brick


Kiln brick


Headers


Vistas



Basin



Dimensions


Rotating doors



Monument : A structure, such as a building or sculpture, erected as a memorial


Precious stones


Flutes


" "
Ground



Column


" . "
Threshold


Star patterns



Style



Precincts
,


Apse


Iconic


Needle-like


" "
Stile




Frieze
Cornice
Eaves : A decorative horizontal band, as along the upper part of a wall in a room


Compositions


Rotundity


Three dimensions



Axonometric projection


" () 30 .
Isometric projection



Trap door


Sculptured decoration


" . "
Spandrel


Ground floor



Riser



Majestic sweep


Naval architecture



Dovetail


Plumb line



Alveolus



Parabola



Ogive


Main entrance



Span



Al-Aqsa Mosque


Sassanian prototype


Decorative motifs


Anhydrite


Staircase


Trap door


Secret door



Portcullis



Postern


False door


Sliding door


Intermediate door



Bazaar



Basement


Shaft



Pier


Tower



Turret


Bastion


Watchtower

01-03-2006, 03:21 AM



Pool


Bulb



Slip


Intrados


Court


Rock crystal



Polygonal masonry



Stone masonry


.
Dry walling



Hall


" "
Peristyle
Hypostyle



Arcade


Portal



Porphyry


Elliptical



Egg and anchor


""
Capital


Bulbous capital


" ǡ 1630 (1632-1654) "
Taj Mahal (the crown of the locality)



Alternative




Pavement


Parquetry


Frieze


" "
Recess


Grooves



Packing



Rustication


Sketch


Cruciform



Quarries : Glaze or ware boards used as covering of windows or any surface



Restoration


()
Schematic form


Brick design


Geometrical expression



Joint


Curve of a dome


" "
Pointing



Revetment


Brick dressing


Setting



Arrow slit


Material heaviness


Octagonal


Bilobed



Cemetery


Gesso
Gypsum : A widespread colorless, white, or yellowish mineral, used in the manufacture of plaster of Paris, various plaster products, and fertilizers.


Retaining wall


Drawbridge



Window sill



Balustrade


Annex


" (. )"
Pavilion



Flight of stairs



Bailey


(1434 )
Gur Emir


Transversal wall


Screening wall



Edging



Rim



Screen

01-03-2006, 03:22 AM



Quoin



Dressing stone



Ashlar stone



Rusticated stone


Horseshoe arch


" "
Wrought iron


Fortress



Debris



Shed


Slanted carving


Excavations


Arena


Roundels


Moldings


Archivault



Hoodmold



Scotia


" "
Niche



Arch
Vault
Curve



Eaves



Courtyard



Pendentive



Khan



Bay



Bay window


" "
Skyline


" "
Torus


Moat



Wicket


Trap


Basket-work



Imaret : A room for eating


Anta



Bust flying butteress


Compound pier



Pile


" "
Pendent



Vestibule
Corridor



Acme



Spire

01-03-2006, 03:23 AM


Cap


Quadrangle



Precinct



Roominess



Enclosure
Anteroom


Marble


" "
Variegated marble


Lobby
Anteroom


Underglazed painting


Diagram



Landing



Drum



Bracket



Pillar



Rafters


Porch



Sanctuary


Cloister



Blind lantern


Alley



" "
Fascia


To adorn



Lintel


Window blind


Parapet


Hexagonal


( )
Hexafoil



Crypt
Catacomb


()
Cypress



Edge


Soffit


: . .
Plinth


Wooden Scaffolding


Ceiling


Gable roof


Inclined roof


()
Gable roof


Spiral stair


Pilaster


Buttress

01-03-2006, 03:23 AM


" "
Pediment



Loft
Attic


Barricades



Astragal : A narrow convex molding often having the form of beading.


City wall


Curtain wall



Pole


" "
Tombstone


Archeological evidence



Blind window



Bull's eye window


Ocular window


" "
Bull's eye window


Grille window


" "
Splay window



Reticulate


" "
Traceries


" "
Window grille


" "
Fanlight


Merlon



Battlement


Oriental


Flap



Loophole



Form



Crestings



Post


Gallery


Cut rock


Monumental building
Edifice


Colonnade


" . "
Portico


Adamantine


Masonry



Faucet



Voussoirs



Joggled vousoirs



Arch stone


Massive


Mausoleum

01-03-2006, 03:24 AM


Mezzanine



Lunette arch
Fort


Scalloped niche



Star polygon



Socle


Knocker


Daubing


Spire


" "
Spiral


Apex



Aisle



Cornice


Brick
()

Adobe


Hollowed Brick


Fired brick


Dried brick


Perforated brick


Air-dried brick


Baked brick



Glazed brick



Plastic


Tester


Architrave



Crenelations


Decagonal



Jamb



Jamb post



Vault


( )
Groin vault
Intersecting vault



Cusped arch


Elliptical arch


Barrel vault



Relieving arch



Acute arcade
( )


Horse-shoe arch


Cinquefoil arch



Shouldered arch



Intersecting vault


" "
Squinch arch

01-03-2006, 03:25 AM


Tripartite squinch


Lancet arcade


Horseshoe arch



Stilted arch



Keel arcade


( )
Segmental arch


Ogive : Pointed arch



Dropped arch


Multifoil arcade


Undulating arch



Rampant arch


Equilateral arch



Skew arch


Parabolic arcade



Relieving arch



Equilateral arch


Ogee arch


Thrust of arch


Pointed arch



Cusped arch
Lancet arch



Transversed arch


Flat arch



Flat arch


Broken arch



Ogee arch



Broken arch



Bell arcade


Semicircular arch


()
Triangular arch



Foliated arch
Trefoil arch



Interlaced arcade



Undulating arches


Agate


Rectangular


Baluster


Corner post


Corinthian Column



Colossal order


Rusticated Column


" "
Engaged column

01-03-2006, 03:26 AM


Twisted Column


Coupled Column


Guardrooms



Rumpus room


Entrance Room


Aperture


Louver



Slit



Canopy



Fountain



Roomy


Sculpture


Banister


Newel


Pedestal
Base of column


Reed mold


Dome



Square dome



Shallow dome



Gadrooned dome




Barrel vault


" "
Cross vault


Cross vault


" "
Double vault


.
Cupola


Honeycomb
()

Alhambra


Tesserae


( )
Cavetto



Flight of stairs


Citadel


Summit
Pinnacle


Lunette


Cone



Kiln


.
Arch


Conduits


" "
Stylobates


Convex cyma


Concave cyma

01-03-2006, 03:26 AM



Fashioning
Modeling



Architrave



Joist
Beam : Any of the parallel horizontal beams set from wall to wall to support the boards of a floor or ceiling



Alcove



Lantern aperture



Chalet



Ancon


" "
Stretchers


Stone cist



Volute



Scroll


Helmet-form minaret


Rotunda


Rubble



Ramparts


" "
Uniaxial


Bulwark


Equilateral


Polygon



Winding




Model


Spherical triangle


" "
Triangular prisms



Duct


, ""
Foundation complex



Building complex



Concave
Mihrab : Almost all prayer niches are concave from inside the mosque, thus the name Mihrab means concave


Concave


Keep


Shelter


Openwork



Anchor


Layout : An arrangement or a plan, especially the schematic arrangement of areas.


Scheme of orientation


()
Balcony (of minaret)


Rubble courses


Access
Entrance


Main entrance


Triple entrance


( )
Bent entrance

01-03-2006, 03:27 AM



Course of building materials


" "
Lawn



Ramp
Stairway



Corbelled



Bolt



Machicolation


Oblong



Transverse



Garret



Trowel


" . "
Plan


Abode


Convex



Grille



Pattern



Shrine


Molded


Stone bench seat


Prayer room



Depicted



" "
Stucco


Hospice


" ( )
Joggle : A joint between two pieces of building material formed by a notch and a fitted projection



Flagstone



Castle



Console


Architectonic


Light-flooded


Keystone


Hinge


" "
Stalactites : An icicle-shaped mass of calcite that hangs from the roof of a cave



Cabin
Seating box
Lodge


" "
Spatula



Truncated



Vaulted


Cube


" "
Plaster


Passage



Minaret


Dormitory

01-03-2006, 03:28 AM


Skylights



Spring of arch


Pulpit


Bombe


Spiral ramp



Catenary curve


Hewn


Concordant



Chevrons


( )
Loggia
Belvedere


Perspective


Bird's eye view


Ant's eye view


Ordered Columns



Confrontation



Cyma



Mortar : Any of various bonding materials used in masonry, surfacing, and plastering, especially a plastic mixture of cement or lime, sand, and water that hardens in place and is used to bind together bricks or stones


" "
Gargoyle



Place for Ablution



Salient
Embossed : In a fortification




Campaniform
Bell-shaped



Spa


Cenotaph


Semicircular


Demi column


Semidome


Sphere



Coffer


Anaglyph


" "
Stereotyped


Prototype


Maquette : A usually small model of an intended work, such as a sculpture or piece of architecture



Bosses



Lantern
Dormer window


()
Lime


Halo


Geometric



Hypocaust


Framework



Facade



Facet


Ample


Hypotenuse


"
Dado



Uniformity


Labyrinthine



Surmounted

01-03-2006, 03:29 AM

01-03-2006, 03:30 AM



Tile


Earthenware



Crackleware : Glazed pottery or glassware bearing a decorative surface network of fine cracks


Splash-glazed ware


Hunt carpets


Monochrome



Ultramodern
The latest fashion


Rubious


Flute : Rounded groove specifically one of the vertical parallel grooves on a classical architectural columns



Utensils



Purple


Sofa
Divan
Settee


Marine blue
Aquamarine


Chisel



Curtains : Material that hangs in a window or other opening as a decoration, shade, or screen



Style


Bangle


Floral forms



Acanthus : Thorny plant leaves used by almost all artists in all ages



Swags : An ornamental festoon of flowers or fruit



Clich


Iridescent colors


Water colors



Amphora : A two-handled jar with a narrow neck used for keeping and carrying liquids



Fringe : A decorative border or ending of hanging threads, cords, or strips, often attached to a separate band



Oval



Icon : A representation or picture of a sacred or sanctified Christian personage, traditional to the Eastern Church.



Tankard : large drinking cup having a single handle and often a hinged cover, especially a tall pewter or silver mug



Buckle


Corona



Wreath
Diadem


Vessel



Epigraphy : Epigraphy is the technique of decoding aesthetic patterns


Inventiveness


To flourish


Color fading


Imperial style



Brooch : A relatively large decorative pin or clasp



Reel : A device, such as a cylinder, spool, or frame, that turns on an axis and is used for winding and storing rope, tape, film, or other flexible materials



Egg and dart : A decorative design

01-03-2006, 03:31 AM


Alkaline glaze



Trimming with shears


: , .
Batik : Method of decorating fabric used for centuries in Indonesia. With melted wax, a design is applied to the cloth (cotton or, sometimes, silk), which is then dipped in cool vegetable dye. Areas covered by wax do not receive the dye and display a light pattern on the colored ground.


Interlaced borders


Aesthetic sense


Chevron



Bead : A decoration consisting of a usually continuous series of small spherical shapes, as on a convex molding



Harpy : One of several loathsome, voracious monsters with the head and trunk of a woman and the tail, wings, and talons of a bird


Creative imagination



Dado : The pedestal or lower portion of a wall, decorated differently from the upper section


Rhythmic precision


Aesthetic taste



Aigrette


Aquarelle


Linear Islamic decorative art


Islamic geometric decorative art


Intertwined foliated decorative Arabesque


Luster : The surface glossiness of ceramic ware after glazing


Star-shaped octahedral figure



Casting in sand




`Arjah : Head cover decorated-with-silver and coins, used in Syria and Jordan



Plane : A carpenter's tool with an adjustable blade for smoothing and leveling wood



Frit : Fused or partially fused materials used in making glass
-

Irano-Buddhist art



Stylized art



Cochineal : A dark red dye



Quattrocento : The 15th-century period of flouring in art and literature



Cornucopia : An ornament or design taking the figure of a goat's horn overflowing with fruit, flowers, and grain, signifying prosperity



Coffer : A decorative sunken panel in a ceiling, dome, soffit, or vault


:
Daisy : A plant of the composite family



Zigzag


Color schemes


12- 13
Mesopotamian Art : An artistic style distinctive for its usage of colors; it emerged in Islamic art during the 12th and 13th centuries.


45
Overlapping squares


Corporal level



Fret : An ornamental design


Geometric concept


Sinusoidal


Textiles


Mathematical perspective

01-03-2006, 03:32 AM



Key motif : A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work; or a dominant theme or central idea


Ten-pointed star


Rhythmical prototype



Spiritual light : A term used in Persian miniature art



Harmony : Aesthetic arrangement, as in a design, marked by proper distribution of elements



Batula : A veil covering women's faces in the Gulf region and some parts of Saudi Arabia



Pastel colors



Nosegay : A small bunch of flowers



Trefoil : An ornamental design


Blossom



Yashmak : A veil worn by Muslim women to cover the face in public


Bronze



Luster



Rug


Machine made rug


Color plain


Crystalline


,
Violet


( )
Bench : A long seat, often without a back, for two or more persons.


To tarnish



Porcelain



Milieu : An environment or setting



Beige


Color combination


Dark and light effect


Contemplative


Sarcophagus


Color contrast



Lining : Covering the inner part of a material


Parquetry



Trappings : Ornamental covering or harness for a horse



Uniformity
Homogeneity



Juxtaposition : To place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast


Transfiguration of landscape


Decor


Incising


Priming


Masterwork


To encroach


Gradation of color

01-03-2006, 03:32 AM



Gild : To cover with or as if with a thin layer of gold



Ground


Earthen


Billets


,
Incrustation


Tessellated flooring


Formula



Tricot


Glaze : To fit, furnish, or secure with glass


Transparent glaze


Crackled glaze


Metallic glaze


Polychromy



Ornamentation



Interlacement : To connect by or as if by lacing together



Trimming


Crackle



Configuration : After the imagination phase comes the formulating one for the work of art


Throwing (pottery)



Paintings
Drawings



Design



Fresco : The art of painting on fresh, moist plaster with pigments dissolved in water


Miniature



Basketry


Embroidery



Inlay : Contrasting material set into a surface in pieces to form a design



Insets : Something set in, as a piece of material set into a garment as decoration or trim


Hatching : The process of decorating with fine lines used in graphic arts to show shading


Motif : A recurrent thematic element in an artistic work



Trellis : A structure of open latticework, especially one used as a support for vines and other creeping plants


"
Veins


Color diversity



Taffeta : A smooth fabric made of silk


Pictography


Color contiguity


Iridescence


Conventional



Marquetry : Material, such as wood or ivory, inlaid into a wood surface in an intricate design and veneered to another surface, especially in furniture, for decoration



To coruscate
To dazzle
To glitter



Coruscation

01-03-2006, 03:33 AM



Convolutions



Equestrian statue



Torso : A statue of the human body with the head and limbs omitted or removed


Embossed statue


Headless statue


Bust


Rippling


Color harmony : A pleasing combination of colors


Discord


( )
Hybrid : The offspring of genetically dissimilar parents or stock, especially the offspring produced by breeding plants or animals of different varieties, species, or races. This sense is also found in arts.


Equilibrium



Proliferation



Topaz : Any of various yellow gemstones, especially a yellow variety of sapphire or corundum



Unification


Foliage : A representation of leaves, flowers and branches for architectural ornamentation


()
Foliated arabesque : A complex, ornate design of intertwined floral, foliate, and geometric figures


Floriated foliage



Tulle


Medley of colors


Blend



Thickness


,
Chandelier


Trefoil


Bilobed



Trough



Geranium : A plant whose leaves were used as elements of decoration by the Greeks and later adopted in the Islamic art


- -
Fronton : a. The arched part that is located on the shafts of a temple entrance of a temple in classical architecture. b. A work of art that decorates the top of a mirror or cupboard


Parallel strands



Braid : Ornamental cord or ribbon, used specially for decorating or edging fabrics



Jar


Tooled leather


Aesthetics



Flask : A container often somewhat narrowed toward the outlet and often fitted with a closure, especially a broad flattened necked vessel



Amethyst : A precious stone



Connoisseur



Gesso : A preparation of plaster of Paris and glue used as a base for low relief or as a surface for painting



Mat : A decorative border placed around a picture to serve as a frame or provide contrast between the picture and the frame


Border
Edge



Sagger



Qur'an stand : A reading desk with a slanted top holding the books from which scriptural passages are read; it is usually used for holding a copy of the Glorious Qur'an

01-03-2006, 03:34 AM



Bead string : A small, often round piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing or threading



Knitting


Porphyry


Hewn stone


Contour
Shape


Halftone : A picture in which the gradations of light are obtained by the relative darkness and density of tiny dots produced by photographing the subject through a fine screen



Bosses : Raised areas used as ornamentation


Imaginative intuition



Amulet


Craftsmanship


Craftsman



Watered silk (moire)


Incision



Fascia : A broad and distinct band of color


Color sensation



Fillings : Ornamental material for filling a cavity, whether of the same material and color, or of different ones



Mat


High relief



Cameo : A technique for carving on seals or gems or hard materials


Aquatint



Low relief


Spiral


Sash


Moldings : An embellishment in strip form, made of wood or other structural material, that is used to decorate or finish a surface, such as the wall of a room or building or the surface of a door or piece of furniture.


Ornament


Knickknack : A small ornamental article



Scallop-niche


Applique


Musical ornament


Annulet


Basin


Fauna : A catalog of the animals of a specific region or period


Vividness of color



Ring


Crude
Raw
Unrefined



Beads


Lusterware : Pottery or porcelain having a metallic sheen produced when metallic oxides are added to the glaze



Porcelain


,
Majolica ware : Tin-glazed earthenware that is often richly colored and decorated, especially an earthenware of this type produced in Italy; under effect of Islamic art it was widely spread during the Renaissance.


Slipware

01-03-2006, 03:35 AM


Tin glazed earthenware


Ceramics



Panache : A bunch of feathers or a plume, especially on a helmet



Tuft


Streak



Hook : A curved or sharply bent device, usually of metal, used to catch, drag, suspend, or fasten something else



Color scheme


Checkered lines


,
Tempera : A painting medium in which pigment is mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as size or egg yolk


Background


Pentagon



Cinquefoil : A design having five sides composed of converging arcs, usually used as a frame for glass or a panel



Khamsah : A hand-shaped amulet taken as a charm against evil or injury; it symbolizes the hand of Lady Fatimah, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).



Fillet : Decorative design


Dowsing rod



Fillet : A ridge between the indentations of a fluted column


Fantastic



Stick : A long piece of plaster, wood or rock that made adhesive to a column or wall, or taken as an ornamental framework



Spun glass : A material consisting of extremely fine glass fibers, used in making various products, such as yarns, fabrics, insulators, and structural objects or parts



Zodiac



Iconography : A set of specified or traditional symbolic forms associated with the subject or theme of a stylized work of art


Hue : The property of colors by which they can be perceived as ranging from red through yellow, green, and blue, as determined by the dominant



Frets : Several ridges set across the fingerboard of a stringed instrument, such as a guitar



Brocade
Damask



Finishing : The decorative work required for a building or one of its parts to make it perfect



Twirl


Spouted Flask


Potter's wheel



Divan : The seat of a Turkish official



Diorama



Tresses


Decagon



Ansate : Having a handle or a part resembling a handle


Knobby


Triquetrous



Key pattern : An ornamental design


Scroll : An ornament or ornamental design that resembles a partially rolled scroll of paper



Exquisite


Chef-d'oeuvre
Masterpiece



Lace

01-03-2006, 03:35 AM


Quadruped


Quatrefoil


Draftsman
Painter



Depiction
Drawing



Graffito : A drawing or an inscription made on a wall or other surface, usually so as to be seen by the public.


( )
Stylized drawing : A term used in Islamic art, especially the Persian, signifying the conventionalization of figures to a particular style


Patronage


Gold foil : Gold rolled or beaten into sheets somewhat thicker than gold leaf


Gorget



Stuffing : Padding put in cushions and upholstered furniture


Pommel
Knob


Astrological symbolism


(1798-1834)
Egret plume : Fath `Ali Shah (1798-1834) of Qagar Dynasty used to wear a crown ornamented with jewels. On this crown were fixed some egret plumes colored in black to suit his majestic beard.



Glazier : One that cuts and fits glass, as for doors and windows


Engraved glass


Blown glass


" : . "
Stained glass


Enamel glass


Carved glass



Translucent glass



Embellishments
Trappings



Underglaze decoration


Decoration


Incised decoration



Sgraffito : Decoration produced on pottery or ceramic by scratching through a surface of plaster or glazing to reveal a different color underneath


Tracery : Ornamental work of interlaced and branching lines


Zoomorphic


Stamped decoration


Vegetal ornament



Nap : A soft or fuzzy surface on fabric or leather


,
Emerald : A brilliant green to grass-green transparent variety of beryl, used as a gemstone


,
Lily : Any of various plants, having variously colored, often trumpet-shaped flowers; it is often used in decoration



Water lily



Vermilion


Tulip


Poppy



Vase



Dress attire : A special uniform for occasions and ceremonies


To adorn


To emboss

01-03-2006, 03:36 AM



Grotesque : A style of painting, sculpture, and ornamentation in which natural forms and monstrous figures are intertwined in bizarre or fanciful combinations



Sapphire



Dormant


Alloy



Studio


( . 17)
Prayer-rug : A Turkish prayer carpet decorated with compact niches (17th century)



Cloud-band : An ornament



Warp



Lamp : A ware or metal vessel containing oil or alcohol burned through a wick for illumination


Plagiarism


Plane surface



Bucket


Brilliance of color


Coinage
Monetization
Mintage


( )
Herringbone : A pattern consisting of rows of short, slanted parallel lines with the direction of the slant alternating row by row and used in masonry, parquetry, embroidery, and weaving


Bowl


Tureen



Dervish's bowl : Persian dervishes used to use it as a vessel for drinking or to raise charity therein, and they used to hang it around their necks



Minium : An inner covering of a material that resists rust



Opaline : The opal color which is near to that of clouds




Tip


Thong


Shawl



Champleve : A technique of decorating metal in which areas that have been hollowed out, as by incising, are filled with colored enamel and then fired


Net



Lattice : Something, such as a decorative motif or heraldic bearing, that resembles an open, patterned framework


Human figures



Fragment



Tassel : A bunch of loose threads or cords bound at one end and hanging free at the other, used as an ornament on curtains or clothing



Zoographical band
.

Ribbon



Checkered : Divided into squares



Fragmentary : Consisting of small, disconnected parts


Emblem


: , .
Coat of arms : An arrangement of bearings, usually depicted on and around a shield, that indicates ancestry and distinctions


Needlework



Tracing : A reproduction made by superimposing a transparent sheet and copying the lines of the original on it


Pouring lip



Decanter : A vessel with a cover and handle for keeping drink


Trammel

01-03-2006, 03:37 AM


Ovum figure


Outward form
Physical appearance


Candlestick



Pallium



Artisan : A craftsperson


Casting
Molding


To imbue
To dye : To stain or dye deeply



Pigment



Conch



Tortoise shell : A hard material used to inlay wood and make combs


Geometrical strictness



Swastika : A symbol formed by a cross with the ends of the arms bent at right angles in either a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction


Joggled voussoir : One of the wedge-shaped stones forming the curved parts of an arch or a vaulted ceiling


Keystone : The central wedge-shaped stone of an arch that locks its parts together



Sandals


Chest



A box of the Qur'an : A decorated box in which a copy of the Holy Qur'an is preserved



Elliptic : A decorative ornament



Cupboard



Syenite : A volcanic rock



Illustration : Visual matter used to clarify or decorate a text



Profile



Portrait


Silhouette


Inanimate image



Mace : A ceremonial staff borne or displayed as the symbol of authority of a legislative body



Tray



Quilt : A coverlet or blanket made of two layers of fabric with a layer of cotton, wool, feathers, or down in between, all stitched firmly together, usually in a decorative crisscross design



Fourfold braid motif : Decorative expression that denotes braided hexagon and octagon forms


Rib


High light



Large pot : Any of various usually domestic containers made of porcelain as a round, fairly deep vessel for serving food



Stereotype : A metal printing plate cast from a matrix molded from a raised printing surface, such as type


Platter



Slip : Thinned potter's clay used for decorating or coating ceramics



Splash



Trinket



Lost wax process


China clay



Mat glaze

01-03-2006, 03:38 AM



Luster : Any of various substances, such as wax or glaze, used to give an object a gloss or polish; originally it is an Islamic invention that appeared during the eighth century A.D.



Talisman : An object marked with magic signs and believed to confer on its bearer supernatural powers or protection; it is often engraved on walls



Hoop : One of a pair of circular wooden or metal frames used to hold material taut for embroidery or similar needlework



Shade of color


:
Baldachin : A heavy rich fabric of silk and gold carried or placed over a bed, a throne, or a person protecting him from the blazing sun, rain, or wind



Porch


Lampshade : Any of various protective or ornamental coverings used to screen a light bulb



Verso



Color dimness


Background shade



Gear : Equipment, such as tools or clothing, used for a particular activity


Inimitability


Pergola
Arbor


Headband



Headband : An ornament that looks like a rope to fix the turban on one's head



Knot : A length of line, thread, ribbon, or other thin material that is curved or doubled over making an opening; a decorative and geometrical term originated and widely spread during the Seljuk era, and it is well-known in most trends of Islamic art.



Arcade



Blind arcade : A series of non-open arches for decorating walls



Chalcedony
Agate : Hard red precious stone, used in making seals and jewelry



Assay mark : Fixed mark for detecting the quality or quantity of something



Craftsman's mark



Test mark


Iconology : The branch of art history that deals with the description, analysis, and interpretation of icons or iconic representations


Museology : The discipline of museum design, organization, and management


Color deepness


Element



Griffin : A fabulous beast with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion



Opal : A translucent mineral of hydrated silica, often used as a gem



Carafe : A glass or metal pot, often with a flared lip, used for serving water and other liquids


Blanket stitch



Stitch : A single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing or surgical suturing


Feather stitch



Chain-stitch : A decorative sewing stitch in which loops are connected like the links of a chain


Herringbone stitch


Fly stitch


Running stitch


Yarn


Nimbus : A radiant light that appears usually in the form of a circle or halo about or over the head in the representation of a god, demigod, saint, or sacred person such as a king or an emperor



Steeping : To soak yarn in certain liquids in order to soften it


Dull

01-03-2006, 03:38 AM


Untwining



Twine



The Period of Formation : A title given to the Umayyad era when talking about the Islamic art


Stoneware



Biscuits
Bisque : Clay that has been fired once but not glazed



Terra-cotta : A hard, waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction



Interstices : Spaces, especially small or narrow ones, between things or parts



Vervain
Verbena


Bead string



Equestrian
Horse-riding



Mosaic : A picture or decorative design made by setting small colored pieces, as of stone or tile, into a surface


Mosaic of faience


Silver-gilt


To decipher


,
Deciphering the pattern : Separating the shapes that constitute the decorative pattern finding their centers. Putting shapes together in a different way creates a new patterns.


Art


. .
Arabesque : Ornaments that are attributed in all languages to the Arabs. These are complex, ornate designs of intertwined floral, foliate and geometric figures. It is also a characteristic of Islamic arts.


Polychromy


Fictile art


Miniature : A small portrait, picture, or decorative letter on an illuminated manuscript



Turkish Miniature


Persian miniature



Mosul Work : An artistic style of molding inlaid metals which flourished during the 12th century in the city of Mosul, Iraq


Toreutics : The art of working metal or other materials by the use of embossing and chasing to form minute detailed relieves



Concrete art


Primitive art



Abstract art : A kind of art that does not imitate nature but it may be inspired by nature



Portraiture


Conventional art


Illumination : The art or act of decorating a text, a page, or an initial letter with ornamental designs, miniatures, or lettering


Archaic art


Prehistoric art



Figurative art : It has interest in representing humans and animals



Mosaicist


Islamic decorative arts



Turquoise


Denominator


Pedestals



Mold : A frame or model around or on which something is formed or shaped


Color darkness

01-03-2006, 03:39 AM


Classical
Archaic


Crimson



Horn : A device for projecting sound waves, as in a loudspeaker



Ram's horn : An ornamental design


Chestnut



Fish scales : A small, flattened, rigid and definitely circumscribed plate forming part of the external body covering especially of a fish; it is often taken as a shape of ornaments.


( 13)
Alhambra : A fine example of Islamic art found in Granada, Andalusia (13th century)



Velvet


Brocaded velvet


Solid cloth


Lined cloth


Dappled cloth


Tapestry


Diapered cloth



Bulging long-necked bottle


:
Beakers : Small pots made of copper, silver, pottery, or glass, used as containers for drinks and perfumes. They have a tall, narrow pouring lip. Their making and use were common during all the Islamic ages.


Printing blocks


Color dullness



Goblet : A drinking vessel, such as a glass, that has a stem and base


Footed bowl




Chain



Caricature



Cavetto : A concave molding with a cross section that approximates a quarter circle



Kaoline : A fine clay used in ceramics and refractories and as a filler or coating for paper and textiles


.
Pseudo inscription


Intensity of color


,
Cardboard : A material similar to thick, stiff paper, that is made of pressed paper pulp or pasted sheets of paper. It is used for making cartons and signs.


Crochet
.


Vines



Corona : The projecting top part of a cornice


Attire



Carving



Paste


:
Cloisonn : Enamelware in which the surface decoration is formed by different colors of enamel separated by thin strips of metal



Plate



Kilim : A tapestry-woven Turkish rug or other textile with geometric designs in rich, brilliant colors


Quantitative


Mug : A cylindrical drinking cup usually having a handle



Lapis Lazulli



Weft (woof)

01-03-2006, 03:40 AM



Amice


Palmette leaf scrolls


Color brightness


Palette



Triptych


Almond-shaped


Color


Silver-white


Off-white


Orange red


Scarlet


Rust red


Brick red


Carmine



Madder red


,
Garnet red


Ochre red


Claret red


Pink


Olive green



Blue


Ultramarine blue


Sky Blue


Cobalt blue


Lemon yellow color


Ochre yellow



Auburn : A moderate reddish black


Violet (color)



Dark brown



Turquoise (color)


Secondary color



Viridian


Emerald
Bright green



Salmon colored


Vermilion (color)


Cream yellow


Loud color


Sienna



Buff


Ivory : A pale or grayish yellow to yellowish white

01-03-2006, 03:40 AM



Honey color



Ruby (color)


Amber



Pink


Cadmium color



Brown red



Faded color
Pale color


()
Lilac : Any of various shrubs of the genus Syringe, widely cultivated for its clusters of fragrant purplish or white flowers


Impressive


Gilt



Novelty


Incense burner


Refulgent


Cognate
Allied in characteristics
Harmonious


Anthropomorphic



Intarsia : A decorative inlaid pattern in a surface, especially a mosaic worked in wood



Pendentive


Interlaced


Multiform


Polychrome



Polygon


Crumbled



Iridescent : Producing a display of lustrous, rainbow-like colors



Moire : Fabric, such as silk or rayon, finished so as to have a wavy or rippled surface pattern


Uniaxial


Flamboyant : Characterized by waving curves suggesting flame



Fixative : A varnish used especially for the protection of crayon drawings


Punched



Filigree : An intricate, delicate, or fanciful ornamentation



Replica


Twining


Conservative



Imitation


, ,
Tendril : A twisting, threadlike structure by which a twining plant grasps an object or a plant for support; it is used as decorative units in Islamic art


Heraldry


Cushion



Pestle


Coral


Atelier



Palmette : A stylized palm leaf used as a decorative element

01-03-2006, 03:41 AM


Fan-shaped
Flabelliform


Glazed


Floriated


Floriated : Having floral ornaments or floral forms



Sundial : An instrument that indicates local apparent solar time by the shadow cast by a central projecting pointer on a surrounding calibrated dial


Jar stand


Tapered


Rectilinear


Tint


Denticles



Beveled : The pointless or non-straight edge of any wooden or stony statute."


Metalwork


Artifacts


Lantern : An often portable case with transparent or translucent sides for holding and protecting a light


,
Finial : An ornament fixed to the peak of an arch or arched structure, or an ornamental terminating part, such as the screw of a lampshade. In Persian gold ornaments it often takes the shape of a lion griffin.



Guilloche : An ornamental border formed of two or more curved bands that interlace to repeat a circular design



Interlaced design : An ornamental design



Plated



Repousse : The technique of hammering and pressing designs in relief


Inlaid : Decorated with a pattern set into a surface




Mat : Dull, often rough finish, as of paint, glass, metal, or paper



Treatment


Detailed treatment



Opacifier : A chemical agent added to a material, such as rocket propellant, to make it opaque


Opaque : Not reflecting light or having no luster



Pasting : A smooth viscous mixture, as of flour and water or of starch and water, that is used as an adhesive for joining light materials, such as paper and cloth


Cobalt


Forged metal



Mi`raj Namah : A Persian miniature depicting the Night Journey of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)



Mantel : An ornamental facing around a fireplace or it is the protruding shelf over a fireplace


Lined coat



Intricate : Having many complexly arranged elements



Lozenge : Four-sided planar decorative figures with a diamond-like shape; a rhombus that is not a square



Ochre : Any of several earthy mineral oxides of iron occurring in yellow, brown, or red and used as pigments


Spindle


Bed spread


Tablecloth



Foiled : An ornament



Elephant-shaped decoration


,
Al-Maqamat of Al-Hariri : During the 13th century, Al-Hariri, an Iraqi man of letters, wrote his masterpiece Al-Maqamat, a comprehensive book of pictures, in which he depicted the social and artistic features of the Abbasid era through a series of interesting stories. All pictures included in that book were drawn by Yahya Al-Wasiti.

01-03-2006, 03:42 AM


Hilt


Foreground



Stalagmites : A cone of calcite rising from the floor of a cave



Brocaded with gold or silver threads


Tinned


()
Fluted : A long, usually rounded groove incised as a decorative motif on the shaft of a column


Bed sheet



Motifs : Decorative features made of the leaves, rather than the branches, of a tree



Collage : An artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with a unifying lines and color


Coiled


Camouflaged
Gilt


Bulging


Domestic



Interlocked
Woven : To become united or joined closely, as by hooking or dovetailing


Pew



Zone


Royal huntsman


Landscape
Panoramic view : A picture depicting an expanse of scenery


Shadowless landscape


Symbolic landscape




Transfigured landscape : A known miniature in Persian art


Perspective



Engraved
Carved



Tiger-shaped decoration



Adorned
Embellished
Decorated



Cyma recta : A molding for a cornice, having a partly convex curve in profile, used especially in classical architecture



Moresque : Characteristic of Moorish art or architecture


Foliated



Vogue



Mauve : A moderate grayish violet to moderate reddish purple



Hand-warmer


Inborn talent


Medallion : Something resembling a large medal, as an oval or circular design used as decoration



Enamel : A vitreous, usually opaque, protective or decorative coating baked on metal, glass, or ceramic ware



Dogtooth : A decorative design and ornament


Botanic
Vegetal


Copper


Brass


Relief


Copy

01-03-2006, 03:43 AM


Weaving



Print fabric


Semilunar


Glass blowing


Color purity


Carving
Engraving



Intaglio : intaglio, design cut into stone or other material, or etched or engraved in a metal plate, producing a concave effect that is the reverse of relief or Cameo.



Inscriptions : Something, such as the wording on a coin, medal, monument, or seal, that is inscribed



Carpet


Pattern


Prototype



Painting
Depicting miniature


Example
Model
Sample



Seven-circles pattern : A key pattern of Islamic decoration



Blossoms : Flowers and roses that are used in decorating rugs, ceramics and pots



Medal : A flat piece of metal stamped with a design or an inscription commemorating an event or a person, often given as an award



Loom : An apparatus for making thread or yarn into cloth by weaving strands together at right angles



Niello : Any of several black metallic alloys of sulfur with copper, silver, or lead, used to fill an incised design on the surface of another metal


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Halo : A luminous ring or disk of light surrounding the heads or bodies of sacred figures, such as saints, in religious paintings



Mortar : A vessel in which substances are crushed or ground with a pestle




Pediment : A wide, low-pitched gable surmounting the facade of a building, window or mirror boards



Fragile : Easily broken, damaged or destroyed


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Frontispiece : A facade, especially an ornamental facade or a small ornamental pediment, as on top of door or window


Wedge


Facial


Unique


Pale pink



Rosettes



Workshop


Plane leaves


""
Tracing paper


Brand


Descriptive


Pose



Cross guard : A decorative loop or tassel attached to the hilt of a sword.



Ruby



Corundum : A group of precious stones slightly less than diamond in hardness


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Yatagan : A Turkish word signifies a short, curved sword



Handle : A part that is designed to be held or operated with the hand



Hyacinthus : Bulbous herb of the Lily family




Jasper



Jade