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21-06-2004, 12:06 AM



Bead string : A small, often round piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing or threading



Knitting


Porphyry


Hewn stone


Contour
Shape


Halftone : A picture in which the gradations of light are obtained by the relative darkness and density of tiny dots produced by photographing the subject through a fine screen



Bosses : Raised areas used as ornamentation


Imaginative intuition



Amulet


Craftsmanship


Craftsman



Watered silk (moire)


Incision



Fascia : A broad and distinct band of color


Color sensation



Fillings : Ornamental material for filling a cavity, whether of the same material and color, or of different ones



Mat


High relief



Cameo : A technique for carving on seals or gems or hard materials


Aquatint

21-06-2004, 12:07 AM


Low relief


Spiral


Sash


Moldings : An embellishment in strip form, made of wood or other structural material, that is used to decorate or finish a surface, such as the wall of a room or building or the surface of a door or piece of furniture.


Ornament


Knickknack : A small ornamental article



Scallop-niche


Applique


Musical ornament


Annulet


Basin


Fauna : A catalog of the animals of a specific region or period


Vividness of color



Ring


Crude
Raw
Unrefined



Beads


Lusterware : Pottery or porcelain having a metallic sheen produced when metallic oxides are added to the glaze



Porcelain


,
Majolica ware : Tin-glazed earthenware that is often richly colored and decorated, especially an earthenware of this type produced in Italy; under effect of Islamic art it was widely spread during the Renaissance.


Slipware

21-06-2004, 12:08 AM


Tin glazed earthenware


Ceramics



Panache : A bunch of feathers or a plume, especially on a helmet



Tuft


Streak



Hook : A curved or sharply bent device, usually of metal, used to catch, drag, suspend, or fasten something else



Color scheme


Checkered lines


,
Tempera : A painting medium in which pigment is mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as size or egg yolk


Background


Pentagon



Cinquefoil : A design having five sides composed of converging arcs, usually used as a frame for glass or a panel



Khamsah : A hand-shaped amulet taken as a charm against evil or injury; it symbolizes the hand of Lady Fatimah, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).



Fillet : Decorative design


Dowsing rod



Fillet : A ridge between the indentations of a fluted column


Fantastic



Stick : A long piece of plaster, wood or rock that made adhesive to a column or wall, or taken as an ornamental framework



Spun glass : A material consisting of extremely fine glass fibers, used in making various products, such as yarns, fabrics, insulators, and structural objects or parts



Zodiac

21-06-2004, 12:09 AM


Iconography : A set of specified or traditional symbolic forms associated with the subject or theme of a stylized work of art


Hue : The property of colors by which they can be perceived as ranging from red through yellow, green, and blue, as determined by the dominant



Frets : Several ridges set across the fingerboard of a stringed instrument, such as a guitar



Brocade
Damask



Finishing : The decorative work required for a building or one of its parts to make it perfect



Twirl


Spouted Flask


Potter's wheel



Divan : The seat of a Turkish official



Diorama



Tresses


Decagon



Ansate : Having a handle or a part resembling a handle


Knobby


Triquetrous



Key pattern : An ornamental design


Scroll : An ornament or ornamental design that resembles a partially rolled scroll of paper



Exquisite


Chef-d'oeuvre
Masterpiece



Lace

21-06-2004, 12:10 AM


Quadruped


Quatrefoil


Draftsman
Painter



Depiction
Drawing



Graffito : A drawing or an inscription made on a wall or other surface, usually so as to be seen by the public.


( )
Stylized drawing : A term used in Islamic art, especially the Persian, signifying the conventionalization of figures to a particular style


Patronage


Gold foil : Gold rolled or beaten into sheets somewhat thicker than gold leaf


Gorget



Stuffing : Padding put in cushions and upholstered furniture


Pommel
Knob


Astrological symbolism


(1798-1834)
Egret plume : Fath `Ali Shah (1798-1834) of Qagar Dynasty used to wear a crown ornamented with jewels. On this crown were fixed some egret plumes colored in black to suit his majestic beard.



Glazier : One that cuts and fits glass, as for doors and windows


Engraved glass


Blown glass


" : . "
Stained glass


Enamel glass


Carved glass



Translucent glass

21-06-2004, 12:11 AM


Embellishments
Trappings



Underglaze decoration


Decoration


Incised decoration



Sgraffito : Decoration produced on pottery or ceramic by scratching through a surface of plaster or glazing to reveal a different color underneath


Tracery : Ornamental work of interlaced and branching lines


Zoomorphic


Stamped decoration


Vegetal ornament



Nap : A soft or fuzzy surface on fabric or leather


,
Emerald : A brilliant green to grass-green transparent variety of beryl, used as a gemstone


,
Lily : Any of various plants, having variously colored, often trumpet-shaped flowers; it is often used in decoration



Water lily



Vermilion


Tulip


Poppy



Vase



Dress attire : A special uniform for occasions and ceremonies


To adorn


To emboss

21-06-2004, 12:12 AM



Grotesque : A style of painting, sculpture, and ornamentation in which natural forms and monstrous figures are intertwined in bizarre or fanciful combinations



Sapphire



Dormant


Alloy



Studio


( . 17)
Prayer-rug : A Turkish prayer carpet decorated with compact niches (17th century)



Cloud-band : An ornament



Warp



Lamp : A ware or metal vessel containing oil or alcohol burned through a wick for illumination


Plagiarism


Plane surface



Bucket


Brilliance of color


Coinage
Monetization
Mintage


( )
Herringbone : A pattern consisting of rows of short, slanted parallel lines with the direction of the slant alternating row by row and used in masonry, parquetry, embroidery, and weaving


Bowl


Tureen



Dervish's bowl : Persian dervishes used to use it as a vessel for drinking or to raise charity therein, and they used to hang it around their necks



Minium : An inner covering of a material that resists rust



Opaline : The opal color which is near to that of clouds

21-06-2004, 12:13 AM



Tip


Thong


Shawl



Champleve : A technique of decorating metal in which areas that have been hollowed out, as by incising, are filled with colored enamel and then fired


Net



Lattice : Something, such as a decorative motif or heraldic bearing, that resembles an open, patterned framework


Human figures



Fragment



Tassel : A bunch of loose threads or cords bound at one end and hanging free at the other, used as an ornament on curtains or clothing



Zoographical band
.

Ribbon



Checkered : Divided into squares



Fragmentary : Consisting of small, disconnected parts


Emblem


: , .
Coat of arms : An arrangement of bearings, usually depicted on and around a shield, that indicates ancestry and distinctions


Needlework



Tracing : A reproduction made by superimposing a transparent sheet and copying the lines of the original on it


Pouring lip



Decanter : A vessel with a cover and handle for keeping drink


Trammel

21-06-2004, 12:14 AM


Ovum figure


Outward form
Physical appearance


Candlestick



Pallium



Artisan : A craftsperson


Casting
Molding


To imbue
To dye : To stain or dye deeply



Pigment



Conch



Tortoise shell : A hard material used to inlay wood and make combs


Geometrical strictness



Swastika : A symbol formed by a cross with the ends of the arms bent at right angles in either a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction


Joggled voussoir : One of the wedge-shaped stones forming the curved parts of an arch or a vaulted ceiling


Keystone : The central wedge-shaped stone of an arch that locks its parts together



Sandals


Chest



A box of the Qur'an : A decorated box in which a copy of the Holy Qur'an is preserved



Elliptic : A decorative ornament



Cupboard



Syenite : A volcanic rock

21-06-2004, 12:15 AM


Illustration : Visual matter used to clarify or decorate a text



Profile



Portrait


Silhouette


Inanimate image



Mace : A ceremonial staff borne or displayed as the symbol of authority of a legislative body



Tray



Quilt : A coverlet or blanket made of two layers of fabric with a layer of cotton, wool, feathers, or down in between, all stitched firmly together, usually in a decorative crisscross design



Fourfold braid motif : Decorative expression that denotes braided hexagon and octagon forms


Rib


High light



Large pot : Any of various usually domestic containers made of porcelain as a round, fairly deep vessel for serving food



Stereotype : A metal printing plate cast from a matrix molded from a raised printing surface, such as type


Platter



Slip : Thinned potter's clay used for decorating or coating ceramics



Splash



Trinket



Lost wax process


China clay



Mat glaze

21-06-2004, 12:16 AM



Luster : Any of various substances, such as wax or glaze, used to give an object a gloss or polish; originally it is an Islamic invention that appeared during the eighth century A.D.



Talisman : An object marked with magic signs and believed to confer on its bearer supernatural powers or protection; it is often engraved on walls



Hoop : One of a pair of circular wooden or metal frames used to hold material taut for embroidery or similar needlework



Shade of color


:
Baldachin : A heavy rich fabric of silk and gold carried or placed over a bed, a throne, or a person protecting him from the blazing sun, rain, or wind



Porch


Lampshade : Any of various protective or ornamental coverings used to screen a light bulb



Verso



Color dimness


Background shade



Gear : Equipment, such as tools or clothing, used for a particular activity


Inimitability


Pergola
Arbor


Headband



Headband : An ornament that looks like a rope to fix the turban on one's head



Knot : A length of line, thread, ribbon, or other thin material that is curved or doubled over making an opening; a decorative and geometrical term originated and widely spread during the Seljuk era, and it is well-known in most trends of Islamic art.



Arcade



Blind arcade : A series of non-open arches for decorating walls



Chalcedony
Agate : Hard red precious stone, used in making seals and jewelry



Assay mark : Fixed mark for detecting the quality or quantity of something

21-06-2004, 12:17 AM


Craftsman's mark



Test mark


Iconology : The branch of art history that deals with the description, analysis, and interpretation of icons or iconic representations


Museology : The discipline of museum design, organization, and management


Color deepness


Element



Griffin : A fabulous beast with the head and wings of an eagle and the body of a lion



Opal : A translucent mineral of hydrated silica, often used as a gem



Carafe : A glass or metal pot, often with a flared lip, used for serving water and other liquids


Blanket stitch



Stitch : A single complete movement of a threaded needle in sewing or surgical suturing


Feather stitch



Chain-stitch : A decorative sewing stitch in which loops are connected like the links of a chain


Herringbone stitch


Fly stitch


Running stitch


Yarn


Nimbus : A radiant light that appears usually in the form of a circle or halo about or over the head in the representation of a god, demigod, saint, or sacred person such as a king or an emperor



Steeping : To soak yarn in certain liquids in order to soften it


Dull

21-06-2004, 12:18 AM


Untwining



Twine



The Period of Formation : A title given to the Umayyad era when talking about the Islamic art


Stoneware



Biscuits
Bisque : Clay that has been fired once but not glazed



Terra-cotta : A hard, waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction



Interstices : Spaces, especially small or narrow ones, between things or parts



Vervain
Verbena


Bead string



Equestrian
Horse-riding



Mosaic : A picture or decorative design made by setting small colored pieces, as of stone or tile, into a surface


Mosaic of faience


Silver-gilt


To decipher


,
Deciphering the pattern : Separating the shapes that constitute the decorative pattern finding their centers. Putting shapes together in a different way creates a new patterns.


Art


. .
Arabesque : Ornaments that are attributed in all languages to the Arabs. These are complex, ornate designs of intertwined floral, foliate and geometric figures. It is also a characteristic of Islamic arts.


Polychromy


Fictile art


Miniature : A small portrait, picture, or decorative letter on an illuminated manuscript

21-06-2004, 12:19 AM


Turkish Miniature


Persian miniature



Mosul Work : An artistic style of molding inlaid metals which flourished during the 12th century in the city of Mosul, Iraq


Toreutics : The art of working metal or other materials by the use of embossing and chasing to form minute detailed relieves



Concrete art


Primitive art



Abstract art : A kind of art that does not imitate nature but it may be inspired by nature



Portraiture


Conventional art


Illumination : The art or act of decorating a text, a page, or an initial letter with ornamental designs, miniatures, or lettering


Archaic art


Prehistoric art



Figurative art : It has interest in representing humans and animals



Mosaicist


Islamic decorative arts



Turquoise


Denominator


Pedestals



Mold : A frame or model around or on which something is formed or shaped


Color darkness

21-06-2004, 12:20 AM


Classical
Archaic


Crimson



Horn : A device for projecting sound waves, as in a loudspeaker



Ram's horn : An ornamental design


Chestnut



Fish scales : A small, flattened, rigid and definitely circumscribed plate forming part of the external body covering especially of a fish; it is often taken as a shape of ornaments.


( 13)
Alhambra : A fine example of Islamic art found in Granada, Andalusia (13th century)



Velvet


Brocaded velvet


Solid cloth


Lined cloth


Dappled cloth


Tapestry


Diapered cloth



Bulging long-necked bottle


:
Beakers : Small pots made of copper, silver, pottery, or glass, used as containers for drinks and perfumes. They have a tall, narrow pouring lip. Their making and use were common during all the Islamic ages.


Printing blocks


Color dullness



Goblet : A drinking vessel, such as a glass, that has a stem and base


Footed bowl

21-06-2004, 12:21 AM



Chain



Caricature



Cavetto : A concave molding with a cross section that approximates a quarter circle



Kaoline : A fine clay used in ceramics and refractories and as a filler or coating for paper and textiles


.
Pseudo inscription


Intensity of color


,
Cardboard : A material similar to thick, stiff paper, that is made of pressed paper pulp or pasted sheets of paper. It is used for making cartons and signs.


Crochet
.


Vines



Corona : The projecting top part of a cornice


Attire



Carving



Paste


:
Cloisonn : Enamelware in which the surface decoration is formed by different colors of enamel separated by thin strips of metal



Plate



Kilim : A tapestry-woven Turkish rug or other textile with geometric designs in rich, brilliant colors


Quantitative


Mug : A cylindrical drinking cup usually having a handle



Lapis Lazulli



Weft (woof)

21-06-2004, 12:23 AM



Amice


Palmette leaf scrolls


Color brightness


Palette



Triptych


Almond-shaped


Color


Silver-white


Off-white


Orange red


Scarlet


Rust red


Brick red


Carmine



Madder red


,
Garnet red


Ochre red


Claret red


Pink


Olive green

21-06-2004, 12:24 AM


Blue


Ultramarine blue


Sky Blue


Cobalt blue


Lemon yellow color


Ochre yellow



Auburn : A moderate reddish black


Violet (color)



Dark brown



Turquoise (color)


Secondary color



Viridian


Emerald
Bright green



Salmon colored


Vermilion (color)


Cream yellow


Loud color


Sienna



Buff


Ivory : A pale or grayish yellow to yellowish white

21-06-2004, 12:25 AM



Honey color



Ruby (color)


Amber



Pink


Cadmium color



Brown red



Faded color
Pale color


()
Lilac : Any of various shrubs of the genus Syringe, widely cultivated for its clusters of fragrant purplish or white flowers


Impressive


Gilt



Novelty


Incense burner


Refulgent


Cognate
Allied in characteristics
Harmonious


Anthropomorphic



Intarsia : A decorative inlaid pattern in a surface, especially a mosaic worked in wood



Pendentive


Interlaced


Multiform


Polychrome

21-06-2004, 12:26 AM


Polygon


Crumbled



Iridescent : Producing a display of lustrous, rainbow-like colors



Moire : Fabric, such as silk or rayon, finished so as to have a wavy or rippled surface pattern


Uniaxial


Flamboyant : Characterized by waving curves suggesting flame



Fixative : A varnish used especially for the protection of crayon drawings


Punched



Filigree : An intricate, delicate, or fanciful ornamentation



Replica


Twining


Conservative



Imitation


, ,
Tendril : A twisting, threadlike structure by which a twining plant grasps an object or a plant for support; it is used as decorative units in Islamic art


Heraldry


Cushion



Pestle


Coral


Atelier



Palmette : A stylized palm leaf used as a decorative element

21-06-2004, 12:27 AM


Fan-shaped
Flabelliform


Glazed


Floriated


Floriated : Having floral ornaments or floral forms



Sundial : An instrument that indicates local apparent solar time by the shadow cast by a central projecting pointer on a surrounding calibrated dial


Jar stand


Tapered


Rectilinear


Tint


Denticles



Beveled : The pointless or non-straight edge of any wooden or stony statute."


Metalwork


Artifacts


Lantern : An often portable case with transparent or translucent sides for holding and protecting a light


,
Finial : An ornament fixed to the peak of an arch or arched structure, or an ornamental terminating part, such as the screw of a lampshade. In Persian gold ornaments it often takes the shape of a lion griffin.



Guilloche : An ornamental border formed of two or more curved bands that interlace to repeat a circular design



Interlaced design : An ornamental design



Plated



Repousse : The technique of hammering and pressing designs in relief


Inlaid : Decorated with a pattern set into a surface

21-06-2004, 12:28 AM



Mat : Dull, often rough finish, as of paint, glass, metal, or paper



Treatment


Detailed treatment



Opacifier : A chemical agent added to a material, such as rocket propellant, to make it opaque


Opaque : Not reflecting light or having no luster



Pasting : A smooth viscous mixture, as of flour and water or of starch and water, that is used as an adhesive for joining light materials, such as paper and cloth


Cobalt


Forged metal



Mi`raj Namah : A Persian miniature depicting the Night Journey of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)



Mantel : An ornamental facing around a fireplace or it is the protruding shelf over a fireplace


Lined coat



Intricate : Having many complexly arranged elements



Lozenge : Four-sided planar decorative figures with a diamond-like shape; a rhombus that is not a square



Ochre : Any of several earthy mineral oxides of iron occurring in yellow, brown, or red and used as pigments


Spindle


Bed spread


Tablecloth



Foiled : An ornament



Elephant-shaped decoration


,
Al-Maqamat of Al-Hariri : During the 13th century, Al-Hariri, an Iraqi man of letters, wrote his masterpiece Al-Maqamat, a comprehensive book of pictures, in which he depicted the social and artistic features of the Abbasid era through a series of interesting stories. All pictures included in that book were drawn by Yahya Al-Wasiti.

21-06-2004, 12:29 AM


Hilt


Foreground



Stalagmites : A cone of calcite rising from the floor of a cave



Brocaded with gold or silver threads


Tinned


()
Fluted : A long, usually rounded groove incised as a decorative motif on the shaft of a column


Bed sheet



Motifs : Decorative features made of the leaves, rather than the branches, of a tree



Collage : An artistic composition of materials and objects pasted over a surface, often with a unifying lines and color


Coiled


Camouflaged
Gilt


Bulging


Domestic



Interlocked
Woven : To become united or joined closely, as by hooking or dovetailing


Pew



Zone


Royal huntsman


Landscape
Panoramic view : A picture depicting an expanse of scenery


Shadowless landscape


Symbolic landscape

21-06-2004, 12:30 AM



Transfigured landscape : A known miniature in Persian art


Perspective



Engraved
Carved



Tiger-shaped decoration



Adorned
Embellished
Decorated



Cyma recta : A molding for a cornice, having a partly convex curve in profile, used especially in classical architecture



Moresque : Characteristic of Moorish art or architecture


Foliated



Vogue



Mauve : A moderate grayish violet to moderate reddish purple



Hand-warmer


Inborn talent


Medallion : Something resembling a large medal, as an oval or circular design used as decoration



Enamel : A vitreous, usually opaque, protective or decorative coating baked on metal, glass, or ceramic ware



Dogtooth : A decorative design and ornament


Botanic
Vegetal


Copper


Brass


Relief


Copy

21-06-2004, 12:31 AM


Weaving



Print fabric


Semilunar


Glass blowing


Color purity


Carving
Engraving



Intaglio : intaglio, design cut into stone or other material, or etched or engraved in a metal plate, producing a concave effect that is the reverse of relief or Cameo.



Inscriptions : Something, such as the wording on a coin, medal, monument, or seal, that is inscribed



Carpet


Pattern


Prototype



Painting
Depicting miniature


Example
Model
Sample



Seven-circles pattern : A key pattern of Islamic decoration



Blossoms : Flowers and roses that are used in decorating rugs, ceramics and pots



Medal : A flat piece of metal stamped with a design or an inscription commemorating an event or a person, often given as an award



Loom : An apparatus for making thread or yarn into cloth by weaving strands together at right angles



Niello : Any of several black metallic alloys of sulfur with copper, silver, or lead, used to fill an incised design on the surface of another metal


,
Halo : A luminous ring or disk of light surrounding the heads or bodies of sacred figures, such as saints, in religious paintings



Mortar : A vessel in which substances are crushed or ground with a pestle

21-06-2004, 12:32 AM



Pediment : A wide, low-pitched gable surmounting the facade of a building, window or mirror boards



Fragile : Easily broken, damaged or destroyed


,
Frontispiece : A facade, especially an ornamental facade or a small ornamental pediment, as on top of door or window


Wedge


Facial


Unique


Pale pink



Rosettes



Workshop


Plane leaves


""
Tracing paper


Brand


Descriptive


Pose



Cross guard : A decorative loop or tassel attached to the hilt of a sword.



Ruby



Corundum : A group of precious stones slightly less than diamond in hardness


:
Yatagan : A Turkish word signifies a short, curved sword



Handle : A part that is designed to be held or operated with the hand



Hyacinthus : Bulbous herb of the Lily family

21-06-2004, 12:33 AM



Jasper



Jade

21-06-2004, 12:35 AM

21-06-2004, 12:35 AM



Linen Fibres : Used to make paper for writing


()
Calligraphic exercise : These are exercises written by eminent calligraphers for learners to take as models to better their handwriting.


Andalusian



Modes of movement



Prolongation


Suggestive


Melodious rhythm


414/1032. . . . :
Ibn Al-Bawwab : A very famous Arab calligrapher (died 1032 A.D.), lived during the Banu Buyid rule. He was taught at the hands of Ibn Muqlah. He used the Arabic calligraphies perfectly and added so much to them. He mastered the following: Manthur, Murassa`, Lu'lu'i, Washi, Hawashi, Muqtarin, Mudmaj, Mu`allaq, Qasas, Musalsal.


(272-328/886 -940). . .
Ibn Muqla : A very famous Arab calligrapher who lived during the Abbasid rule (272-328 A.H./886-940 A.D.). He was minister for the Caliph Al-Radi Billah. He was given the nicknames "Prophet of Arabic Calligraphy" and "Master of Arabic Calligraphy".


: , , , , ,
The Six Pens : These are the main Arabic calligraphies: Thuluth, Riq`ah, Naskh, Al-Rihani, Tawqi`, Muhaqqaq.


Perfection


Characters with points and others without points



Rhythm : Rhythm represents the outcome of elements such as similitude, diversity, unity, and harmony gathered together.


Timurid Trend



Balance : This aesthetic value is to be realized through designing the letters' courses and directions.


Inward



El-badie : A name given to Naskh by Ibn Muqlah


Al-Basmalah



Contrast : Moving from bold fonts to other thin ones and from curved to straight ones.



Transcendence

21-06-2004, 12:37 AM



Symmetry



Harmony : Relationships between fonts whether curved, vertical, horizontal, high or low.


, ,
Diversity : This diversity is represented in letters in regard to their being bold, thin, being upward or downward, to the left or to the right. This diversity is meant to save the reader from dullness and boredom.



Al-Jamiado : See also: Morisco



Distinctive shape


.
Movement : These are the positive elements in a manuscript. As the letter, segment and word are positive elements in Arabic script, while the in-between empty places are the negative ones.


Taji (calligraphy)


(857 ). , , , () () () () ()
Diwani : Turks introduced the Diwani script after the conquest of Constantinople by Muhammad Al-Fatih (858 A.H.). This script is derived from the Riq`ah Supreme Office. It was used in writing the sultanic grants, permissions and the divan orders. Hence, it got its present name. Mustafa Ghazlan, the Arab calligrapher, reestablished and added to it many remarkable features and it is also named after him (Ghazlani Script). Also among its famous users were Muhammad `Abdul-Qadir and Muhammad Ibrahim (Egypt), Ibrahim Al-Rifa`I (Syria), Kamil Al-Baba (Lebanon), Muhammad Tahir Al-Kurdi (Saudi Arabia), and Hashim Al-Baghdadi (Iraq).


Al-Raihani script


Arabic Script


, () ,
Farisi : It is called Nast`aliq, taken from Naskh Ta`liq. It is an Arabic script inspired by the Persian calligraphy. The Persian calligrapher Mir `Ali Al-Tabrizi added many rules and much beauty to it. It is distinguished for the various widths of its letters and the clear distinction of its letters.


Kufi script


Muhaqqaq script


Maghribi (script)


Proportional script


Hijazi Naskh Script


Hilali script



Darij (the Current) : The old name of Naskh



Reed pen


Marginal ornaments

21-06-2004, 12:38 AM



Domination : This represents the domination of a certain part of the manuscript over its whole form in a way to attract the attention of everyone.


. ( )
Siaqah (script) : Of unknown origin calligraphy used by the Persian traders (17th and 18th centuries). It is similar to the Mu`amma script. Some of its letters are to be omitted or combined together.


Swastika


( )
Chalk


Static Nature


Infinite nature



Tughra : Signature of the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud Khan II.



Tomar


Outwardness



Sacred art (Arabic Calligraphy)



Al-Qur'ani (old name for Naskh script)


. .
Al-Qar` : A kind of Naskh script. It is subtle, soft and more free than the Naskh in its pen movement. It has no interlaces or curves. It was used for writing signs, seals for copies of the Holy Qur'an, chronologies and writer's name.



A reed pen


Totality


Plain (simple) Kufi



Pearl-like cursive (Persian script)


Formlessness


Infinitude



Color : Color plays an important rule in asserting the aesthetic aspects of the Arabic calligraphy.


( )
Malachite

21-06-2004, 12:39 AM


, , ,
Mudejars : Muslims who remained in Spain after it had been reconquered by the Christians. They stuck to their Arab traditions and transferred the Arab heritage to Europe.



Mozarabs, (Arabized Christians) : Christians who lived with Muslims in Andalusia and adopted certain aspects of Arab culture and used their language. They also showed great care for the Arabic letter.


Visual plane


Deceptive appearances



Al-Mu`amma (vague) : A phrase written in an artistic way that makes it hard to read.


Geometrical equivalent



Module


, ( )
Morisco : Muslims who remained in Spain after the fall of Granada. They used a Romance dialect (taken from Latin). They used Arabic letters called "Al-Jamiado".


Nabato-Arameen



Proportions : Measurement and proportionality found in writing letters and words.



Unity and Harmony : Integrity of the calligraphic piece of work



Fluidity


( )
Aerial fluidity (Persian Calligraphy)


Fusion


(1879 - 1940)
Paul Klee : A famous Swiss artist (1879 - 1940) who was inspired by the Arabic letter in his abstract works.



Primordial


: "1- 2- 3- 4-
Sharpening of the reed pen : A process of preparation for the reed pen to use in inscription. It goes in four steps: Fath (slashing) : In solid pens it is shorter, 2- Naht (scraping): This is to scrape the edges and bottom of a pen. 3- Shaq (cutting): This is to open a cut in the pen's tip, The cut's length is determined according to the pen's solidness. 4- Qat (chamfering).



Limitation



Geometric interlacing



Inscription

21-06-2004, 12:40 AM


Phrase sequence



Interlacement : To connect by or as if by lacing together


Contemplative Implications


Farisi



Talisman
Chant



Disparity : This is the disparity between the spiritual illumination and arts of calligraphy through the Ottoman era.


Prolongation Preference


Dotting (Pointing) of letters


Signature


Fragment


. ( )
Rosetta Stone : A large tablet of basalt found near Rosetta (1799 A.D.). Its polished surface has been carved with Greek, hieroglyphic and demotic characters. Thanks to that tablet it was possiple to decipher the Egyptian hieroglyphics.


Precincts of text


Letter


Semi-talking characters


Thuluth (calligraphy)


Al-Jalil (Script)


(1200 ). (1225 ) , (1272)
Riq`ah script : During the regimes of Sultan Sulaiman Al-Qanuni and `Abdul-Hamid I (1200 A.H.), Riq`ah script progressed much. The Turkish calligrapher Abu Bakr Mumtaz bin Mustafa Afandi (1225 A.H.), is considered as the theorist of this script as he devoted himself to study its characters and letters and laid down certain measurements and proportions. It was known as Hamayon Script (1272). It spread all over the Ottoman Empire and replaced the Naskh Script, which then became almost sacred as it was used for writing copies of the Holy Qur'an and Prophetic Hadith.


()
Chikestah : This is a way of writing that emerged at the early days of the 11th century, during the reign of the Saffauid State (Iran). It was used in writing the rulings and messages. First, it was called Chikestah Ta`liq, then, it became Chikestah Nasta`liq.


( )
Qiramuz script : The script from which the Farisi one is derived (uncertain).



Epigraphy

21-06-2004, 12:41 AM


Precise



Tip : Pointed tip of pen or feather


Monotonous


Calligram



Parchment


Symbolism


( )
Graphic emblems (Turkish Script)



Epigraphic Blazon : A writing emblem or mark that includes the sultan's name, titles of honor and is written on all his properties.



Zulfa `Arus (calligraphy)


( )
Vitriol



Nib


Strokes


Arboreal


Palmette



Squirrel Hair : A material for making brushes for writing and painting.



Cipher


Rhomboid


Beauty of scripts


Echo



Arabic Gum : Gum extracted from some acacia trees in Istanbul used in medicine and art.

21-06-2004, 12:42 AM


Sacred formula


Proportionment (of letters)



Implicit


Monogram


Pigment


,
Gallnut : Tannic acid, used in ink, is extracted from it


( )
Magic knots (Turkish script)


Vowel points



Vowel point (mark) : Any mark added to the letter to show its correct pronunciation.


( 400) : , , , , , , , , , , ,
`Ilm Al-Kitabah (Science of Script) : Title of the study made by Abu Hayian Al-Tawhidi (died in 400 A.H.) in which he mentioned the Kufi Script types known during his life. They were 12: Isma`ili, Malaki, Madani, Andalusi, Shami, `Iraqi, `Abbasi, Baghdadi, Musha`ab, Rihan, Mujawwad, and Misri.


. .
Ghubar Al-Halabah (calligraphy) : Very small and short script, written in the form of compressed circles. It was derived from Al-Riqa` and Naskh. It used to be written on very small pieces of paper.It was given the name Qalam Al-Janah (Calligraphy of the Wing) for it was used in writing messages carried by the homing pigeons.



Calligraphy


Qur'anic Calligraphy


Phoenician



Reed



Diagonally



Colophon : An inscription placed usually at the end of a manuscript, giving facts about its writer, publisher, author and date of writing.



Standard Proportions : Laid down by Ibn Muqlah



Perfect (description of Naskh)



Interlaced inscriptions

21-06-2004, 12:43 AM


Mirrored lettering


Calligraphy with human face


Calligraphy with human shapes



Cryptography : Science of translating messages into ciphers or codes



Phonetic transliteration (Arabic Script)


Anthropomorph


Pictographic calligraphy


Kufic writing



Pseudo-kufic decoration : Ornaments seem to be writings in Kufic script but are not.


Cursive script



Inscription



Contour


Kufic


Square Kufi (calligraphy)


Floral Kufi


Kufic plaited


Foliate Kufi


( )
Azurite (blue color)


Allah


Frontispiece

21-06-2004, 12:44 AM



Lithography


Softness


Concentric


Orthogonal


Explosive


Symmetrical



Muhkam (Moroccan calligraphy)


. (908 ) 17 .
Muhammad ibn Hasan ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn `Umar Al-Taibi Al-Shafi`i : One of the outstanding figures of Arabic calligraphy. He wrote an important book (908 A.H.) in which he described 17 types of Arabic calligraphy. This manuscript was found in the treasury of the Sultan Al-Ghuri, the last Mamluk sultan who was killed in the Marj Dabiq Battle.


Angular outlines


Manuscript



Cursive


Trembling (tremble)



Murassa` (Inlaid)


Flexibility



Cuneiform : A character or characters formed by the arrangement of small wedge-shaped elements and used in ancient Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian writing.



Trimmed


Calligraphic exercise



Space handling : Matching between letters in complete conformity and harmony.



Moderate (description of Naskh script)



Truncated pen

21-06-2004, 12:46 AM



Pencase : Small case for holding and keeping pens


Touch
Feel


Features


Curves



Proportional



Organized and well-ordered (description of Naskh)


Miniaturist


Luminous


Nabatean


Proportion


Nasta`liq


Naskh


Radii


Dot


Geometry


Lucid
Explicit


Legible


( )
Wafir (Moroccan script)



Recto


Aesthetic Unity

21-06-2004, 12:47 AM


Papyrus


Plenitude



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