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16-06-2004, 05:34 AM



Punishment in the Hereafter


Punishment of the rebellious
Penalty of the dissidents



Punishment of the unjust Imam



Penalty of dissidence from Muslim community


Penalty of wounding others


Penalty of banditry


Penalty of usury


Penalty of apostasy


Penalty of adultery


Penalty of theft


Penalty of homicide


Al-Qisas [Retaliation] penalty


Worldly punishment


Penalty of drinking alcohol


Penalty of disobeying the rulers


Financial penalty
Fine
Forfeit


Intentionally
Deliberately
Resolutely
Purposely
Willfully


By force
Forcibly
Under coercion



Whore
Harlot
Prostitute


Lascivious
Licentious
Lecherous
Lewd
Libertine
Debauchee
Dissolute

16-06-2004, 05:35 AM


To dissipate
To lead a dissolute life
To indulge in debauchery
To commit adultery
To fornicate



Slanderer
Defamer
False accuser


Patricide : The act of murdering one's father


Fratricide : The act of murdering one's brother


Sororicide : The act of murdering one's sister


Matricide : The act of murdering one's mother


Infanticide


Feticide : Intentional destruction of a human fetus


Retaliating a free man for killing a slave



Unintentional homicide
Accidental homicide


Killing the one who committed adultery with one's wife


Stoning adulterers to death


Killing the one who committed incest


Uxoricide : The killing of a wife by her husband


Killing thieves


Retaliating a slave for killing a slave



Assassination
Murder by assault


Killing unbelievers


Killing apostates


Murdering a Muslim

16-06-2004, 05:36 AM


Retaliating a Muslim for killing an unbeliever


Killing hypocrites


Killing one's babies for fear of poverty


Genocide : The systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group


Euthanasia
Mercy killing : The act or practice of ending the life of an individual suffering from a terminal illness or an incurable condition, as by lethal injection or the suspension of extraordinary medical treatment



To slander
To calumniate
To accuse
To defame


Slandering the child of Li`an


Compurgation in the pre-Islamic period : An ancient form of trial in which an accused person could call 11 people to swear to their belief in his innocence


Equal retribution of rights


Retaliating those who devour people's rights



Cutting off hands and feet from opposite sides



To commit highway robbery


Hand amputation


Amputating the thief's hand


Cutting off the hand of the embezzler and looter


Pander
Procurer
Pimp
White slaver



Grievous sins
Mortal sins



Continence
Self-restraint
Self-discipline
Temperance



No amputation for stealing fruits or palm trees


Legally binding

16-06-2004, 05:37 AM



Gambling



Cursing
Damnation



Damnation of the thief



Sodomy
Buggery
Homosexuality : Anal copulation of one male with another


Buggery
Sodomy : Anal copulation of one male with another


Sodomite : One who engages in sodomy


No rights for unjust persons


Stealing that does not incur amputation


,
Number of slaves to be released from bandage as an expiation of a broken oath



What is considered as apostasy



What is considered a false accusation of adultery


Legal impediment


Intentional
Deliberate


Sinner
Criminal
Malefactor
Felon


Highway robber
Bandit



Punished person



Apostate
Renegade : One who deserts his faith or religion


Female apostate



Stoned to death


Intoxicant
Intoxicating drink
Alcoholic beverage
Inebriating liquor

16-06-2004, 05:38 AM


Legality of diyah [Blood money]


Legality of Al-Qisas [Law of Retaliation]


One compelled by necessity



Shameful sin
Scandalous crime


Perpetrated
Committed



Perpetrator (of a crime)
Committer
Sinner


Place of executing prescribed penalties


Upon whom are prescribed penalties executed



Ready
Carried out
Executed
Complete
Absolute



Exhumation of graves
Disinterring graves


Regret and repentance of the murderer


Prescribed amount for which penalty for theft is applicable


Destroying others' buildings



The killer's family should pay the diyah [Blood money]


Avenger of blood : A relative entitled to exact retaliation

16-06-2004, 05:40 AM

16-06-2004, 05:40 AM


,
To thoroughly subdue the enemy
To inflict great losses on
To kill in great numbers
To eradicate



To inflict many casualties on the enemy
To massacre
To slaughter


,
To weaken someone by wounds


To protect
To shelter
To grant asylum to


To surround
To encompass
To encircle
To besiege



Alliances
Allies


Enemy land



To capture
To captivate


,
Captive
Prisoner of war


Those who are entitled to one-fifth of the war booty



To weaken
To disable
To make powerless or ineffective



To give as booty to
To bestow upon


Allies
Supporters
Helpers


, ,
Dhimmis : Non-Muslims living in and under the protection of a Muslim state


People who have held covenants with Muslims


Declaration of war


,
Invasion
Raid
Foray


Supplies
Reinforcements
Auxiliaries
Fresh troops



Mercenary



Death defiance
Heroism
Valor

16-06-2004, 05:41 AM



To ask for protection
To seek refuge with
To appeal for the help of


Martyrdom



To die as a martyr



To implore for assistance
To appeal for help



To turn to somebody for help
To ask for the help of


To assault
To attak
To violate



Having recourse to
Having resort to


To resort to
To have recourse to


To ransom
To redeem


To fight (one another)
To combat



Massacre
Mass murder



Lagging behind
Lingering



Blood flowing heavily from a wound



Jizyah : A tax levied upon non-Muslims living in a Muslim state



Minor Jihad : Fighting against unbelievers


,
Major Jihad : Fighting one's caprices and vain desires


Fighting in the cause of Allah


One fifth (of booty or spoils)



Those who remain behind in case of war



Riding camel

16-06-2004, 05:42 AM


Archer
Bowman


Bravery
Courage
Valiance
Valor


Charity spent on fighting in the cause of Allah



Victory
Triumph
Conquest


Fighting under the Imam's command



Repression
Suppression
Crushing
Quelling
Curbing


Murabit : A soldier who guards in the borderlines of the Muslim state


Aggressor
Invader
Assaulter
Attacker


Military campaigns of the Prophet


Support
Help
Assistance


Spending money in Allah's cause


Revenge
Vengeance
Reprisal



Looting
Ravaging
Plunder
Pillage


Defeat
Debacle
Collapse



To duel
To encounter in a combat
To affront
To fight (with)



Courage
Bravery
Boldness
Valiance
Valor


To be brave
To be fearless


Without reason
With no excuse


Muslim countries
Muslim territories


Attacking at night

16-06-2004, 05:43 AM



Equipping warriors


To fight (one another)
To combat
To be engaged in war


Fortification



Disappointment
Frustration


To linger
To remain behind
To lag


To assist one against another



Mobilization of the army
War preparations



To follow
To chase
To trail



Camouflage


To aid one another
To assist one another


,
Frontiers
Inlets
Ports
Vulnerabilities
Borderlines



Unjust
Oppressor


To fight
To struggle
To strive



To spend one's wealth in the way of Allah


To participate in Jihad in person



To incline towards peace



Troops
Forces
Army
Soldiers



Forces of the heavens and the earth


Recruited troops


Strife against one's caprice
Controlling one's desires
Fighting one's vain desires

16-06-2004, 05:44 AM



Effort
Endeavor
Striving with might and main
Toil
Fatigue



Injustice
Oppression
Transgression
Tyranny


Careful
Cautious
Attentive
Alert



To fight
To combat
To battle
To wage war



Banner-bearer : One who carries his army's banner in war


Lancer
Spearer : A cavalryman armed with a lance or spear



A vein between one's neck and shoulders


,
Death



To stare at
To gaze at



To be cautious of
To beware of
To take precautions against


Spears
Lances



One who is at war against Muslims
A non-Muslim worrier



To incite
To instigate
To motivate
To encourage soldiers to fight



The Party of Allah
The believers



Allah is All-Sufficient for us



Fort
Fortress
Bulwark
Stronghold
Citadel


Lawfulness of taking spoils


Alliance


Ally
Confederate
Allied party


Expedition
Campaign

16-06-2004, 05:44 AM



To protect
To shield
To defend
To guard
To preserve



To face death boldly



To leave behind


One-fifth of booty


Dagger
Poniard
Stiletto


,
Land ruled by Muslims


Land not ruled by Muslims


A country that has a peace treaty with Muslims


Non-Muslim state



To defeat
To vanquish
To rout



Coat of mail


Full coats of mail



The right side


Protection
Covenant of protection
Compact



Dhimmi : A non-Muslim living in and under the protection of a Muslim state


To be stationed (army)
To take up positions


Flag
Army banner



Being on guard in a frontier station


Equanimity
Composure
Self-possession
Sangfroid
Aplomb
Poise



Allah has strengthened his heart (with Faith)

16-06-2004, 05:45 AM


Departure
Migration


Pelting with arrows
Shooting with arrows


Evening expedition



Capture
Captivity



Capturing women
Enslaving female captives
Taking women captives



Brigade
Detachment
Company



Blood-shedding


Weapon
Arms
Armaments


Peace
Reconciliation


Arrow


Sword
Saber
Rapier
Cutlass


Unsheathed sword


To displace
To dislodge
To make homeless
To disperse


,
Small band of people



Martyr


Female martyr


,
Weaponry
Arms
Might



Assailant
Attacker
Valiant warrior
Valiant fighter



Conflict
Fight
Combat



Strongholds
Fortifications

16-06-2004, 05:46 AM


Assaulting
Attacking
Valiant fighting


To sacrifice
To offer up
To immolate



Tyrant
Satan
Idol



Swift horses



Rough
Crude
Coarse


Enemy
Foe
Adversary


Avowed enemy


Aggression
Assault
Attack
Invasion


,
To supply with provision and equipment
To aid
To support
To reinforce


Difficult
Hard
Arduous


Flag
Banner


Covenant
Compact
Convention
Pact
Treaty
Commitment
Pledge



Vulnerabilities
Exposed positions


Spy
Eye


To invade
To conquer
To attack
To assault



To forget
To be unmindful
To be negligent



To embezzle a part of the war booty before its distribution



To take as booty



Spoils
Booty
Loot
Plunder



Succor
Aid
Help
Relief

16-06-2004, 05:47 AM



Band of fighting men



To conquer
To capture
To occupy
To take over



Imminent victory


Manifest victory
Resounding victory



To flee
To escape
To run away
To retreat
To turn one's back



Running away
Flight
Escape
Retreat


Non-warrior : One who lingers and does not participate in Jihad


Fighting
War


Fighting rebels


Fighting apostates



Fighting a Muslim is an act of disbelief



To garland horses


Repressive
Suppressive
Oppressive


Subjugation
Overcoming
Compulsion
Coercion
Duress


By force
Under coercion



Arbalest
Bow


To tether a camel



Indomitable
Unconquerable
Invincible


,
Banner
Flag
Brigade



Fleeing for shelter
Seeking refuge

16-06-2004, 05:48 AM


Captivated



Support
Aid
Backing
Help


War materiel
Ammunition
Munitions



Provisions
Supplies
Stores
Victuals
Rations


Dueling
Fencing


Contumacious
Insubordinate
Rebellious
Mutinous



Mujahid : Muslim warrior who fights in the cause of Allah


,
Shield
Armor
Cuirass


Danger
Peril
Jeopardy
Trouble



Left behind : One who lingers and does not participate in Jihad


,
Hunger


Driven away
Expelled
Defeated
Vanquished



Guarding the country's frontiers



Mercenaries : Professional soldiers hired for service in a foreign army



One whose aid is to be implored



Angels' participation with Muslims in battles


Encounters
Battles
Clashes


Ally
Confederate
Covenantor



Treaty
Pact
Accord
Agreement



Loot
Spoils
Booty

16-06-2004, 05:49 AM


Murder
Assassination
Killing


Looter
Marauder


Mangonel
Catapult
Ballista


Defeated
Routed
Crushed


Confrontation
Encounter
Clash
Skirmish


Covenant
Compact
Convention
Pact
Treaty
Agreement
Charter


Arrows


Victory
Triumph


To support
To help
To back


Allah's religion may be aided by a sinful man


Grace
Favor
Beneficence
Blessing



Violating a covenant
Breaching an agreement



Violating the pledge given to the Imam



Armistice
Truce


To direct
To dispatch



To turn their backs
To retreat
To withdraw

16-06-2004, 05:51 AM

16-06-2004, 05:51 AM


Different fathers


To return
To become



The Qur'anic verse on inheritance


Father


Fatherhood
Paternity


Grandfathers


Grandchildren


More entitled


Laws of inheritance


Cases of inheritance


Brother of the deceased



Brother by suckling



Full brother



Half brother


Paternal brother


Maternal brother



Consanguine or uterine brother


Sister of the deceased


Paternal aunt


Full paternal aunt

16-06-2004, 05:52 AM


Full maternal aunt


Half maternal aunt


Sister by suckling


Full sister


Half sister


Paternal sister


Maternal sister



Proofs of inheritance


Lands



The eldest adult child in the family


Causes of inheritance


Reasons of consanguinity


Causes of inheritance


Heirs of surplus redistribution



Heirs of shares prescribed by the Holy Qur'an



Original number of shares : The minimum integer that can be divided without fractions



Ascendant and descendant heirs of the deceased



Ancestors
Forefathers


Ancestors of the deceased


To beget
To have offspring

16-06-2004, 05:53 AM


Relatives
Kinsmen


To be in a lower hereditary degree than them


Mother of the deceased



Mother by suckling



Different mothers


Kinds of wills



To bequeath
To give by will
To transfer by will



Ascertainment of death


Brotherhood



Full brothers



When the deceased leaves a father and a daughter



When the deceased leaves a consanguine grandfather and a full brother



When the newborn baby is verified to be alive


When the lost person is judged to be dead



Inheritance


The inheritance of Al-Mukatab


A testator harming his inheritors


Son of the deceased


Son of a brother, however low


Son of a brother

16-06-2004, 05:54 AM


Son of a sister


Grandson


Son of a daughter


Son of a full maternal uncle


Son of a full paternal uncle


Son of a half paternal uncle


Daughter of a brother by suckling


Entitled to a share of one-sixth


Difference in place of residence


Difference in religion


Co-inheritance


Consanguine or uterine sister



One's eligibility for inheritance


Brothers


,
Receiving a prescribed share of inheritance


Females


Rest


Search and investigation


Daughter of the deceased



Al-Takharuj : Compromise among the inheritors for a sum of money

16-06-2004, 05:55 AM



Estate
Property



Share defragmentation : Distributing the total shares of the estate to the minimum integer that can be divided without fraction


Giving priority to the nearest relative


Bequeathing


One-third


Two-thirds


Distant grandfather


Uterine grandfather


Uterine grandfather


Grandfather


Grandfather of the deceased how so ever high



Barrier
Obstacle


Exclusion (of being an heir)



Exclusion from inheritance : An heir's total or partial exclusion from the inheritance because of the presence of a certain person


Collateral relatives


Males


One-fourth
Quarter



Surplus redistribution [Al-Radd] : If there is something left over of the estate after the prescribed heirs take their shares, and there is no agnate heir to take over the remainder portion, this portion is to be redistributed among the prescribed heirs, each according to his share.


One-sixth



Agnate relatives : Relatives of the father or male side only

16-06-2004, 05:56 AM


:
Causative relationship : This relationship is of two kinds: a relationship through emancipation which implies the freed-slave's loyalty to his emancipator and relationship through a contract of clientage



Being an agnate relative by the presence of a certain other relative : This refers to the female heirs with the presence of male ones, chiefly brothers



Being an agnate relative


Knowing the source of inheritance


1- 2-
Al-`Umariyatan [The Two `Umariyatan] Questions : Two cases; the first of which involves a husband, a father and a mother; the second involves a wife, a father and a mother



Reduction of the heirs' shares
Deficit redistribution


Rules of inheritance


Prescribed share


Descendant of the deceased



Ordained shares
Prescribed shares


Kinship


Assumptive relationship



Estate administrator



Al-Kalalah : The deceased who leaves neither ascendants nor descendants



Impediment : Heir whose presence results in the disinheritance of another


The deceased


:
Al-Akdariyah [Al-Akdariyah] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a husband, a mother and a paternal or full sister


:
Al-Thalathiniyah [The Thirtieth] Question : A case involving a wife, a mother, 2 uterine sisters, 2 full sisters and a murderer son


:
Al-Hajariyah [The Rock] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and one or more full brothers


:
Al-Himariyah [The Donkey] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and one or more full brothers

16-06-2004, 05:56 AM


:
Al-Hamziyah [The Hamziyah] Question : A case involving a grandfather, 3 grandmothers of equal ranks, and 3 sisters of different ranks; full, paternal and uterine


:
Al-Kharqa' [The Debatable] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a mother and a sister


:
Al-Dawudiyah [The Dawudiyah] Question : A case involving a grandmother, a wife, 2 daughters, 12 brothers and a full sister


:
Al-Dinariyah [The Dinariyah] Question : A case involving a grandmother, a wife, 2 daughters, 12 brothers and a full sister


:
Al-Shuraihiyah [The Shuriahiyah] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine sisters and 2 full sisters


:
Al-`Uthmaniyah [The `Uthmaniyah] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a mother and a sister


:
Al-`Umariyah [The `Umariyah Question] : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers, and one or more full brothers


:
Al-Gharra' [The Glittering] Question : A case involving a husband and 6 sisters of different ranks; full, paternal and uterine


:
Al-Ma'muniyah [The Ma'muniyah] Question : A case involving a father, a mother and 2 daughters, one of whom is dead leaving the others as heirs


:
Al-Malikiyah [The Malikiyah] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and paternal brothers


:
Al-Marwaniyah [The Marwaniyah] Question : A case involving a husband and 6 sisters of different ranks; full, paternal and uterine


:
Al-Musaddasah [Hexagonal Question] : A case involving a grandfather, a mother and a sister


:
Al-Mushtarakah [The Collective] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and one or more full brothers


:
Al-Musharrakah [The Combined Question] : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and one or more full brothers


:
Al-Minbariyah [The Pulpit] Question : A case involving a wife, a father, a mother and two daughters


:
Al-Yammiyah [the Sea] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine brothers and one or more full brothers


Criminal liability



Controversial cases : Cases concerning which there is much debate among the jurists


Lost person


One whose blood relationship has been acknowledged by the estate holder

16-06-2004, 05:57 AM



Al-Munasakhah : Redistribution of the estate due to the death of one or more heirs


Movable property


Actual Death



The estate holder



The inherited object


Legatee : The inheritor of a legacy



Testator : One who has made a legally valid will before his death


One-half


Inheritor
Heir



Inheritor by virtue of consanguinity only



Inheritor by virtue of prescribed share only


Inheritor by virtue of both prescribed share and consanguinity


Female heirs
Heiresses


Male heirs
Heirs


Obligatory bequest


Bequeathal of less than one third of the property



Bequeathal of one third


The will concerning a slave


The will concerning emancipation of a slave


Bequest of services

16-06-2004, 05:58 AM



The will to take care of one's offspring


Bequeathal of the whole property


The will concerning a specific thing


Non-monetary bequest
The will concerning things other than money



The will to repay a debt


Making a legacy for a group of people


Bequeathing a portion for one's relatives


Bequeathing a portion for a slave


Bequeathing a portion for an absentee


Bequeathing a portion for a rich person


Bequeathing a portion for polytheists


Bequeathing a portion for freed slaves


Bequeathing a portion for women


Bequeathing an extra portion for an heir



Al-Wala' [Loyalty] : A peculiar relationship voluntarily established which confers a right of inheritance on one or both parties connected


Loyalty to the emancipator's heirs


If the descendant inheritors are absent


By virtue of agnation


Bequest invalidity


According to one's allotted share

16-06-2004, 05:59 AM


To attain full maturity
To come of legal age


To come of age (puberty)


Daughter of one's brother


Daughter of one's sister


Daughter of one's son


Daughter of one's daughter


Daughter of one's maternal uncle


Daughter of one's maternal aunt


Stepdaughter


Consanguine daughter


Daughter of one's paternal uncle



Maternal brothers



Full brothers (of the same parents)


Offspring of one's daughters



Paternal brothers


To be handed over to the public treasury


Date of registering the death


Five rights are deducted from the estate


Contingent estate


Estate without claimant

16-06-2004, 06:00 AM


Testamentary inheritance


Estate in abeyance


Estate burdened by debt


Future estate


Writing more than one will


By agnation


Division
Distribution


Legacy fulfillment


Heredity
Delivery of inheritance


Inheriting the diyah [Blood money]


The spouses' inheritance from each other


Inheritance of alms


Estate distribution


Formerly married woman


Grandfather


Paternal grandfather


Maternal grandfather


Grandmother


Proper grandmother : A grandmother related to one through his father


Paternal grandmother

16-06-2004, 06:01 AM


Maternal grandmother


Collectively or individually


Unknown heir


Unknown date of death


Hajib : Heir whose presence results in the disinheritance of another


In one's life


Exceptional case


Total exclusion


Excluded by the presence of



Partial exclusion


Exclusion from inheritance
Disinheritance


Calculating shares


Payable accounts
Debt accounts



Calculations for distributing the estate



Share


Share allotted to repay debts


Listing of the deceased's property


Determining those entitled to inheritance
Listing the heirs


Shares of inheritance


Grandson

16-06-2004, 06:01 AM


Granddaughter


Primogeniture : The right of the eldest child, especially the eldest son, to inherit the entire estate of one or both parents


Right of compensation


Rights of inheritance


By legal verdict
Judicially


Mother-in-law


The survival of the heir


Assumptive life
Assumed alive


Actual life


Relationship of the maternal uncle


Maternal uncle


Full maternal uncle


Half maternal uncle


Maternal aunt


Full maternal aunt


Half maternal aunt


One-fifth



Debts due


Children
Offspring
Progeny



Blood relatives
Cognates

16-06-2004, 06:02 AM


Those entitled to prescribed shares


Relatives
Relations
Kindred
Kinsmen


Special cause


Securities
Stocks



Heirs' shares


Share


Conditions of inheritance


Co-heiress


Net estate


In ascending order


Relatives on the paternal side
Clan


Real estate



Children
Offspring
Progeny


Genealogy : The study or investigation of ancestry and family histories



The study of the rules of inheritance


.
The study of inheritance


Full paternal uncle


Half paternal uncle


Full paternal aunt


Half paternal aunt

16-06-2004, 06:03 AM


Unclehood


In default of


Female descendant


Male descendant


Heir descendant
Inheritor


Shares prescribed by marriage


Shares prescribed by blood kinship



Descendants of the deceased



Nearest relatives in a tribe


Within the scope of its fulfillment


The method of surplus redistribution



Blood relationship
Consanguinity


Relationship by suckling


Affinity relationship


, ,
Blood relationship


Consanguinity


Relationship that justifies inheritance



Settlement of debts


Writing the bequest
Documentation of testament


No inheritance between a Muslim and a non-Muslim

16-06-2004, 06:04 AM



Male takes as much as the share of two females


Prescribed shares have not consumed the whole estate


Proprietary
Of or relating to proprietor or proprietors as a group



Inherited


The total estate


Excluded



The denominator of the question


Last illness


:
Umm Al-Aramil [The Mother of Widows] Question : A case involving 2 grandmothers, 3 wives, 4 uterine sisters and 8 full sisters


:
Umm Al-Furukh [The Mother of Chicks] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, 2 uterine sisters and 2 full sisters


:
Al-Akh Al-Mubarak [The Blessed Brother] Question : A case involving 2 full sisters, a paternal sister and a paternal brother


:
Al-Akh Al-Mash'um [The Ominous Brother] Question : A case involving a husband, a full sister, a paternal sister and a paternal brother



Al-Imtihan [The Examination] Question : A case involving 4 wives, 5 grandmothers, 7 daughters and 9 paternal sisters


:
Al-Qarib Al-Mubarak [The Blessed Relative] Question : A case involving 2 daughters, a granddaughter and a son of a grandson



Al-Qarib Al-Mash'um [The Ominous Relative] Question : A case involving a husband, a father, a mother, a daughter, a granddaughter and a grandson


:
Al-Mubahalah [The Refutation] Question : A case involving a husband, a mother, and a full sister


1- 2-
Al-Yatimatan [The Two Unique] Questions : Two cases; the first of which involves a husband and a full sister; the second involves a husband and a paternal sister


:
Shibh Al-Malikiyah [The Quasi-Maliki] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a husband, a mother, uterine brothers and full brothers


:
Mukhtasarat Zaid [Zaid's Abridged] Question : A case involving a grandfather, a mother, a full sister, a paternal brother and a paternal sister


Cases of inheritance

16-06-2004, 06:05 AM


One's debts due


Legality of will


Gold ornaments


Funeral expenses


The amount of a legacy


The total estate



Immovable property


Movable property


Property
Possessions



One who intentionally kills the estate holder


Who are the relatives and kindred



Disinheriting


However high


However low



Impediments of inheritance
Impediments to receiving inheritance


Resultant impediments


Actual impediments


Death of the estate holder


Death of the legatee


Presumed death

16-06-2004, 06:06 AM


Death announced by a judge



Dedicated to an unborn child


Inheritance


The inheritance of a foundling



Inheritance and loyalty of Al-Mukatab


Inheritance of the child of Li`an


In descending order


Kinship



Marital relation


Half a quarter
One-eighth


Portion
Share


Widow's portion of her late husband's estate


Funeral expenses


Transfer of rights and obligations


However high


However low


Legal heir


Inheriting or being excluded from inheritance


Father


Parents

16-06-2004, 06:07 AM


Mother


Women's inheritance of loyalty


To inherit


Heir
Inheritor


Trustee



Will
Bequest : A legal declaration of how a person wishes his or her possessions to be disposed of after death.


Voluntary bequest


Will of the deceased


Alternative will


Future will


Conditional will


Loyalty by virtue of Imamate (leadership)



Loyalty by virtue of emancipation : Relationship between a master and a manumitted slave, in which the former inherits any property the latter may acquire after being released from servitude



Consanguine child


Disinherit


Likely to have died

16-06-2004, 06:08 AM

16-06-2004, 06:10 AM


Proprieties of selling


Blight
Damage



Usurer



Mutilated
Maimed



To pay wages


The wages due to a slave
()

The hire of a prostitute


The hire of a cupper


The hire of a shepherd


The hire for exorcism


The hire of a broker


The hire of a weigher



To postpone
To delay



Appointed term
Appointed time



Specified time


Wages
Fees


A person hired for service
Laborer
Hireling


One of the two fixed terms


Judgments concerning neighborhood and common utilities


Taking money with the intention of repaying it

16-06-2004, 06:11 AM



The lesser of two evils


To cause to come
To pay back
To restore


Cubits


More numerous
To practice usury (interest-taking)



Land of Al-Hauz : Land reverted to the public treasury of a Muslim state after the death of its heirless owner



Publicly-owned land


Markets
Trading centers


Non-commutable objects


Non-consumable objects


Consumable objects


= 1,944
Asbu` : A standard measure of length that equals 1.944 centimeter


The best kind of selling


To practice usury
To take an interest



To encroach upon someone's rights



Devouring the orphan's property


Categories of usury (interest-taking)



Legal competence of a testator
Eligibility


= 31,7475
Gold oke : A standard measure of weight that equals 31.7475 grams


= 112,512
Silver oke : A standard measure of weight that equals 112.512 grams



The absconding of slaves

16-06-2004, 06:12 AM


Spoiling what is illegal



Transference of a debt from one person to another


Transference the debt of a dead person


ǡ
Cultivating barren land : A legal term for the cultivation of wastes


= 25128
Irdabb : A standard measure that equals 25128 grams


= 18,483
Istar : A standard measure of weight that equals 18.483 grams


Squandering money


Limitation (of a legal transaction)



Bankruptcy of a purchaser



Feudality : The system of holding all land in fief or fee and the resulting relation of lord to vassal


Feudality of metals


Giving barren land as a fief



For an indefinite period


For a limited period
For a definite time



Announcing a lost object in the mosque


A concession of delay



Granting a delay to the insolvent debtor


The husband's donation to some of his wives


Offering a present to someone in front of others



Urging a riding animal to walk rapidly

16-06-2004, 06:13 AM


To be entrusted with the custody of anything



Blackmail



Unity of the meeting : The sale contract should be concluded in a meeting


Concluding the exchange contract in a meeting


Cautiousness
Caution
Prudence


Precautionary
Preventive



Monopoly of goods and articles



Usurpation



Dispute between the mortgagor and mortgagee


Disagreement between the buyer and seller


Disagreement between the proprietor and the speculator


To be mixed with



To receive bribes


Hiring a servant


Hiring a righteous man


A Muslim hiring a polytheist


A polytheist hiring a Muslim


To deserve


Taking the orphan as a servant in travel



Incurrence of debts
Borrowing money

16-06-2004, 06:14 AM



Land reclamation


Using cows for plowing



Borrowing


Borrowing an animal


To draw lots by means of headless arrows


Mutual consent is a must in selling


Stipulating loan in selling



Stipulating the usefulness of the sold object


To stipulate


Setting a sign between one and his agent


Usurping others' property


To deduct


Keeping a dog


Keeping a watch dog for cultivated land


To acquire
To gain


The hire


Fixed term
Duration
Due date


Who deserves the article after it has been overbidden


Those who most have the right to water


He who deserves the present most

16-06-2004, 06:15 AM



Rented land



Owned land


Fruitless land
Barren lands


Common objects


Items not involved in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Items involved in the Delay [Al-Nasi'ah] Usury


Trust in partnership


The command to repay debts


Public money


Donated property (for charitable purposes)


Spoilage



Hiring


Hiring someone till midday


Hiring someone from late afternoon till night


Transference


Attestation to


Seeking testimony on the gift



Witnessing an endowment


Authorization



Al-I`arah : Lending an object for temporary use on condition that the same object be returned

16-06-2004, 06:39 AM



Al-Iqalah : Reversal of sale contract at the behest of the other party



Giving measure and weight with justice


Hiring someone to do a work later on


Hiring during war


Entrusts



Contract for manufacture


Asking Allah's refuge from debt



Utilization
Making use of
Exploitation


Making use of the mortgage


Utilizing a finding


Sowing
Seeding
Strewing



Unripe dates


Building and planting on others' land



Barren land



Absolute sale



Invalid sale : The Muslim selling of unlawful things such as wine, pigs ... etc.



Final sale


Selling in installments


Offering to buy something already bought by another Muslim


Selling in markets

16-06-2004, 06:40 AM


Transacting with women


Lawful sales


Prohibited sales



Donations


Trading in alcohol


Maritime trade


Trade on land


Trading in what is disliked



Deception : A legal term for concealing a defect in a commodity


Managing affairs



Disposing of the freed slave's inheritance


Financial transactions



Raising buildings



Bankruptcy : A debtor that is judged legally insolvent


Finding a small amount of money



Restrictions


Documentations


Agency in money



Unripe fruits



Harvesting the dates

16-06-2004, 06:42 AM



Palm pith


Fetus


Prizes



Neighborhood


Grain
Seed


Urging
Exhortations


Exhortation to lend


Exhortation to work to earn living


Exhortation to earn money


Guarding
Watching
Sentry duty


Trades and handicrafts



Handful


Swearing regarding a commodity


Swearing in selling and purchasing



Refuge
Shelter
Patronage
Advocacy



Al-Hawalah : Transference of a debt from one person to another


Shared money
Joint property


Option in selling


Option in aleatory sales


Horses

16-06-2004, 06:43 AM


Tanning


Supplication when buying and selling


Supplication upon entering the market


= 62,208
Hashimi Dhira` [Cubit] : A standard measure of length that equals 62.208 centimeters



Briber



Mortgagor
Pawner


Usury in debt


Revocation


Revocation in transferring debts


Revocation of the gift


Bribe



Consent in selling


Iraqi rotl: 384.240 gram


Pasture of herbage



Al-Ruqba : A kind of donation given on provisions as to death of the donor or the recipient



Resort to
Reliance on


Resort to working in agriculture



Usury
Interest


Bet
Wager
Stake


Mortgaging with the Jews

16-06-2004, 06:44 AM


Payment in advance [Al-Salam] in case of mortgage


Excess in the hire


Clamor in markets


Loan
Advance
Free loan


Payment in advance [Al-Salam] when buying fruits


Payment in advance [Al-Salam] when buying raisins


Payment in advance [Al-Salam] when buying food


Payment in advance [Al-Salam] when buying palms


Tolerance in buying and selling



Broker
Middleman



Overbidding
Bargaining


Overbidding the offer of another one



Sale against a debt


Partnership in land


Partnership in selling


Partnership in food


Partnership in spoils


Partnership in water


Partnership in a gift


Partnership with a non-Muslim

16-06-2004, 06:45 AM


Stipulations in selling


Stipulations in loan


Conditions of partnership in Al-Muzara`ah [Sharecropping]


Conditions of Al-Mudarabah [Speculation]


Conditions of an endowment



Al-Shuf`ah [Preemption] : The right of purchasing before others


Preemption by neighborhood


Preemption in dividing the partnership


Preemption in what has not been divided yet


Witnessing a will



Unobtainable object


ǡ
Guarantor
Warrantor
Guarantee


Necessity knows no laws



Money deemed irrecoverable


Guarantee is the responsibility of the surety


Guarantee is the responsibility of the trustee


The spoiler's guarantee of what he spoiled


Guaranteeing the debt of a dead person



Guarantees



The lent object should be returned

16-06-2004, 06:46 AM



The two parties of the hiring contract



Pressed dates : One of the best kinds of dates


Perfumes dealer
Spice dealer



Determining the term in selling with payment in advance [Al-Salam]


Determining the measurement in selling with payment in advance [Al-Salam]


Getting information about the sold object


Determining the weight in selling with payment in advance [Al-Salam]



Al-`Umra : The gift for life span


Labor by hand
Hand work


Labor by hand is a charity


The seller is responsible for any defects



Guarantor
Warrantor


Implanting



Creditors



Extortion
Usurpation



Roughness in asking for the repayment of debts



Intrusive person
Curious person


The ability to deliver the sold object to the buyer



Loan


Loan for a definite term

16-06-2004, 06:47 AM



Distribution
Division
Partition
Dividing



Feudal estates



Guardian of endowments



Telling lies regarding a commodity


Profit
Revenue
Gain



Suretyship : The pledge given by somebody to a creditor to guarantee that the debtor will be present at a certain specific place to pay his debt for fine, or to undergo a punishment


Suretyship on behalf of a dead person


Suretyship in debts



Guarantor
Surety
Bailsman



Measurement scale



Just measure and weigh



Finding lost things
Found money



The finding is a consignment



Cattle



Mutual discharge



The sold object
The sold thing



The seller and the buyer


Spoiler


Unknown object



Al-Muhaqalah : The sale of wheat still in ears for pure wheat (in growth)

16-06-2004, 06:48 AM



Al-Muhtasib [Disciplinary] : An official appointed by a Muslim ruler, to enjoin what is right, and to forbid what is wrong


Crop
Harvest



Al-Mukhabarah : Sharecropping


Common utilities


Bribee


Mortgagee



Al-Muzabanah : The sale of fresh dates for dried ones by measure; with the dried dates unmeasured while the fresh ones are only as they are uncut



Al-Muzara`ah [Sharecropping] : Giving over land to the charge of another party on condition of receiving a fixed proportion of its produce


Partnership in cultivation with sharing in half


Sharing with the Jews in cultivation



Competition



Al-Musaqah : A compact entered into by two persons, by which it is agreed that one shall deliver over to another his fruit trees to water and care for in the proportion of one half, one third or the like, as it may be stipulated



The lease holder


Partnerships



Commonly owned object
Common property
Public property


Joint
Common
Shared



Unspecified public interests : Interests concerning which there is no text to consider them lawful or unlawful


ȡ
Al-Musarrah : An animal whose udder is tied up to accumulate milk, thus deceiving the buyer



Warranted
Guaranteed
Safe



Contracting

16-06-2004, 06:49 AM



Transactions


Selling barren land


Agreement on taking half of dates yearly as a tribute


Transacting with polytheists



Commutative contracts



Al-Mu`awamah : Sale contract for years in a row, such as selling the fruits of certain trees for several years for a price to be specified by the parties concerned



Examining the article before buying


Giver
Donor
Donator
Granter


The items of a hiring contract



Al-Mugharasah [Implantation] : A contract between two persons, on the basis of which one gives his orchard to the other to implant it for a portion of its fruits


A debt that must be paid
A forced loan


Al-Mughram : One who is involved in debt or laid under an obligation


Reward in donation



Measurements



Al-Mulamasah : A prohibited suspicious transaction based on compulsory purchase after touching the object for sale


768,480
Mann (a measure that equals 786,480 grams)


,
Al-Munabadhah : Prohibited transaction whereby the buyer is unaware of exactly what he has purchased


Struggling


Whoever lies in trade



Movable object

16-06-2004, 06:51 AM



Uncultivated lands


Weights


The endowed object
The consecrated object


One to whom the endowment is donated



Impure object


Advice in selling


Prohibition of devouring others' property


Prohibition of spending property in vain



Gift
Donation


Presents for governors


Present
Gift
Donation


Offering a present to a couple at their wedding


A present for the polytheists



Donator
Giver
Granter



Deposit
Consignment


Weigher


Weight


Promising to give a prize to the audience



Al-Waqf [Religious Endowment] : A legal term that signifies the appropriation or dedication of property for charitable uses and the service of Allah. The object of such an endowment must be of perpetual nature and can not be sold or transferred.


Endowment for relatives

16-06-2004, 06:52 AM


Endowment for the rich and the poor



Agency
Authorization
Power of attorney



Agency in selling


Agency in spending and weighing


Agency in endowment


Agency in repaying debts


The utilization of an endowment by the donor


Deception
Delusion
Illusion


Show promptitude


=186,62
Ba` : A standard measure of length that equals 186.62 centimeters


In installments



Honestly
Really
Seriously


Sharing in half


With reasonable manner
Amicably
In a friendly manner



To diminish
To decrease
To reduce
To underestimate



Reduced (price)
Diminution


Wheat


Wheat


The blessing of palm trees



Barni : A kind of dates with good quality

16-06-2004, 06:53 AM


= 22394,88
Barid : A standard measure of length that equals 22394.88 meters


On condition
As long as



Commodity
Merchandise
Goods



Invalidity of the contract


Camel


Young camel


With all reservation


Selling
Transaction


Selling female slaves who have born children to their masters


Selling idols


Selling an adulteress slave



The sale of Al-Istisna` : Sale in the form of a contract for manufacture



Selling wheat against wheat in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury



Simulated sale
Protective sale


Selling dates against dates in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


:
Release at cost price



Selling unripe fruits



Selling fruits before picking them



Selling involving exception



The sale of Al-Juzaf [Sale in gross] : Selling articles of uncertain quantity

16-06-2004, 06:54 AM



Selling palm pith



Aleatory transaction


:
An urban dweller's selling for a Bedouin


Selling a free man



Al-Hasah Sale : The selling of the commodity on which the pebbles fall


Selling an animal against meat


Selling alcohol


Selling pigs


Selling a house or real estate and purchasing something similar



Selling dirhams against dinars in the Delay [Al-Nasi'ah] Usury


Selling blood


Selling dinar against dinar in the Delay [Al-Nasi'ah] Usury


Selling gold against gold in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling raisins against raisins in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling plants against wheat



The sale of Payment in Advance [Al-Salam] : A contract involving an immediate payment of the price, and admitting a delay in the delivery of the articles purchased



Sale for years : Selling a commodity and delaying its delivery for years


Selling trees without the land in which they are planted


The partner's selling


Selling from one's partner's share

16-06-2004, 06:55 AM


Selling barley against barley in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling an object before possessing it



Money exchange


Selling pictures


Selling food against food in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling an adulterer slave



Sale of Al-`Araya : A contract of barter in dates in which the owner is allowed to sell the fresh dates while they are still over the palms by means of estimation, for dried plucked dates.



Earnest sale : In this kind of sale the buyer pays some of the cost to the seller. If the buyer takes the goods, the paid money will be part of the price. On the other hand, if the buyer rejected the goods, the paid money would be to the seller.


Selling grapes against raisins


Selling grapes to an alcohol maker



Sale of Al-Gharar : An aleatory transaction such as selling or buying something which is not present or known


Selling spoils before sharing them out


Selling silver against silver in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling by the unauthorized agent


Selling feudal estates


Selling dogs



Selling unknown or unseen objects


Sale of Al-Mukhadarah : The sale of grain or vegetables before they are ripe



Selling in auction or a public sale


Selling stolen objects

16-06-2004, 06:55 AM


Selling musk and perfumes


Selling common property


Selling the sheep whose milk has been made to accumulate in the udder



Barter sale
Bartering


Selling Al-Mukatab : Slave who has a contract of manumission


The sale managed by a coerced person


Selling salt against salt in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Selling a dead animal


Selling filthy things



Al-Najsh [Exciting] : The prohibited practice of enhancing the price of goods, by making a tender for them without any intention of buying, but merely to incite others to offer a higher price.


Selling palms against dates


Selling cats


Selling silver against silver in the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


ǡ
Resale at a loss


Sale of Al-Wala' : An emancipator's selling of his right of loyalty over his freed slave



Sale on credit


Optional sale


Selling fruits against other fruits



Selling a fetus before it is born


Hiring a male animal for fertilization

16-06-2004, 06:56 AM



Selling the remainder of water


Selling undeliverable things


Selling what cannot be possessed


Selling what one does not possess


Selling a bastard


The double sale



Pollination of palms (artificial fertilization)


Offering oneself to be hired


Hiring an object already hired before


Delaying the will


Reclaiming sterile land by adding fertile soil


Specifying the term of hiring


Stirring up beasts


Mutual disputing and recrimination


Precautionary measure
Precaution
Safety measure


Fraudulent
Deceitful
Deceptive


Regulating the irrigation of trees


The hired person relinquishing his hire


Ignoring a finding



Pricing goods and articles

16-06-2004, 06:58 AM


Fattening cattle



Leveling the ground



The agent dispensing without permission


Hastening in paying the hire



Prompt recording
Hastening to record deals and financial transactions



Declaring the finding of something lost


Compensation


Authorizing the agent to do whatever he thinks right



Valuation of common objects


Fruit damage



Receiving caravans



Documenting sales



Documentation of debts


Documenting the contract of Al-Mudarabah [Speculation]



Avoiding
Cautiousness



Avoiding what is unlawful in buying and selling


Appointing one's partner as an agent


Bleat of sheep


Price
Charge
Cost



To cut off

16-06-2004, 06:59 AM
()

= 373,248
Jarib : A standard measure of area used for land survey that equals 373.248 meters
()

= 10425
Jarib : A standard measure that equals 10425 grams


Palm branches



Allowances
Wages
Payments
Hire or reward of labor



To be in need of


= 0,0586
Habbah : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.0586 grams



Refraining from delivering the mortgage



The offspring of the fetus of a pregnant animal


Stony ground



Field
Cultivated ground
Fruits of the earth
Arable land


Sanctity of money


ǡ ǡ
The precincts of wells
Unapproachable surroundings of wells



The precincts of trees


Reaping
Harvesting



To reap
To harvest
To crop


Harvest


Right of possession


Right to water


Preemption


Right of one's fellow man

16-06-2004, 06:59 AM


People's rights to what is cultivated



Judgment on wasting money


Judgment on usury (interest-taking)


Judgment on extortion


Judgment pertaining to the Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury


Judgment pertaining to the Delay [Al-Nasi'ah] Usury


Milking cattle without permission



Debt's maturity



Debt's maturity after the debtor's death


Protection of property


To mix oneself up in the affairs of others



Land taxation


Mustard seed


= 0,000976
Khardalah : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.000976 grams



Estimating fruits


To suffer loss
To lose



Poverty
Privation
Need


Specification of genus


Specification of the object in question


Specification of species

16-06-2004, 07:00 AM


Abduction
Kidnapping


= 93,31
Khatwah : A standard measure of length that equals 93.31 centimeters



Option : A term used to express a certain period after the conclusion of a bargain, during which either of the parties may cancel it



Option of determination : In this case a person, having purchased two or three things, stipulates a period to make his selection


ǡ
Option of deceit : The buyer's choice not to conclude the bargain because of the seller's deceit



Option of inspection : The option of rejecting the thing purchased after sight



Option of stipulation : Optional condition where one of the parties stipulates for a certain period



Option of contract



Option of defect
Option of fault : The option of dissolving the contract on discovery of defect



Option of deception : To sell a certain commodity for a price more than its true or actual value


Option of money



Option during the session : Right of unilateral repudiation of contract during the session of sale


The best of witnesses



Creditor
Debtor


Beast
Animal



Daniq : Coin equal to one-sixth of a dirham


= 0,486
Daniq : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.468 grams


Dirham (silver coin)


= 2,988
Dirham weight for things : A standard measure of weight that equals 2.988 grams


= 2,812
Silver dirham : A standard measure of weight that equals 2.812 grams

16-06-2004, 07:02 AM


= 3,75
Dirham Baghli : A standard measure of weight that equals 3.75 grams


To swindle
To cheat
To counterfeit
To falsify


Riding animals
Beasts


Continuance
Duration


The debt of a martyr


The debt of a dead person



Gross debt : Claims against an estate which exceed or equal the assets


Absolute debt : Debt not bound to the physical person of the debtor, but outliving him


Consolidated debt


Dinar (gold coin)


Debts of the pre-Islamic period


= 46,656
Common Dhira` [Cubit] : A standard measure of length that equals 46.656 centimeters


= 0,0000002
Dharrah : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.0000002 grams


= 39,96
Dhahab : A standard measure that equals 39.96 grams



The needy
Indigent



To lend money to any one upon usury
Practice usury


Shepherd
Herdsman



Possessor of property
Proprietor


Usury (Interest-taking)


To increase
To grow
To mount up

16-06-2004, 07:03 AM



Excess [Al-Fadl] Usury : To sell a certain amount of anything for a greater quantity of the same thing



Delay [Al-Nasi'ah] Usury : Conditioned excess for delay
To take interest on lent money


Four by four


Goat stable
Stall


One-fourth



Guarantor's responsibility toward the guaranteed


Turning the beggar away


Returning an equal amount


Rejecting a present


Fruit badness


To bribe


Rotl


= 1350,144
Silver rotl : A standard measure of weight that equals 1350.144 grams


= 384,240
Rotl for things : A standard measure of weight that equals 384.240 grams



Pasturage of sheep



Mortgage : A legal term which signifies the detention of a thing on account of a claim which may be answered by means of that thing, as in the case of debt


Mortgaging a shield


Mortgaging a weapon


Given in pledge
Pawned
Given as security


Farmer
Sower
Planter
Cropper
Cultivator

16-06-2004, 07:04 AM


Asking for a gift


Sixth part
One-sixth



To take a sixth part


Blocking rivers (dams)



Sheep



Preemptor
One who has the right of purchasing before others


= 23,328
Shibr : A standard measure of length that equals 23.328 centimeters



Confusedness of a contract


Purchasing
Buying



Stipulated right of cancellation : Condition of the right of withdrawal from a contract, a commercial transaction, an obligation, and the like.



Condition of validity



Condition of work in Al-Musaqah contract



Condition of irrevocability



Condition of efficacy


Partnership with orphans and inheritors


Conditions of selling


Conditions of the payment in advance [Al-Salam]


Verbal requisites


= 0,054
Sha`rat Al-Baghl [An hair of a mule] : A standard measure of length that equals 0.054 centimeters


= 0,324
Sha`irah : A standard measure of length that equals 0.324 centimeters

16-06-2004, 07:05 AM


To give the right of preemption to



Preemptor


Owner
Possessor



One who cuts or gathers fruit


= 2172
Sa` : A standard measure that equals 2172 grams


Contract validity



Purse [money bag]


To make manifest
To declare
To express
To announce


Conclusion of a contract
Deal
Bargain
Transaction



Contract
Legal instrument or document


Fruit edibility


To traffic with one's property for a share in the profit


Wandering camels
Lost camel


Wandering sheep
Lost sheep



Responsible
Liable



Responsibility
Insurance
Guarantee


Guarantee of mortgage


Guaranteeing the lent object



Guarantee by whoever digs a well



Preemptor

16-06-2004, 07:06 AM


= 0,1127
Tassuj : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.1127 grams


To seek
To demand
To ask for



Demand of possession


Asking for the right of preemption



Selling a lawful object


Pure money



Loan
Gift


Contracting party
Legally competent to contract



To make a covenant
To promise
To vow



Beast


Non-identification of the endowed object


Unspecified recipient of the endowment


Bare place


To stamp cloth with the figure of date-stalk



A dry date-stalk


To make an offer


Temporal goods or advantage



Offering preemption to one who deserves it



Belongings
Supplies
Goods


Commercial commodities

16-06-2004, 07:07 AM



A palm branch stripped of its leaves
Palm-leaf stalks



To demand with harshness the repayment of a loan


Difficulty
Adversity


Gift
Donation
Present


Man's donation to his son


The wife offering a donation without her husband's permission


Real estate


To strike a bargain
To conclude a contract


Contract
Agreement


Contract of guarding


Contract of Dhimmah : Covenant of protection giving to free non-Muslims living in Muslim countries for a tribute they pay


Commutative contract


Contract of allegiance



She-goat


To enjoin
To command
To stipulate
o covenant



Pledge
Vow
Promise
Commitment
Engagement
Covenant


Obligation
Responsibility
Charge
Custody



Compensation
Recompense
Substitute


Evident usury



One in debt
Indebted

16-06-2004, 07:08 AM



Fraud or deceit in sales
Cheating


To deceive
To defraud
To cheat


Criminal fraud
Grave deception



Fine


To be in debt


Damage
Loss



Extortion of lands


= 186,624
Ghalwah : A standard measure of length that equals 186.624 meters


To ransom
To redeem


= 0,0001356
Fatil : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.0001356 grams


= 559875
Farsakh : A standard measure of length that equals 559875 meters


= 6516
Farq : A standard measure that equals 6516 grams


Invalidity of the contract


The merit of cultivation and planting


The merit of poverty


The remainder of water


= 0,000813
Fils : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.000813 grams


Indebted to someone
In someone's charge


In the cause of Allah


To take out
To take hold of
To catch

16-06-2004, 07:09 AM



The delivery of a gift


= 7,776
Qabdah : A standard measure of length that equals 7.776 centimeters


Consent
Acceptance
Approval
Assent


= 31,104
Qadam : A standard measure of length that equals 31.104 centimeters


= 6848
Qirbah : A measuring unit of water that equals 6848 grams


= 1086
Qist : A standard measure that equals 1086 grams


Division of partnership



Unfair division


= 3,73248
Qasabah : A standard measure of area, used for land survey, that equals 3.73248 square meters



Repaying debts


= 0,0000028
Qitmir : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.0000028 grams


= 26064
Qafiz : A standard measure that equals 26064 grams


= 160,5
Qullatan : A measuring unit of water that equals 160.5 grams


= 27,839
Qautali : A standard measure of weight that equals 27.893 grams


= 0,2004
Gold Qirat [Carat] : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.2004 grams


= 0,234
Qirat [Carat] of silver and other things : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.234 grams



To prepare or destine for anyone


Writing contracts of feudal estates


Registering an endowment


To write down
To prescribe
To scribe
To record
To register

16-06-2004, 07:10 AM


= 1563840
Kurr : A standard measure that equals 1563840 grams



Renting
Leasing



Renting land
Leasing land


Disapproval of the taking of debts and loans


Earnings
Gain


To gain
To acquire
To seek after
To gather (riches)


The gain of a blacksmith


The gain of a tailor



The gain of a goldsmith



The gain of a butcher


The gain of a carpenter


The gain of a weaver


Honestly-earned money



Ill-gotten money



Bail : Bail especially for due appearance of a person in a court



Assuming guardianship over an orphan



To guarantee
To warrant
To ensure



Measuring food before selling


= 1086
Kailajah : A standard measure that equals 1086 grams


Necessity has its (own) rules

16-06-2004, 07:11 AM


Entrusted
Trustee


Delayed
Postponed
Deferred


Objects valid for partnership


Undeliverable objects



What is permitted to be lent


What is detestable



One who concludes a bargain



Mithqal : Special kind of weight


The weight of a mustard seed



The weight of an atom
An atom's weight


=4,031
Mithqal weight for things : A standard measure of weight that equals 4.031 grams


=4,233
Gold Mithqal : A standard measure of weight that equals 4.233 grams



Session of contracting



Favoritism : The showing of special favor or interest in someone without doing the same with others



Forestaller
Monopolist


Having food with an orphan



Embezzler and defalcator


Garden


= 543
Mudd : A standard measure that equals 543 grams


The term of hiring

16-06-2004, 07:12 AM


Term of announcing the finding



A fraud who counterfeits the defect of a commodity in order to sell it


= 48870
Mudi : A standard measure that equals 48870 grams



Indebted



Usurer



Camel yard


= 44789,76
Marhalah : A standard measure of length that equals 44789.76 meters


Partnership in cultivation with an unauthorized agent



Owner of goods
Property owner


Legality of giving land as a fief


Legality of lending


Legality and merits of selling


Legality of mortgage



Legality of Al-Salam [Paying in Advance]


Legality of money exchange


Legality of endowment


Legality of the contract of allegiance


Interest
Advantage



Al-Mudarabah [Speculation] : A legal term that signifies a contract of partnership, of which the proprietor of the stock is entitled to a profit on account of the stock and the other party is entitled to a profit on account of his labor


Conformity

16-06-2004, 07:13 AM



One who deals in fraud



Procrastination


Procrastination of the rich


Unrestricted authority



Riding animal


One's treatment of his partner


Amount
Average
Rate


Poor
Straitened
Indigent


Determining the hire



What is meant by blight


Deceived
Defrauded
Cheated


With increase



Exchanging
Bartering
The sale of goods for goods


= 3258
Makkuk : A standard measure that equals 3258 grams


Possession
Ownership



The contracting party's possession of the sold object



Procrastination


= 768480
Mann : A standard measure of weight that equals 768.480 grams


In installments


Usefulness

16-06-2004, 07:14 AM


A purchaser dying in bankruptcy



The death of a donator before delivery


= 24,1866
Mil : A standard measure of length that equals 1866.24 meters



Camel's offspring


To copy
To transcribe



Delaying the repayment of an obligation by the rich



Ripeness



Spending by the custodian of an endowment


Valuable


To annul
To nullify
To invalidate


= 0,0000226
Naqir : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.0000226 grams


= 14,064
Nawah : A standard measure of weight that equals 14.064 grams


Intention of taking a finding


= 0,00000003
Haba'ah : A standard measure of weight that equals 0.00000003 grams



The gift of the couple : Exchanging donations between the two spouses


The gift of a slave


Woman's gift to someone other than her husband


Giving the donated object as a gift


The wedding gift


A present from the polytheists

16-06-2004, 07:15 AM


Offering what is detested to be worn as a present


Perishing of the lent object


Presence of money with the bankrupt


= 130320
Wasq : A standard measure that equals 130320 grams


Giving a buyer back the price he paid for fruits if they are blighted



To cancel or reduce a debt


Reduction or removal of a debt
Exempting someone from debt



Time of overbidding



Endowment of land to the mosque


An endowment by a group of people


Endowing a common property


Endowing movable objects


The agency of an honest person


Agency of an attendee or an absentee


To commission
To entrust
To deputize


= 11946
Waibah : A standard measure that equals 11946 grams


Delivered on the spot (hand to hand exchange

16-06-2004, 07:16 AM

16-06-2004, 07:17 AM


Etiquette of drinking


Etiquette of eating


The tool of slaughtering



Vessel
Container
Receptacle
Utensil


Gold vessels


Silver vessels


Tableware


Kitchenware


Glassware


Metal ware



Grass
Herbage
Pasture



To become addicted to
To addict oneself to


Hunting tools


To intoxicate
To inebriate
To make drunk


Permissible foods


Prohibited foods


Preferable foods


Disliked foods


Eating
Having food
Devouring


Eating cooked garlic and onion

16-06-2004, 07:18 AM


Eating locusts


Eating the flesh of donkeys


Eating snatched or stolen food


Eating horse meat


Eating fish



Eating Dabb : A type of lizards


Eating crows



The hound's eating from the game



Eating out of necessity



Eating manna and quails


Eating the flesh of a dead animal
Eating carrion


Eating whatever has canines or claws


Eating pork



Eating what is fed on wastes


Eating the meat of dead sea creatures
Eating the sea carrion


Kinds of food


Kinds of dead animals


Tarred pots



Geckos


Camels

16-06-2004, 07:19 AM



Cleaning what remains between one's teeth



Any food eaten with bread


Feeding the needy


Pot
Utensil
Vessel
Container



Letting the blood of the slaughtered animal gush out



Corking up bottles



Showing dislike of some kinds of food


To ferment
To undergo fermentation
To yeast



Twisting the spout of a water skin for drinking



To ask for food
To beg for food


To scoop up
To ladle


Eating moderately


Eating with one's right hand


Eating with three fingers



Eating on a table



Eating from the nearest side of the dish


Eating from all sides of the dish


Eating things in odd numbers


Eating too much
Voracity
Gluttony


Assembling at food

16-06-2004, 07:20 AM



Mentioning the name of Allah upon hunting



Mentioning the name of Allah before slaughtering



Picking up fallen food


Breathing in the drinking vessel


Jar



Eating two kinds of food at the same meal


Praising and invoking Allah after having food



Wine is the vessel of all sins


Alcohol made into vinegar



Slaughtering
Butchering


Offering a sacrifice to other than Allah


Mentioning the name of other than Allah before slaughtering



Slaughtering by cutting the throat and the upper part of the chest



Fresh ripe dates


Drinking with one's right hand


Drinking while standing or riding



Drinking from the skin's spout



Game
Hunting
Shooting



Throwing the game with small pebbles


Hunting with a spear

16-06-2004, 07:21 AM


Hunting with an arrow


Using a bow in hunting



Using a dog in hunting



Hunting with a heavy featherless blunt arrow


Using birds of prey in hunting


Hot foods


Planting is a charity


Planting in uncultivated land



The unbeliever eats to fill seven guts : The unbeliever eats only for pleasure



The believer eats to fill just one gut : The believer eats just to allay his hunger (or keep barely alive)



A tarred vessel in which alcohol is carried



Prohibition of hunting by throwing small pebbles at the animal


Performing ablution before and after having food


Separating meat from bones


Wheat



Delaying Prayer in the presence of food : Postponing Prayer until finishing up food



To drink
To swallow
To gulp down


The animal's movement after slaughtering



Rubbing the (baby's) mouth with some food



Slaughtering
Butchering

16-06-2004, 07:22 AM


Covering vessels


Directing the animal towards the Qiblah before slaughtering


Hungry
Starved
Starving
Famished


To be or become hungry
To feel hungry
To starve


Locust



A she-camel that can be slaughtered


Carcass



Bowl



Predatory birds



Hunger


Belly
Abdomen



Sharpening the blade before slaughtering


Lawful and good


To toast


Wheat


Whale


Serving the young and the old


Vinegar



Mixing unripe and ripe dates


Mixing dates and raisins

16-06-2004, 07:23 AM



Wine
Alcohol
Liquor
Alcoholic beverage
Intoxicant


Swine
Pig
Hog
Sow
Boar



To give much milk
To milk abundantly



Inviting pious people to food


Flour


Slaughtering dairy cattle


Animals slaughtered by nomads



Animals slaughtered by the People of the Book


Animals slaughtered by women or female slaves


Slaughtering a fetus



Clawed animal



Birds and animals with talons
Clawed birds or animals


Beasts with canines



To leave the animal graze freely


Loaf of bread


To sow seed
To cultivate land


Plant
Crop
Sowing
Planting


Ginger


The one who serves drinks last



The Lote-tree

16-06-2004, 07:24 AM


To water
To give drink to


Watering
Giving drink to


Platter
Plate
Dish
Bowl



Flaying the slaughtered animal
Skinning the slaughtered animal


Cat
Wildcat



Fine flour


Ewe : A female sheep, especially when full grown


Fat


Lard


Drink
Beverage
Syrup


Intoxicating drink
Alcoholic drink
Intoxicant


To drink


Drinking wine
Alcohol drinking



Drinking wine is an omen of the imminence of the Day of Judgment


People and beasts drinking from the river



Mouthful
Draught
Quaff
Dose


Conditions regulating eating from the slaughtered animal



Lardoon


Even number



Half a date

16-06-2004, 07:25 AM


To roast
Grill
Broil



Dish
Bowl
Platter


To cut off dates (from a tree)


:
The side of the slaughtered animal


Jerked meat



Wine



Drinking cup



Game hunted by the Magi


Game from which a piece was cut (by another animal)


Wandering cows


The food of the People of the Book


Prohibited food


The good among the fruits


Antelope
Buck
Gazelle
Deer


Thirsty


Thirst
Thirstiness


To be thirst
To feel thirst



Drinking up



`Atirah : Ewe which the polytheists used to offer in sacrifice to idols in the month of Rajab. Such practice was abolished by Islam.


Calf

16-06-2004, 07:26 AM



Palatable and sweet
Tasty


Honey


Thirst


Thirsty



To slaughter
To butcher
To slay



A sacrifice slaughtered on the seventh day of a child's birth



Planting palm trees in barren lands


To scoop
To ladle


Handful of water


Deer
Gazelle


Washing one's hands before and after having food


Eating Fara` : Fara` is the first born she-camel butchered for idols


Excellence of offering water


Killing snakes


Killing the game



Cucumber


Distributing food


To champ
To bite into
To gnaw
To nibble at


Cutting down trees and palm trees



Complete severance of the vein
Cutting the vein

16-06-2004, 07:27 AM



The thin skin which envelops a date
The husk of a date



Bowl



Alcohol


Eating garlic and onion is disfavored


Disliking food



Trained hound


The manner of slaughtering



Cutting the animal's leg in order to fall for slaughtering is prohibited in Islam


Milk


Meat


Pork


Dead animal's flesh
Carrion



Licking one's fingers after eating


Licking the dish


Morsel of bread


Food


Birds of prey
Vicious birds
Harmful birds


Prohibited drinks


Preferred drinks


What alcohol is made of

16-06-2004, 07:28 AM


What is prohibited to be slaughtered


Table


ǡ
An animal that fell from a high place : Its flesh is prohibited to eat


Famine
Starvation
Hunger


Slaughtered
Butchered



Sauce
Gravy


Famine
Starvation


Drink


To chew
To masticate



Chewing food



Intestine


ǡ
An animal that has been killed by strangling : Its flesh is forbidden to eat



An animal fatally hit or on the point of death : Its flesh is forbidden to eat



Molar



An escaping animal


She-camel


Wine



Drunkenness
Ecstasy
Rapture


Ewe
Female sheep



To nibble at meat

16-06-2004, 07:30 AM


To bite


Etiquette of having food


The position of the animal to be slaughtered


Time of the marriage banquet



Banquet
Repast

16-06-2004, 07:31 AM

16-06-2004, 07:32 AM


Etiquette of dress


Etiquette of putting footwear on and off



The Qur'anic verse enjoining the wearing of veil


Furniture
Furnishings


Judgment pertaining to the mustache



Red dyestuff


Couch
Sofa


The best of perfumes


Approved colors of men's clothes



A woman showing her beauty and adornment to men unmarriageable to her



Trimming one's mustache


Loincloth
Wrapper
Wraparound


Unsewn waist wrapper



Lowering one's garment


Brocade : A heavy fabric interwoven with a rich, raised design


A man letting his hair grow long


A woman dragging her clothes



Manifesting the signs of Allah's grace upon oneself (through good dressing)



Taking care of one's beard



To wear a waist wrapper

16-06-2004, 07:33 AM



Using bells



Keeping statues



Keeping pictures in one's house


Getting toys for children



To lean on
To recline on



To cover one's private parts


Desirability of applying perfume



Desirability of wearing white clothes


Applying Henna



To wear a turban



Sitting or sleeping on silk



To apply Kohl



Tanned skin


Colored marks on clothes



Leather
Skin
Hide



Women taking veil in the presence of their slaves


Women taking veil in the presence of Al-Mukatab slave : Al-Mukatab is the slave who has a contract of manumission



Bazz (some kind of clothes)
Linen
Clothes
Drapery



Outer skin
Complexion


,
Commonness and asceticism in dress

16-06-2004, 07:34 AM



Bedecking oneself
Primping



The wife's adornment for her husband


The husband's adornment for his wife



Applying perfume before sexual intercourse



Spacing between teeth : Spacing between one's front teeth for beautification



Removing the hair from the face and forehead : Removing the soft hair on one's face


Showing modesty in one's clothes



Using one's right hand
Starting with the right side



Henna
Dye


Gold
Gold ornaments


Wearing gold ornaments by men in case of necessity



Wearing silk clothes by men in case of necessity


Aquamarine


Female ornamented clothes


Unveiling of the face
Bedecking oneself
Primping
Dazzling display
Woman's displaying of her charms


Wool
Fleece



Mandolin : A musical instrument with a usually pear-shaped body and a fretted neck over which several pairs of strings are stretched


Singing


,
Al-Qabati : White Egyptian clothes made of light tissue



Women dressed in diaphanous clothes that describe their bodies

16-06-2004, 07:35 AM


Pearls


Play
Fun
Amusement


Amusement
Distraction


Amusement by singing


Amusement and playing on the Feast


Diamond


Coral


One who lets his clothes down


Musical instruments


,
Dress dyed with safflower


Female singers


Being clean and well-dressed


Spacing between one's front teeth (for beautification)


Tattoo
Tattooing


To put on shoes or sandals
To be shod


Slipper
Pantofle
Scuff
Mule



Austere
Sad
Gloomy


,
To display one's charms
To play up one's charms (woman)
To adorn oneself


,
Gown
Garment


Garment
Gown

16-06-2004, 07:36 AM


Covering one's head


Covering woman's face



Dyeing hoary hair


To wrap oneself in
To cover oneself with
To put a scarf around one's neck


To wrap oneself in
To cover oneself with


Statue
Sculpture
Idol
Icon



Trimming one's beard


Garment
Dress
Robe
Cloth



Perfumed garment



Dyed clothes



Jubbah : Long outer garment, open in front, with wide sleeves


To braid
To plait


Braid
Plait
Queue
Pigtail



Dragging one's clothes in vanity


,
Sheath
Scabbard



Gown
Loose garment


To put on a loose garment
To dress in
To garb with a gown


Donkey leather


Lion leather



Scissors

16-06-2004, 07:38 AM


Sock
Stocking
Hose


Pocket
Breast
Bosom



Wrap
Veil



Hijab
eil
Yashmak : Women's head covering


To veil
To screen
To hide
To mask
To cloak
To cover



Shoes
Boots
Sandals
Footgear
Footwear


Silk


Belt
Girdle
Waistband


Decency
Modesty
Chastity


,
Wrapper


Judgment concerning pictures drawn on pillows


Judgment pertaining to pictures drawn on clothes


Judgment pertaining to letting the beard grow


Judgment pertaining to a woman cutting her hair short


Garment
Dress
Robe
Vestment


Earring
Eardrop


Shaving one's mustache



Jewelry
Jewels
Trinketry
Ornaments


Jewel
Trinket
Ornament
Finery
Decoration



Henna

16-06-2004, 07:42 AM


,
Hanut : A kind of scent for embalming the dead


Women going out in full adornment



Acts of natural disposition


To dye
To tint
To pigment
To apply henna



Shoe
Scuff
Mule
Sandal


Anklet


To perfume


Khaluq : A type of perfume



Khimar : A veil or yashmak


Thread
Fiber
Yarn



Gown
Shirt
Attire



Ugly
Unsightly



Silk garment
Silk brocade


,
Forelocks
Tresses
Locks of hair
Plaits
Braids



Shabby
Ragged
Slovenly
Frowzy



To comb one's hair


Dress
Robe
Garment
Apparel
Attire


Sleeve


Dress
Garment
Uniform


Adornment
Ornament
Decoration
Embellishment

16-06-2004, 07:43 AM


,
Woman's adornment during mourning period


Women's adornment


,
Covering one's private parts with clothes



Carpet
Mat
Rug


Curtain
Veil


Christ's thorn
Lotus jujube



Necklace



Underpants
Drawers
Trousers
Knickerbockers
Panties



To unveil oneself (for women)



Water skin



Sarcenet
Silk brocade



Bracelet
Bangle
Armlet : Ornament of the arm



Wearing a belt pocket around one's waist


Wig
Peruke
Periwig
Toupee


,
Cloak
Mantle
Toga
Turban
Headband



Dyeing clothes


Dying one's hair



Tainted
Dyed


Sculpture
Picture
Image
Painting
Photo
Description


Beating the tambourine

16-06-2004, 07:44 AM


Braid
Plait
Queue
Pigtail



Bandage
Dressing


Fez



Abandoning rings



Perfume
Aroma
Odor
Scent



The female mourner's perfume


Approved women's perfumes



Tailasan : A shawl-like garment worn over head and shoulders


,
Cloak
Outer garment
Mantle


Sack
Bag


,
Headband


Necklace
Collar



Knotting one's beard



To braid one's hair


Braid
Plait



Wrap



Turban


Amber
Ambergris



Wool
Colored wool



Mat
Rug
Carpet

16-06-2004, 07:45 AM


Parting one's hair


The ring stone


Merit of hoariness


Outer garment



Collar


Cap
Hat
Bonnet


Earring
Eardrop



Qaza` : Shaving part of one's hair and leaving another part unshaved



Velvet
Plush



Glove


,
Caftan : A full-length garment with elbow-length or long sleeves



Necklace
Necklet



Cap
Bonnet


Unsewn clothes


Gown
Shirt
Garment


Kohl


Garment
Dress
Robe



Unveiling parts of the woman's body


Sleeve



Kaffiyeh : A cloth headdress fastened by a band around the neck

16-06-2004, 07:46 AM


How mustaches and beards should be


Dress
Clothes


Man's dress


Woman's dress


Striped clothes



Wearing short underpants



Wearing silk clothes : Lawful for women not for men


Playing games of chance
Gambling



Color of the woman's dress : Woman's dress should not be of showy or eye-catching colors


Lifeless objects
Pictures with no living objects


A woman who removes the soft hair on her face or forehead



Times in which perfume should not be applied


Jewelry
Jewels
Gems


Decent
Modest
Demure


Veiled woman
A woman who wears veil


A woman who remains at home


Sewn clothes



Tanned


Gilded



Silk-flax clothes

16-06-2004, 07:47 AM


A woman who spaces between her front teeth (for beautification)



Female being tattooed


A woman who adds artificial hair to her own (for beautification)


,
Musk


Back
Cushion
Pillow


Corset
Stays
Girdle


Sculptor
Woodcarver
Painter
Photographer



Sleeping place
Resting place


Part of the hair


Clothes
Garment
Wear


Overgarment


Belt
Girdle


Mode
Fashion
Style


Where a ring is worn


A woman whose job is to beautify women by removing the soft hair on their faces or foreheads


Plucking out hoary hair



Footwear made of tanned skin



Shoes
Boots
Sandals
Footgear
Footwear


Veil


Carved ring

16-06-2004, 07:48 AM


Outward appearance
Fashion


A woman whose job is to beautify women be spacing between their front teeth


Female tattooer


A woman whose job is to beautify women by adding to their hair


Wars : Wars was applied as dyestuff to the clothes



Wearing a tight or thin dress that defines one's body



Adding to one's hair

18-06-2004, 09:46 PM

18-06-2004, 09:47 PM



Proprieties : Accepted standards of behavior


Proprieties of asking questions
roprieties of directing a question


Proprieties to be observed in the road


Human


To injure
To harm
To hurt
To offend
To annoy



Benefits
Favors



One who enjoins good


Selfishness
Egoism



Evil-doing
Sinful


Reward of attaining hoariness


More beloved
More pleasing
Preferable



Wiser and more knowledgeable


To be friendly to someone
To be nice to someone



To humiliate
To denigrate
To degrade
To humble



More to be feared



Morals
Moralities
Manners


Islamic morals


Women's morals


Gracious manners



To break (a promise)

18-06-2004, 09:48 PM



Brotherhood in faith



Rendering trusts back
Repayment of deposits



Kindlier
More gracious
More merciful



Viler
More abject


To satisfy
To content
To please
To appease



To mistrust
To distrust
To doubt
To suspect
To think ill (of)



To speak in private



To spend extravagantly
To be prodigal
To exceed bounds



Good model of conduct
Example
Pattern



The most afflicted people



More patient



To amend one's conduct


,
To turn away
To avert
To avoid
To eschew


Deeds that are considered as charity


To speak rudely
To use harsh language



Fie on you both



Great liar


,
To say, "peace be upon you"



To give hospitality
To entertain a guest



To reconcile
To conciliate
To make peace between
To unite
To join together

18-06-2004, 09:49 PM



Familiarity
Intimacy
Cordiality
Love
Harmony


Security
Safety
Protection
Indemnity


Honesty
Faithfulness
Sincerity
Trust



Endurance



Ties
Bonds
Relations


To enjoin



More aware than



People of understanding
Those gifted with understanding hearts



The sin of the first person who starts abusing others


Concealing deeds



Giving charity in secret


. " ".
Sincerity : a prerequisite for accepting a man's deeds. All acts of man should be directed for the sake of Allah alone. Ostentation and hypocrisy are disapproved, and will render all deeds of man null and void, deserving no reward but incurring punishment. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "Say: "Verily, I am commanded to serve Allah with sincere devotion." (Surah Al-Zumar, No. 39, Verse 11).


Exceeding bounds
Extravagance
Prodigality
Transgression



Circulating abominable crimes


Feeding
Nourishing


Offering food is part of faith


Helping people
Assisting others


Assisting people is a charity


Propagation of greetings by saying, "peace be upon you"


Generosity
Hospitable reception

18-06-2004, 09:50 PM


Generosity to one's guests and neighbors is part of faith


Delivering greetings is part of faith



Removing obstacles from roads is part of faith


Human


. " ".
Altruism : One of the basic qualities of a Muslim community is the close link that binds its members. Islam has taught its followers that the true Muslim should not be self-centered and self-seeking. Rather, he should be concerned for the affairs of his fellow Muslims. The Prophet, peace be upon him, said, "None among you will be a truthful believer until he likes for his brother that which he loves for himself." Praising altruistic people of Medina who received the Immigrants of Mecca, Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "But give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot)." (Surah Al-Hashr, No. 59, Verse 9).



Patching up



To follow someone's example
To imitate
To be guided by



Following good traditions



Avoidance of perjury


Respect
Esteem
Regard
Appreciation


. " " " " " " .
Respect for work : No religion ever known respects work as much as Islam does. Islam teaches that a man cannot be a true believer unless he combines good deeds with belief. Absorption in worship and ignoring one's work can never be a valid excuse for a Muslim or a merit on his behalf. Islam does not despise any kind of work, so long as it serves as an honorable means for earning one's livelihood.



To hope for divine reward



To sacrifice something in anticipation of Allah's reward in the Hereafter


Decency
Modesty


To deceive
To defraud


Intermingling of the two sexes


Conceit
Vanity
Arrogance



To lead a rough life



To be pleased with
To approve
To assent
To accept



To ask permission
To take leave

18-06-2004, 09:51 PM


Taking the husband's permission



A slave should ask the permission of his masters



Taking permission from one's parents


Asking permission to enter someone's house


Two men racing with their horses


To prefer
To favor
To appreciate
To like
To love


To blush
To be ashamed (of)
To be embarrassed (by)



Shyness
Bashfulness
Modesty


To find light
To belittle
To underestimate
To despise



Disdain
Scorn
Contempt


Plea for mercy
Petition



Conciliation
Propitiation
Appeasement



To adhere to chastity



To act uprightly in the paths of religion


Steadfastness
Righteousness
Tenacity
Standing erect


Uprightness of conduct


Arrogance
Haughtiness



To be puffed up with pride
To behave with insolence
To be arrogant



To call curses down on


To be patient or constant

18-06-2004, 09:52 PM



To choose
To select
To elect



Moderation
Temperance



To backbite



Backbiting those who commit grave sins


Backbiting the unjust



Backbiting a procrastinating debtor


Absolute Master
Vested with unlimited authority


Brotherhood
Fraternity


Good manners



Widows or widowers


The meanest


The basic rule is that all good things are lawful


Good deeds are the path to righteousness


Commands to avoid suspicion



Enjoining good actions
Enjoining what is right and just


Commanding to do good is a charity



Commanding and prohibitory decrees
Command and interdiction



Benevolence
Kind treatment
Conferring favors


Kind treatment to one's slave



Filial gratitude and obedience to parents

18-06-2004, 09:53 PM


Sincerity in performing good deeds


Patching up (differences and disputes) among people



Listening attentively


Avoidance
Shunning
Keeping away from


Avoiding envy and oppression


Avoiding doubtful matters


Respect and reverence


Arrogance in war



Asking for permission


Taking Care of the righteousness of one's heart


Abstention from backbiting



Beneficence
Righteousness
Obedience



Cheerfulness
Happy mien
Gaiety



Cheerfulness and gentleness


Deliberation


Smiling is a charity


Making reparation for wrong done to others


Hesitation



Urging Muslims to repay trusts


Leniency

18-06-2004, 09:54 PM



Seeking refuge in Allah from sedition



Seeking protection from worldly temptations


Boast of one's forefathers



Austerity : Neglecting adornment and ornamentation and adherence to asceticism


Gentleness in turning a beggar away


Disapproved desires



Calling one another by hateful nicknames



Causing people to be averse to backbiting



Helping those who are in difficulties


Manner of sitting
Sitting


Love for Allah's sake



Exhortation to practice archery



To do good deeds in anticipation of Allah's reward in the Hereafter



Understanding
Forbearance
Self-restraint


Fatal error


Good and evil


Charity
Good deeds
Virtuous acts
Blessings



Preference
Choice
Selection


Slander


Racing

18-06-2004, 09:55 PM


Precedency


Working to provide for widows


Leniency



Night cordial talk with one's wife



Obedience to the ruler except in committing sins


Islamic character


Doubt
Suspicion
Dubiety


Thanks-giving
Gratitude
Showing thankfulness



Rejoicing others' misfortune



Righteous women


Patience when one's children die


Public roads



Whoever maltreats his parents



Exhortation
Oration
Sermon


Practicing good righteous deeds


Envious eye



Feeling angry when admonished



Severity
Roughness


The wicked



Boast of one's noble descent

18-06-2004, 09:55 PM


Boast of one's numerous children


Boast of one's abundant wealth


Horsemanship



Entertaining guests


The elderly


Attributing lies to



Drinking with the mouth from a well



Generosity


Bad words
Profane language


Good words
Decent language


Uttering a good word is a charity



A true believer does not envy


A true believer can never be a traitor


A true believer does not commit adultery


A true believer does not steal


A true believer does not drink wine


A true believer does not betray


A true believer does not tell lies



A true believer is not impure



Mannish women

18-06-2004, 09:56 PM



Ostentation : Pretentious display meant to impress others


Joking


The miserable
The indigent


Wrestling



Doing good is a charity



Lack of modesty leads to committing sins



Contriving plots



Reproach in charity : Priding over the poor when giving them charity



One who counts his favors to others


Evil


Offering advice to the Imam



Spitting on one's left


Forbidding what is wrong or evil


Forbidding what is evil is a charity



Senility and decrepitude


. " " .
Unity of the community : This principle is stressed in all the rules of Islam, in devotion as well as in practical life. Islam teaches that the community cannot advance to achieve its aims successfully unless it is bound together representing a sole entity. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "And hold fast, all together, by the Rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves." (Surah Aal Imran, No. 3, Verse 103)


,
Calumny
Slander
Informing against



Fulfilling one's commitment


Protection against disease



Woe to you

18-06-2004, 09:57 PM


Corruption
Immorality
Depravity


Immorality
Dissolution
Moral deterioration


To indulge in pleasures
To give way to one's desires
To dissipate



May I ransom you with my father



Pious
Righteous
Obedient



Consensually
By mutual consent



Parsimony
Niggardliness
Excessive frugality


Stingy
Niggardly
Miserly
Close
Close-fisted
Penurious
Tight
Tight-fisted


Primitiveness



Obscenity
Ribaldry
Indecency
Foulness
Vulgarity



To spend wastefully
To waste
To squander
To dissipate



Devotedness
Readiness to sacrifice oneself


To devote oneself to



Obscene
Ribald
Vulgar
Indecent


To be pious
To be devoted
To obey



Filial gratitude to parents
Kindness to parents



To be kind to one's parents



Prostitution
Whoredom
Harlotry



To make someone hate something or someone
To make hateful to



To hate
To detest

18-06-2004, 09:59 PM


Hatred
Hate
Detestation



Hatred
Hate
Detestation



Harlot
Prostitute
Adulteress



Calumny


Fraternity
Brotherhood



Harmony
Familiarity
Intimacy
Mutual affection
Concord
Rapport
Affinity



To behave oneself according to established morals


Education
Disciplining


Exchange of greetings (peace be upon you)


To hate one another



Veneration
Reverence
Respect
Honor
Homage



Extravagance
Wastefulness
Prodigality
Dissipation
Squandering


Blame
Reproach
Rebuke
Remorse


Remorse of conscience



Yawning



Spying
Espionage



Envy


To envy one another


Salutation
Greeting



To converse in a low tone

18-06-2004, 10:01 PM


To worry about
To fear



Terrifying
Frightening
Intimidating
Alarming


To disagree
To disaccord
To dispute
To harbor mutual enmity



Admonition
Exhortation
Sermon



To be merciful toward one another
To have mercy on others



To come to terms
To reach an agreement


Education
Pedagogy
Pedagogics



To supplicate Allah to have mercy upon someone


Awakening of a desire
Arousal of an interest


To quit
To give up


Pessimism


Effeminacy


Women's acting or behaving like men


Handshake
Shaking hands


Assent of the heart



To become a Sufi or mystic


Purification of souls



To be pessimistic
To see evil omen in things
To draw an evil augury from



Cooperation
Collaboration
Mutual aid
Mutual assistance


. " ".
Cooperation : A Muslim should cooperate with his fellow Muslims for the welfare of the community and to promote the Islamic faith. Joint efforts are more effective for achieving one's goals than working alone. All Muslims are commanded to work hand in hand for the good of man and not to collaborate to do evil and mischief on earth. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancor." (Surah Al-Ma'idah, No. 5, Verse 2).

18-06-2004, 10:02 PM


Teaching
Instruction
Tuition
Schooling
Education


Vying in boasting with one another
Vying in glory with one another



Using obscene language


Niggardliness
Miserliness



Righteous
Devout
Pious



Mutilation
Defacement
Disfigurement


Wishing
Desiring
Requesting



Desiring the glitters of life



Private conferring


Abreaction
Giving vent to


Humility
Humbleness
Modesty



Dependence
Reliance on others



Repentance
Penitence
Contrition


Moderation
Temperance
Mediation
Intercession



Reverence
Respect



Trust
Confidence
Reliance


Neighbor



Possession of power
Tyranny



Disposition
Moral constitution
Instinct



May Allah reward you for your act

18-06-2004, 10:03 PM


Worry
Anxiety
Apprehension
Uneasiness
Fright


Dignified
Venerable



Blame
Reproach
Sin
Misdemeanor


Envious
Invidious


To wrong
To oppress
To aggrieve
To be unjust or unfair to


Love
Passion
Affection


Altruism
Selflessness
Benevolence
Charitableness


Fondness of worldly life


Love of virtues


Loving the poor and the needy


Loving one's wife


Parental love


Dear
Beloved


Exhorting children to do good



Throwing dust in the faces of eulogists


To be pious


To forbid
To prohibit
To ban
To make or declare unlawful



Sanctity of honor



Envy
Jealousy
Covetousness


To envy
To grudge
To covet

18-06-2004, 10:04 PM


Goodness
Beauty
Excellence


Good disposition
Good manners
Politeness


Having good morals is part of faith


Good reputation


Good companionship


Good opinion
Favorable judgment


Good intention
Good will


Sitting in a decent manner


Kind treatment


Good intention
Good will
Good faith


Hospitality
Hospitable reception


Generosity when repaying a debt


Offering good food and drink to one's servant


Good treatment of girls


Good treatment of one's servant


Kindness
Kindliness
Friendliness
Good outcome
Perfect
Beautiful



Envious
Invidious
Jealous



Chaste
Virtuous
Virgin



Keeping secrets



Safekeeping one's tongue (from obscene language)

18-06-2004, 10:05 PM


Guarding one's tongue before the Imam


As a guard



To harbor feelings of hatred



To underestimate



Malicious
Full of hatred
Malevolent
Resentful


Reality of sin


Judgment pertaining to bad auguring


Judgment on effeminate men


Sagacity
Wisdom


Wise



Forbearing
Clement
Kind
Forgiving


Preserving life



Guarding religion


Guarding one's intellect


To praise
To laud
To commend



Sin
Offense
Misdeed



Conscientious
High-principled
Scrupulous


To salute
To greet


,
Shyness
Pudency
Modesty
Bashfulness


May Allah preserve your life

18-06-2004, 10:14 PM



Injustice
Oppression
Unfairness


One who fears
Afraid
Frightened



Traitor
Treacherous
Traitorous
Faithless



To endeavor to deceive


Deceiver
Swindler
Impostor



Contemptible
Despicable
Ousted
Driven away



One who deviates from the right way
Loser



One who shows reverence
Submissive
Humble
Heartfelt
Pious


Submissive
Obedient


Sinner
Sinful


To fear
To dread
To apprehend


To fear Allah



Women who lower their eyes



To deceive
To be unfaithful
To violate
To betray
To breach



To humble oneself (before Allah)



Refuse
Scum
Dross


Evil
Malice
Malignity
Wickedness
Badness


To become bad



Evil women
Wicked women


Evil men
Wicked men

18-06-2004, 10:16 PM



Perfidious



To deceive


Bashfulness



Bashful
Shy


To deceive
To delude
To beguile



A husband's assistance of his wife



To let down
To disappoint
To leave without assistance


Disappointment


One who deserts his friends


" "
Liar
Falsehood-monger


,
Lying
Telling falsehood



Shame
Disgrace
Humiliation


,
To drive away



Meanness
Ignobility
Vileness
Despicableness
Baseness


Perdition
Loss


To be low or humble
To humble oneself
To be submissive



To lower one's eyes
To cast down the eyes


To fear
To apprehend
To dread


To fear Allah


Fear
Apprehension

18-06-2004, 10:17 PM



To submit
To bow


Fault
Error
Sin


To do wrong
To err


Discourse
Talk
Chat



Misdeed
Sin
Fault
Offense
Iniquity


To be light



To be quiet or silent



To remain in a place



Dissoluteness
Dissipation
Moral depravity



Disposition
Temper
Nature
Morality



Exalted standard of character


Moral
Ethical



A perfidious person
A traitor


Fear
Terror
Fright
Dread


To cause to fear
To frighten
To terrify


Betrayal
Deception
Treachery



Breach of promise


Good
The best
Welfare


Fear
Fright
Dread



Conceitedness
Arrogance
Haughtiness
Vanity

18-06-2004, 10:18 PM


" "
To be diligent
To be constant
To be persistent


Custom
Habit
Perseverance
Persistence



Indecent
Unchaste
Lewd
Dissolute
Obscene



Path
Pathway
Route
Road



To repulse the orphan



Immorality
Licentiousness
Prostitution


Removing blame


Removing harm



Reminder to the mindful



Abasement
Ignominy
Vileness


,
To humble
To render submissive


Humble
Submissive
Mean
Low-spirited
Weak-hearted



To dispraise
To vilify


Vilification : Making vicious and defamatory statements about


Dispraise of markets


Disapproval of arrogance


Disapproval of anger


Disapproval of pride


Disapproval of murder


Sin
Crime
Fault

18-06-2004, 10:19 PM



To be compassionate


Compassion
Clemency
Pity



Mature
Of age
Major


One who is content
Well pleased


Riding


. " " " ", , " "
Mercy : Islam is the religion of mercy and Prophet Muhammad is the Prophet who was sent as a mercy to mankind. Allah called Himself the Most Merciful. All these facts indicate that the Muslim should be merciful towards all people. The concept of mercy in Islam extends to other living creatures such as animals and plants. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "There is a reward for service to every living animal."



Allah's mercy
Allah's grace


All-embracing mercy



Returning of a greeting which is a collective duty upon Muslims



Vice
Depravity


Care
Protection
Sponsorship
Guardianship



Taking care of widows and the destitute



Taking care of one's parents


,
Leniency
Gentleness
Mildness
Kindness


Companion
Associate
Friend


Riding



Ostentation
Hypocrisy



An ascetic person


,
To abstain
To renounce



Asceticism : Renouncing the pleasures of the worldly life and practicing strict self-denial as a measure of personal and spiritual discipline

18-06-2004, 10:21 PM



To renounce worldly pleasures
To lead a pious and ascetic life


Visiting the sick is a charity



Cursing
Insult
Abuse


To swear
To revile
To rail
To abuse
To curse



Abusing the dead


Swearing at the time


Insulting the polytheist


Insulting others



Abuser
Reviler


Veiling
Covering



Ridicule
Derision
Mockery
Scorn



Joyful state
Happiness



Open-mindedness


Conduct
Behavior


Night talk



Ostentation
Reputation
Fame


Mistrust
Distrust
Suspicion
Doubt
Evil thinking


Evil omen
Evil portent
Bad luck
Misfortune


Ominous


Grateful
One who gives thanks
Thanks-giver
Thankful

18-06-2004, 10:22 PM


, .
Bravery : a sign of the strength of one's faith. One who firmly believes in Allah fears none but Him. A true Muslim can never be a coward or retreat in battle. Rather, he should fight courageously to defend his religion, honor and property. Struggling in the cause of Allah will bring about either of the two recommended results: victory or martyrdom. Besides, courage is recommended in all other aspects of life.



Parsimony
Niggardliness
Miserliness
Avarice
Covetousness



To be avaricious
To become miser



Grudge
Rancor
Hatred
Enmity


Vehemence
Violence


Intensity of exasperation


Vehement
Strong
Severe


Misfortune



To be miserable
To be wretched


: , :
Wretched
Miserable


To doubt
To suspect
To distrust
To mistrust


To give thanks
To be grateful


Thanking the almsgiver



Thankful
Grateful



Attributes
Characteristics


To rejoice at the misfortunes of others



Hatred
Animosity
Hostility



To hate



Lust
Desire


: " " " ".
Consultation : A Muslim is advised to consult trustworthy people of more experience whenever embarking on an affair. Muslim rulers would consult their ministers and people of good judgment in matters related to war and other aspects of life. It was the habit of the Prophet to ask the Companions for their opinion in matters related to war and regarding practical aspects of life. Also the Rightly-Guided Caliphs who succeeded the Prophet were never opinionated dictators, but they listened to the pieces of advise addressed by others. Caliph `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, used to say to his subjects, "If you notice any deviation with me, straighten me right."

18-06-2004, 10:24 PM


Hoariness



Venerable old man
A man above fifty years of age


Patient



To excel in patience


Sincere
Truthful


Pious
Good
Perfect
Righteous



Very patient


, , .
Patience : A Muslim should meet trials and tests with true patience and submit to Allah's will. After the storm comes the calm, and the darkest hour precedes the dawn. All the affairs of a Muslim will bring him a reward whether they are pleasant or unpleasant. If pleasant he thanks Allah and gets his reward for being thankful, and if unpleasant, he will be patient and will get his reward for observing patience.


To be patient or constant
To endure patiently


, . " " . " ".
Truthfulness : a virtue that Islam exhorts its followers to adopt. A Muslim should be truthful in all his words and deeds. Telling lies will do no good to man. On the contrary, it will make him lose the trust of people and incur the wrath of Allah. Enjoining truthfulness, Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "O ye who believe! Fear Allah and be with those who are true (in word and deed)." (Surah Al-Taubah, No. 9, Verse 119). And warning against telling lies, Allah, the Almighty, says, "On the Day of Judgment wilt thou see those who told lies against Allah; their faces will be turned black." (Surah Al-Zumar, No. 39, Verse 60).


To be sincere and truthful



To keep one's promise
To live up to one's promise


, .
Charity : Islam exhorts its followers to be kind to the poor, the needy and the handicapped. Zakah was enjoined as a means of protecting such types of people and to guarantee an honorable life for them. Charity was also recommended, so that the rich could contest in doing good deeds.



Very truthful
A man of truth



To swell one's cheek
To turn away the face in disdain



Humility
Humiliation



Clearness of conscious



Forgiveness
Pardon


Goodness
Righteousness


Keeping good relations with friends

18-06-2004, 10:25 PM


, .
Maintaining the ties of kinship : This trait maintains the solidarity of the community. Islam stresses it and inculcates every Muslim to be helpful and good to his kin, visit them and meet their needs, whether they are good to him or not.


Having good relations with a polytheist


Peacemaking
Conciliation
Reconciliation


Boasting
Bragging
Vaunting



Self-control
Self-command
Self-restraint



To lie on one's side


Beating the slave



The necessity of exchanging counsels among Muslims



Malice
Hatred



Greedy
Avaricious


General rules (moral)
Precepts or orders



Hospitality
Generosity to guests
Worm reception


Guest
Visitor



To entertain a guest


. " ".
Dutifulness : The religious practices of Islam teach man discipline and respect for the elders and to be obedient to one's parents and those in authority, so long as they do not enjoin something contradictory to Islamic teachings. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you." (Surah Al-Nisa`, No. 4, Verse 59)


Evil-doer
Wicked



Upright
Righteous


Innocent
Honest
Clean-handed



Cheerfulness
Happy mien



Greediness
Covetousness
Avarice

18-06-2004, 10:27 PM


Innocence
Moral integrity
Guiltlessness


Good
Kind
Pure



Bad auguring : A vicious habit of the pre-Islamic period to predict what future will bring. One would let a bird fly. If the bird took the right side, one would optimistically go on his purpose. If otherwise, he would give up his endeavor. Islam prohibited such a habit.



An arrogant indigent person



Customs
Habits
Conventions



Abominable custom



Disobedient
Sinner
Sinful


Sneezer


Punishment for extortion


The end of a swagger


,
Transgression
Tyranny
Insolence
Superciliousness



Tyrant
Oppressor


Conceit
Self-conceit
Vanity


: , . " ."
Justice : In Islam, justice is stressed and emphasized in all aspects of life. Islam considers that all people, Muslims and non-Muslims are equal and will be treated on this basis. In the court of justice there is no room for favoritism or prejudice. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "Let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety." (Surah Al-Ma'idah, No. 5, Verse 8).


. " ".
Dignity : A Muslim should not let himself be an object of contempt or humiliation by others. Rather, he should always maintain his self-respect and treat others on the basis of mutual respect and dignity. Seeking one's livelihood is not a valid cause to drive man to give up his principles and be lax in maintaining his dignity, since Allah is the best Provider. Allah, the Almighty, says in the Holy Qur'an, "And in heaven is your Sustenance, as (also) that which ye are promised." (Surah Al-Dhariyat, No. 51, Verse 22).


Sense of honor
Pride



Sneezing : To expel air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane


To be kind to
To be well disposed towards


To abstain from unlawful or improper deeds
To be virtuous



Modesty
Chastity
Abstinence

18-06-2004, 10:28 PM


.
Chastity : The Muslim community is a pure and godly one. There is no room for corruption and lewdness. The Muslim is distinguished by his solid character and firm resolve to keep away from base desires or be enslaved by whims. In addition, he is aware of the existence of Allah and thus feels ashamed to disobey Him. Meanwhile, Islam does not debase sexual instincts, but regulates them in the domain of legality and proper conduct.



Filial ingratitude



To be high
To be lofty
To be exalted


In public
Openness


Exaltation
Pride
Insolence



Willingly
Of one's free will



Violence
Vehemence
Fierceness


Pledge
Promise
Engagement



Visiting the sick


Raging furiously against


To incense
To irritate
To infuriate



Treacherous
Perfidious



Instinct
Natural disposition



Natural
Instinctive
Inborn



To act dishonestly
To deceive
To cheat
To mislead
To trick


Deception
Deceit
False pretense
Cheating
Trickery


Deceptive
Fraud
Deceiver



To seize violently : The act of seizing by force; abduction



Lowering one's eyes



Lowering one's voice

18-06-2004, 10:29 PM


Lower the gaze


Anger
Rage
Fury
Wrath



To forgive
To pardon



Hidden enmity
Grudge
Rancor


To be thick
To be rough
To be severe


Rough
Severe
Strong



Hard-hearted



To despise
To scorn
To hold in contempt



Self-contentment



To stray from the right way
To go astray



Trespassing
Transgression



Backbiting : To speak spitefully or slanderously about a person



Anger : A strong feeling of displeasure or hostility



Auspices
Omen : A sign indicative of future prospects


Depravity
Adultery



Receiving those who have certain needs


Perversity
Dissipation


Pride
Glory


Corruption
Depravation
Immorality


Moral corruption
Depravity
Immorality

18-06-2004, 10:30 PM



Transgression : To commit grievous and minor sins intentionally and constantly



Disobedience
Debauchery


Merit of reconciling people


Merit of beneficence



Merit of forbearance


Excellence of abandoning evil deeds



The merit and reward of visiting the sick


Doing good
Undertaking charitable acts


,
One who is obedient to Allah
Devout
Constant in Prayer


To betake oneself
To come to



Convey greeting to
To send or extend one's greetings to



Equity
Justice
Fairness



Necklace


To clip
To trim



Contentment



Despair
Desperation
Hopelessness
Despondency



Loud burst of laughter
Guffaw


Moral principles


Strength
Might
Power



Sound saying

18-06-2004, 10:31 PM


Kind and just words



Moral values


Islamic values


Religious values


Spiritual values



One who restrains obstructs or chokes


Anger-restrainer


Telling lies
Lying
Lie
Falsehood


. " ".
Hospitality : Islam enjoins hospitality to one's guests to preserve the ties of love and fraternity among Muslims. It is an obligation incumbent on a Muslim host to provide the guest with the best of every thing according to host's means. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "He who believes in Allah and the Last Day should show hospitality to his guest."


High-minded
Noble-minded
Noble-hearted



Earning from the work of one's own hands


Removing
Exposing


To lay bare
To reveal
To disclose
To divulge



Restraining anger


Abstaining
Shunning



Denial
Ingratitude
Ungratefulness



Immoral speaking
Obscene language



Manner of mourning



No blame on them


Envy is not allowed except in two cases

18-06-2004, 10:32 PM



Disgraceful
Good for nothing
Worthless fellow


,
Cursing one's parents


,
Cursing sinful people



Cursing effeminate men



Cursing the slave of dinar


, " ."
Leniency : A Muslim should be lenient and tolerant of his fellow Muslims as well as non-Muslims. Harshness and bad temper are never the traits of a true Muslim. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "Verily Allah loves kindness in every matter."



Supplication to be said before sexual intercourse


The supplication said when putting on a new garment


Supplication to be said in markets


On foot
In walking



Respected
Venerable



Spendthrift
Wastrel
Squanderer



Harmonious



Loving one another


Pessimist



Chaste
Virtuous


Haughty
Arrogant
Proud


Assembly
Council


Love
Affection



Altruistic
Benevolent
Generous

18-06-2004, 10:33 PM


Envied
Smitten by an evil eye


Commendable act


Laudable
Commendable
Praised
Praiseworthy



Swaggerer
Arrogant


Sincere
Faithful



Effeminate man



Flattery
Cajolery
Blandishment



Hypocrite
Flatterer
Sycophant


Sycophancy
Flattery
Hypocrisy


One who glosses over or holds in low estimation


Remembered
Mentioned


Supervision
Inspection
Oversight


Mercy
Kindness
Pity



Guide to the right way
Advisor
Spiritual guide



Sense of honor


Bad morality


, , , . " ".
Equality : According to Islamic principles, all people are equal in the sight of Allah; there is no distinction between one and another on the basis of race, color, creed or nation. The only valid criterion for superiority is righteousness and good deeds. Allah, the Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an, "The most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you." (Surah Al-Hujurat, No. 49, Verse 13)



Proud
Haughty
Arrogant



Spendthrift
Extravagant
Prodigal


Offender
Insulting
Injurious

18-06-2004, 10:35 PM


,
Left hand



Hatred
Grudge
Enmity


Timorous
Fearful


Perseverance in patience



Shaking hands



Peacemaker
Reformer


Grievance
Complaint
Injustice
Injury



Caliber of people



Help
Aid
Support
Assistance


Treatment of dogs


Assisting one's slave


Sin
Wrongdoing
Offense
Guilt


Aid
Help


,
Backbiter
Slanderer



The evils resulting from playing the games of chance



Exposed to sedition


Stubborn
Haughty



Noble traits of character
High moral standards


Noble deed


Afflicted
Anguished
Agonized
Distressed
Suffering

18-06-2004, 10:36 PM



Caressing one's wife


Praised
Laudable


Errant
Devious
Perverted


Refusing to give water to a wayfarer



Consolation : To give hope or help to in time of grief or pain



Exhortation
Sermon



Regret
Remorse
Contrition
Compunction



Succoring the wronged person


Advice
Counsel
Consultation
Admonition
Exhortation



Virtue of abandoning vain desires



Tale-bearing : Conveyance of disagreeable false information, from one person to another, to create hostility between them


Forbiddance
Prohibition
Ban
Forbiddance


Shape
Form


The duties of a servant



To fear
To dread
To become afraid



Meekness
Gentleness
Mildness
Mansuetude


Pious
Godly
Devout
God-fearing



Piety : Religious devotion, reverence to Allah and refraining from sins



Branding



Insinuation
Obsession

18-06-2004, 10:38 PM



To preach
To sermonize
To admonish
To exhort



The father's advice to his married daughter


Dignity
Gravity
Veneration



Man should prevent himself from backbiting



To despair of
To lose hope of

20-06-2004, 12:27 AM

20-06-2004, 12:28 AM


.
Adam : Adam, the first man, was created by the Hand of Allah Who taught him all names, made the angels prostrate before him, and granted him the companionship of Eve with whom he was admitted to Paradise. In Paradise both Adam and Eve were warned against a certain tree, but Satan tempted them to eat from its fruit. As a result, Adam was descended to be Allah's vicegerent on earth, and, together with Eve, was provided with a means of living. As the first apostle of Allah, Adam was ordered to call his children to the worship of Allah the Only and True God.


18 .
Job [Aiyub] : A descendant of Abraham, Job was a prophet who received Divine Revelation. He was a wealthy man and had many children. However, Allah caused him to lose all his fortune and sons and afflicted him with physical suffering that lasted for 18 years, during which all people deserted him. Only his wife persevered with him and worked to provide for him until he regained his health and was compensated for all he had lost. Job was so great an example of perseverance from suffering that on the Day of Judgment, Allah will make him a standard to refute the excuses of those who did not endure suffering.


.
Abraham [Ibrahim] : Abraham was the "Close One to Allah" Who preferred him over many others and selected him to be a messenger. Though brought up in a pagan community that worshiped idols, Abraham refused to do so and realized that there must be a greater god of the universe. Allah guided him to the right path and revealed His message to him. He then directed his mission to his people, and called on them to renounce idolatry. He was answered with stubborn refusals. They plotted against him but their schemes were in vain, for Allah, the Almighty, provided support and protection to His servant and prophet, Abraham. Abraham was the forefather of a line of prophets through his two sons Ishmael and Isaac. It was Abraham who began the construction of the Ka`bah with the help of Ishmael.


ǡ .
Idris : Idris was a grandfather of Noah and the first prophet after Adam to receive thirty Divine Scriptures. He called for the Oneness of Allah and was followed by one thousand people. Idris was the first to write, the first to wear sewn clothes and the first to think about astrology.


" " .
Isaac [Ishaq] : Isaac was Abraham's son by his wife Sarah, and the father of Jacob. The tidings of his birth were given to his parents by the angels who had been sent to destroy the city of the people of Lot. The Holy Qur'an referred to Isaac as "a son endowed with wisdom." Isaac was sent as a prophet to guide people to the right way.


ѡ - - " " ǡ .
Ishmael [Isma`il] : Ishmael was the first son of Abraham by his second wife, Hajar. In compliance with Allah's command, Abraham moved the mother and her baby to a place in the desert, which came to be known as Mecca, and left them with little food and water. Suffering from lack of provisions, Hajar kept wandering here and there until the water of Zamzam gushed out from under the feet of her baby. The Well of Zamzam attracted many people to dwell in the region. Later, Ishmael helped his father implement the command of Allah regarding the construction of the Ka`bah. Abraham then had a revelation during his sleep, that he should sacrifice his son for the sake of Allah. Both the father and son were images of humility and obedience in their immediate response to the Will of Allah. However, Allah saved Ishmael from being sacrificed. Ishmael was a forbearing knight and was the first to tame horses. He is also said to have been the first to speak Classical Arabic. Prophet Ishmael called for the worship of the Only True God, and enjoined his people to practice prayer and charity.


.
Elijah [Ilyas] : Elijah was a prophet sent to the people of Baalbek, in east Lebanon. He called them to worship only Allah and stop adoring their idol Ba`la. They subjected him to different punishments. Ibn `Abbas said that Elijah was the paternal uncle of Elisha.


.
Elisha [Al-Yasa`] : Elisha was a devout prophet who performed the miracle of resurrecting a dead person. He is mentioned in the Holy Qur'an twice and in the Torah as well.


.
David [Dawud] : David was a devout servant of Allah who used to observe fasting on one day and break it the next, besides practicing forms of worship for about two-thirds of the night. Allah revealed the Psalms to David, gave him wisdom and knowledge and granted him a strong kingdom in which mountains were subdued, all birds were assembled and iron was made soft.


.
Ezekiel [Dhul-Kifl] : Ezekiel was a devout prophet who used to observe prayer one hundred times a day. He took it upon himself to stand for justice among his people.


.
Zechariah [Zakariah] : Zechariah was a devout prophet who called for the True Religion. He took care of Mary the Virgin, and prayed Allah to grant him a virtuous child. Allah gave him John the Baptist [Yahya], who also called for the right way of Allah.


.
Solomon [Sulaiman] : Solomon was a prophet of knowledge and wisdom. He had power and authority not only over men but the Jinn as well. Allah had bestowed upon him the ability to understand the means of communication among birds, beasts and ants. Solomon had a story with a hoopoe bird, that informed him about the Yemeni Kingdom of Sheba, whose people used to worship the sun. They were satisfied with their own human achievements, instead of looking to Allah, the True and Only God. Solomon invited Balqis, Queen of Sheba, to join the true Faith and bask in the light of Allah. Eventually, she accepted the Faith and joined Solomon in praising Allah.


.
Jethro [Shu`aib] : Jethro was sent to the people of Madyan, who used to worship the Wood, usurp other's property and never adhere to due measures and weights. He invited them to adore Allah, give others their rights and deal with justice and equity. However, they not only threatened to banish and stone him, but were stubborn and demanded that he causes the sky to fall upon them in pieces. Thus, they were destroyed by the Mighty Blast.


.
Salih : Salih was Allah's prophet to the people of Thamud, who were endowed with abundant riches. Not only were they ungrateful for these blessings but they neglected the Lord, worshiped idols and boasted of their might. Allah sent Salih to warn them, but they asked for a miracle to support his allegations. Allah granted Salih a miraculous She-camel, and he warned his people against hurting it. Nevertheless, they persisted in their blasphemy and slaughtered the She-camel. They were destroyed by the Mighty Blast, but Salih and his followers were saved.


ǡ .
Jesus Christ [`Isa] : Almost as Adam had been created without a father or mother, Jesus Christ was born without a father. He was Allah's Word inspired to Mary. Allah gave him Clear Signs and endowed him with the Holy Spirit. He was held in honor both in this world and the Hereafter and in the company of those nearest to Allah. Jesus was strong in spirit, and very wise. Allah bestowed upon him the power to speak eloquently while still an infant in his cradle. Indeed, Jesus's miracles were innumerable. Allah taught him the Wisdom and Book, the Torah and the Gospel. Allah made him His Messenger to the Children of Israel. By Allah's leave, Jesus made the figure of a bird out of clay and breathed into it and it became a bird. He could, by Allah's leave, heal those born blind, lepers and even resurrect the dead. Jesus invited his people to worship Allah, the Only True God; but they rejected him and rebelled. Only the poor among them followed him. Allah raised Jesus up unto Himself and saved him from those who plotted to crucify him.


.
Lot [Lut] : Lot was Abraham's nephew. Allah sent him to a transgressing people who used to commit all abominable acts and indulge in their lusts with men rather than women. Lot frequently preached to them to abandon such heinous crimes and come to the right course of Allah, but they never obeyed him. Being disappointed in them, Lot prayed Allah to destroy them, but save the believers among them. Because Lot's wife was apparently not a believer, her previous sympathy for the sinful people destined her to a miserable end along with her people.
( )

ǡ 622 .
Muhammad (peace be upon him) : Muhammad, the Arab Prophet of Islam, was born in Mecca a few months after the death of `Abdullah, his father. Aminah, his mother had died when he was six. Thus he was brought up by `Abdul-Muttalib, his grandfather, then by Abu Talib, his uncle. He worked as a shepherd for a time. At the age of 25 he married Khadijah, who gave him optimum support. When he came to the age of forty, Muhammad received the Divine Revelation and started to invite the people of Mecca to believe that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger. Suffering severe persecution in Mecca, he allowed his followers to migrate to Yathrib (now Medina). This took place in the year 622 A.D. which, later on, became the starting point of the Hijri calendar. In Medina, the Prophet Muhammad established a state which was the nucleus of the Muslim empire. In the 10th Hijri year, he went to Mecca and performed the Farewell Hajj, shortly after which he died at the age of 63.


.
Moses [Musa] : Moses was sent to call Pharaoh and his people to believe in the Oneness of Allah. He was strengthened by a number of miracles. Allah instructed Moses to throw down his staff which miraculously turned into a huge snake and swallowed all the snakes which the magicians of Pharaoh had made appear. Moses was also instructed to put his hand in his pocket, and it came forth radiantly white, without stain. The Pharaoh promised severe punishments to the followers of Moses. Moses was commanded to leave Egypt with his people by night. Moses's followers were to cross the Red Sea towards Sinai in a huge procession. They were reassured not to fear the Pharaoh, nor the sea, nor the vast unknown desert of Sinai into which they were venturing. They crossed the Red Sea - after Moses struck the sea with his miraculous staff and made it split into dry passage - while the Pharaoh, who had pursued them with his troops, was overwhelmed by the sea.


950 .
Noah [Nuh] : Noah was a pious, sincere and truthful man. Allah chose him to guide his people who were idol-worshipers. Noah tried hard to make his people abandon idols and worship Allah alone, but only the poor followed him. Allah kept the rain from them, and Noah called them to accept the true faith so that Allah may give them rain and blessing. They feigned acceptance, but when Allah finally sent the rain to them and blessed their crops and children, they reverted to infidelity. After nine hundred and fifty years of persistent preaching, Noah despaired of those people and invoked Allah against them. Allah answered his prayer and ordered him to construct the Ark in which he and his followers would be saved. Then came the Flood which destroyed the blaspheming people completely.


ǡ .
Aaron [Harun] : Aaron was Moses's eloquent brother who helped him proclaim his mission to Pharaoh. When Moses went to fulfill the appointment with his Lord on Mount Sinai, Aaron succeeded him in leading the Israelites. During this period a man called Al-Samiri suggested to the Israelites that they make the golden figure of a calf to worship. Thus they went astray and committed a great sin. Aaron persistently tried to convince them to return to the worship of Allah, but they did not listen to him. Upon his return, Moses was angered and blamed Aaron heavily for letting the Israelites divert from the true faith.

20-06-2004, 12:30 AM


ǡ .
Hud : One community, called `Ad, were strong and of huge stature. Allah blessed them in everything, but they were ungrateful to Him and began to worship idols. Allah sent them a messenger from among themselves to guide them. It was Hud who was born into a noble family and grew up virtuous and intelligent. He invited them to follow the way of Allah, and worked hard to counsel them. But they did not believe and were satisfied with the life of this world. They were destroyed by a fierce wind that blew and uprooted trees, demolished houses and flung animals away. It lasted for seven nights and eight days.


ǡ ǡ .
Yahya [John the Baptist] : Yahya, the son of Zechariah, was born in fulfillment of his father's supplication that Allah might grant him a righteous child. The sign of his birth was that his father would not speak to anyone for three days, though he was not dumb. Yahya was a devout prophet who was given wisdom at a young age.


.
Jacob [Ya`qub] : Jacob, son of Isaac, the Prophet, was also called Israel which means "Servant of Allah." His grandparents, Abraham and Sarah, were given the tidings of his piety and prophethood. Jacob was the father of Joseph. His 12 sons became the progenitors of the tribes of Israel.


11 .
Joseph [Yusuf] : Joseph was the favorite son of Jacob. Once in a dream he saw eleven stars and the sun and the moon all bowing down to him. He went to his father and told him about his dream. He was happy, but advised his son not to tell his brothers about that dream. The brothers envied Joseph for his father loved him much more than any of them. They plotted to throw him in a well, and told his father that he had been killed by a wolf. Then, he was picked up by caravans who sold him to the Egyptian King for a low price. The king took care of Joseph, who preferred to be imprisoned rather than to yield to the lustful desires of the King's wife. Having been proved innocent, Joseph was released from prison and was appointed administrator of Egypt's grain storehouses which he managed wisely during the years of famine. During this period, Joseph's brothers came to Egypt seeking grain. Joseph made himself known to them and asked them to bring their family, including his father, to Egypt. They came and bo wed down to him as a fulfillment of his first dream.
( )

.
Jonah [Yunus, Dhul-Nun] : Jonah was Allah's messenger to the people of Ninawa to invite them to the worship of the Only True God. When they rejected him, he threatened them that punishment would come within three nights. Out of fear of being punished they believed in Allah. Jonah departed his people and later was on board of a sinking ship. After casting lots three times, Jonah was chosen to be thrown in the sea. He was swallowed by a great whale and was disgorged unharmed three days later. He was then sent to more than 100, 000 persons calling them to the worship of Allah.

20-06-2004, 12:32 AM




( 44 /664 )

.
Umm Habibah bint Abi Sufyan (died 44 A.H./664 A.D.) : Real name: Ramlah bint Abi Sufyan. She migrated to Abyssinia with her first husband where he renounced Islam and converted to Christianity, later dying as a Christian. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) sent `Amr bin Umayyah Al-Damri as his envoy to propose marriage to her. She accepted and hence, the Negus conducted the marriage contract, offering 400 dinars as a dowry on the Prophet's behalf.
( 57/676)

.
Umm Salamah (died 57 A.H./ 676 A.D.) : Real name: Hind bint Umayyah. One of the first women to embrace Islam, she took part in the two migrations. Her first husband was killed in the Battle of Badr. She later married the Prophet (peace be upon him). She was rational, had excellent manners, and was lettered. She died after a long life and was buried in Al-Baqi`.
( 56 )

.
Juwairiah bint Al-Harith bin Abi Dirar (died 56 A.H.) : Real name: Burrah bint Al-Harith. She was captured by Muslims after they defeated the Banu Al-Mustaliq, she was given as a share of booty to Thabit bin Qais. She asked him to emancipate herself in return for money and she went to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) to assist her. The Messenger (peace be upon him) offered to pay it all to set her free to marry her.
( 45 )

ǡ .
Hafsah Bint `Umar (died 45 A.H.) : She was one of those who embraced Islam early and migrated to Medina together with her first husband. Her husband died in the Battle of Badr, after which the Prophet (peace be upon him) married her. She died and was buried in Medina.
( 3 . )

" " .
Khadijah bint Khuwailid (died 3 B.H.) : The first wife of the Prophet (peace be upon him), she was his supporter during the early years of the mission. Before the Mission she was called 'The Pure' for her modesty. The Prophet (peace be upon him) married her 15 years before the Mission. She gave birth to Al-Qasim and `Abdullah, but both died while young, then to Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Umm Kulthum and Fatimah. She gave spiritual and financial support to the Prophet (peace be upon him). She died in the Year of Sadness and was buried in Al-Hujun.
( 20 )

.
Zainab bint Jahsh (died 20 A.H.) : A cousin of the Prophet (peace be upon him). She was first married to Zaid bin Harithah and was called Burrah. She was given a divorce and then married the Prophet (peace be upon him), who changed her name to Zainab. She was religious, pious and charitable. She used to do some handworks and give much of the earnings to the poor and the orphans. She also used to support her relatives.
( 23/643)

ɡ .
Saudah bint Zam`ah (died 23 A.H./ 643 A.D.) : She embraced Islam with her first husband and migrated to Abyssinia. After the death of her husband, the Prophet (peace be upon him) married her. She migrated with the Prophet to Medina.
( 50 )

ǡ .
Safiyah bint Huyai bin Akhtab (died 50 A.H.) : She was a Jew of the Banu Akhtab, and was of the captives of the Battle of Khaibar. The Prophet (peace be upon him) set her free. She embraced Islam and the Prophet (peace be upon him) married her. She died in Medina.
( 58 )

ǡ . .
`A'ishah bint Abi Bakr (58 A.H.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) married her in the second year after the Hijrah, she was the only virgin whom he married and the most beloved to him. She narrated many hadiths from the Prophet. She was considered as one of the most knowledgeable of jurisprudence and literature among women in her time. She died in Medina and was buried in Al-Baqi`.
( 16/637)

7 .
Mariyah Al-Qibtiyah (died 16 A.H./637 A.D.) : Of Egyptian origin, Mariyah was sent by Al-Muqauqis, governor of Egypt, in 7 A.H. as a present to the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet emancipated her and then married her. She gave birth to Ibrahim. After the Prophet's death, first Abu Bakr and then `Umar provided for her. She died during `Umar's era.
( 50/670)

{ } ( 50).
Maimunah bint Al-Harith (died 50 A.H./670 A.D.) : Her original name was Burrah, but the Prophet changed it to Maimunah. She dedicated herself to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the following Qur'anic verse was revealed pertaining to her {And any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet} (Surah Al-Ahzab, Verse: 50)

20-06-2004, 12:34 AM




( 9 /630 )

" " ( 1) ǡ .
Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad (died 9 A.H./630 A.D.) : She was born to Khadijah. She married `Utaibah bin Abi Lahab during the pre-Islamic era. `Utaibah was told by his father to divorce her upon the revelation of the Qur'anic verse that reads "May the hands of Abu Lahab perish! May he himself perish" (Surah Al-Masad, Verse 1). She migrated to Medina. After the death of her sister Ruqaiyah who was married to `Uthman bin `Affan, `Uthman married her.
( 2 )

" " ( 1) ǡ .
Ruqaiyah bint Muhammad (died 2 A.H.) : She was born to Khadijah. She was married to `Utbah bin Abi Lahab in the pre-Islamic era, but when Islam emerged and the Qur'anic verse "May the hands of Abu Lahab perish! May he himself perish" (Surah Al-Masad, Verse 1) was revealed, Abu Lahab told his son to divorce her. She married `Uthman bin `Affan and migrated with him to Abyssinia then to Medina where she died.
( 8 )

ǡ .
Zainab bint Muhammad (died 8 A.H.) : The eldest of the Prophet's daughters. She was married to Abu Al-`As bin Al-Rabi`. She embraced Islam and migrated to Medina, but her husband refused to embrace Islam and stayed at Mecca. When her husband was taken in captivity in the Battle of Badr, the Prophet (peace be upon him) asked him to divorce her. When Abu Al-`As, however, embraced Islam, he was reunited with his wife.
( 11 )

.
Fatimah bint Muhammad (died 11 A.H.) : She was born to Khadijah. She was the youngest of the Prophet's daughters and the most beloved to him. She was one of the most wise and eloquent women of the Quraish. She was married to `Ali bin Abi Talib and she gave birth to Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Umm Kulthum and Zainab. She died six months after the Prophet's death.

20-06-2004, 12:36 AM




( 10 )

: .
Ibrahim bin Muhammad (died 10 A.H.) : He was born to Mariah Al-Qibtiyah. He lived for only 18 months. Seeing his son breathing his last breath, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was in tears and said, "The eye may shed tears, the heart may be sickened, but we say nothing that displeases Allah the Almighty."


.
Al-Qasim bin Muhammad : He was born to Khadijah, but he died while young.


.
`Abdullah bin Muhammad : He was born to Khadijah, but died while he was young.

20-06-2004, 12:37 AM




( 75 )

.
Umm Kulthum bint `Ali bin Abi Talib (died 75 A.H.) : She was the daughter of `Ali bin Abi Talib and Fatimah, daughter of Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him). She was married to `Umar bin Al-Khattab and gave birth to Zaid and Ruqaiyah.
(3-50 )

.
Al-Hasan bin `Ali bin Abi Talib (3-50 A.H.) : He was the eldest of the sons of `Ali bin Abi Talib and Fatimah bint Muhammad. His countenance bore great resemblance to that of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He was sworn caliph after his father's murder, but he preferred peace and gave up the caliphate to Mu`awiah. He died in Medina.
(4-61 )

10 61 /680 .
Al-Husain bin `Ali bin Abi Talib (4-61 A.H.) : The second son of `Ali bin Abi Talib and Fatimah bint Muhammad. He refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid bin Mu`awiah as caliph and was killed in the Battle of Karbala' on 10 Muharram, 61 A.H./680 A.D.


.
`Abdullah bin `Uthman bin `Affan : Son of Ruqaiyah, daughter of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him).


.
`Ali bin Abi Al-`As : Son of Zainab, the eldest of the Prophet's daughters. He died in adolescence.

20-06-2004, 12:39 AM



( 3 .)

" " ( 56).
Abu Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib (died 3 B.H.) : Real name: `Abd Manaf bin `Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim. He was father of `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, and uncle of the Prophet (peace be upon him), his supporter and advocator. He was one of the heroes and chiefs of the Banu Hashim. The Prophet (peace be upon him) invited him to embrace Islam, but he refrained because he feared reproach from the Arabs for renouncing the religion of his ancestors. However, he continued to protect the Prophet (peace be upon him). The following Qur'anic verse was revealed in his regard, "It is true thou wilt not be able to guide every one whom thou lovest; but Allah guides those whom He will and He knows best those who receive guidance" (Surah Al-Qasas, Verse 56).
( 32 /652 )

.
Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib (died 32 A.H./652 A.D.) : He was the Prophet's uncle and was one of the elite in the Quraish in the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods. He secretly embraced Islam before the Hijrah. He stayed in Mecca to convey the unbelievers' news to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He participated in the Battle of Hunain with the Prophet and was one of those who did not run away at the first moments of the fight. He died in Medina.
( 3 )

.
Hamzah bin `Abdul-Muttalib (died 3 A.H.) : The Messenger's uncle and his foster brother. He embraced Islam in the second year after the Mission. He migrated to Medina, took part in the Battle of Badr and was killed in the Battle of Uhud. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave him the titles 'Allah's Lion' and 'Master of the Martyrs.'

20-06-2004, 12:42 AM

20-06-2004, 12:43 AM
( 60 )

.
Abu Usaid (died 60 A.H.) : His real name was Malik bin Rabi`ah. He participated in the Battle of Badr with the Muslims. In his later years he lost his eyesight. He was the last of those who fought at the Battle of Badr to die. He died in Medina.
( 1 )

( ) .
Abu Umamah (died 1 A.H.) : Real name: As`ad bin Zurarah. He was a Companion from the Ansar and one of the earlier Companions who adopted Islam. Abu Umamah was the representative of his tribe in the First and Second Pledges of Al-`Aqabah. He was the first to pledge allegiance to the Messenger on the Night of Al-`Aqabah and was the first Muslim to enter Medina.
( 52 /672 )

( ) .
Abu Aiyub Al-Ansari (died 52 A.H./672 A.D.) : Real name: Khalid bin Zaid bin Kulaib. He was a Companion who belonged to the Khazraj, a tribe from the Ansar. Abu Aiyub hosted the Messenger in his home when he immigrated to Medina. He attended the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah and participated in the Battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench and all other battles commanded by the Prophet. Abu Aiyub died during the siege of Constantinople when Mu`awiah invaded the Byzantine territories.
( 32 /652 )

( ) ǡ .
Abu Al-Darda' (died 32 A.H./652 A.D.) : Real name: `Uwaimir bin Malik. He was a Companion from the Khazraj and one of the narrators of Prophetic hadiths. The Prophet linked him in a brotherly relation with Salman Al-Farisi. Abu Al-Darda' participated in all battles following the Battle of Uhud. It is not certain whether he participated in the latter or not. He assumed the office of judge in Damascus and died during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 41 )

ǡ ( ) .
Abu Burdah Al-Ansari (died 41 A.H.) : The uncle of Al-Bara' bin `Azib. His real name was Hani' bin Niar bin `Amr. He was present at the Battle of Badr. Jabir bin Abdullah and Abdul-Rahman bin Jabir narrated hadiths from him on 'Book on Fighting the Apostates. ' He died in the early years of Mu`awiah's caliphate.
( 65 )

46 .
Abu Barzah (died 65 A.H.) : His real name was Nadlah bin `Ubaid bin Al-Harith. He lived in Medina, but later left for Basra. He fought in `Ali's army against the people of Nahrawan. He also fought with Al-Muhallab bin Abi Sufrah against the Azariqah. He reported 46 Prophetic Hadiths.
( 63 )

() .
Abu Bashir Al-Ansari (died 63 A.H.) : Well-known narrator of the Prophet's Hadiths. He was fatally injured in the Battle of Al-Harrah near Medina (63 A.H./683 A.D.)
(51 -13 /573-634 )

( ). (11-13 /632-634 ) ǡ ǡ .
Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (51 B.H.-13 A.H./573-634 A.D.) : Real name: `Abdullah bin `Uthman bin `Amir. The first Rightly-Guided Caliph (11-13 A.H./632-634 A.D.) He was the first man to believe in the new faith. Abu Bakr kept company with the Prophet before and after the Mission. He endured the persecution of the Quraish and spared nothing to support the new religion. He was the Prophet's companion in his Hijrah from Mecca to Medina. When he became caliph, he fought the Apostates and those who refused to pay the Zakah, and restored unity to the Muslim community.
( 52 )

132 ǡ .
Abu Bakrah (died 52 A.H.) : His real name was Nafi` bin Al-Harith bin Kildah Al-Thaqafi. He was a Companion from Al-Ta`if. He reported 132 Prophetic hadiths. He died in Basra.
( 74 )

.
Abu Juhaifah (74 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him). 'Abu Juhaifah' was his nickname; his real name was Wahb bin `Abdullah bin Muslim. The Prophet (peace be upon him) died while Abu Juhaifah was still a teenager. He was appointed treasurer of the public treasury by `Ali bin Abi Talib. He was the last Companion to die in Kufa.
( 11 )

( ) .
Abu Hudhaifah bin `Utbah (died 11 A.H.) : Full name: Abu Hudhaifah bin `Utbah bin Rabi`ah bin `Abd Shams bin `Abd Manaf. He was a Companion from the Quraish and one of the earlier Muslims who participated in the Two Migrations (to Abyssinia and Medina). Abu Hudhaifah participated in the Battle of Badr and was killed in the Battle of Al-Yamamah.
( 11 )

ǡ .
Abu Dujanah Al-Ansari (died 11 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him), he participated in the Battle of Badr and was instrumental in the killing of Musailimah the Impostor at the Battle of Al-Yamamah.
( 32 /652 )

: " . "
Abu Dharr Al-Ghafari (died 32 A.H./652 A.D.) : A Companion of the Prophet and one of the first to adopt Islam, he was known for his piety and asceticism. He abandoned drinking alcohol, games of chance and idolatry even before Islam. Abu Dharr participated in the conquest of Jerusalem during the caliphate of `Umar bin Al-Khattab. During the reign of the Caliph `Uthman, Abu Dharr made the claim that the poor should share with the rich in their wealth, so `Uthman banished him and he died in exile. The Prophet said about him: "May Allah have mercy upon Abu Dharr! Lonely will he live, lonely will he die and lonely will he be resurrected. "
( 74 )

( ) .
Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (died 74 A.H.) : Real name: Sa`d bin Malik bin Sinan. He was a Companion who belonged to the Khazraj, a tribe of the Ansar. He narrated many Prophetic hadiths and was one of the most knowledgeable Companions. Abu Sa`id participated in 12 battles, and assumed the position of Mufti in Medina, where he died.
( 31 /652 )

( ) .
Abu Sufyan bin Harb (died 31 A.H./652 A.D.) : Real name: Sakhr bin Harb bin Umaiyah. He was a wealthy leader of the Quraish and one of the severest enemies of Islam at the battles of Uhud and the Trench. Abu Sufyan converted to Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca. He was father of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan, the founder of the Umayyad state.
( 4 )

( ) .
Abu Salamah Al-Makhzumi (died 4 A.H.) : Real name: `Abdullah bin `Abd Al-Asad. He was the Prophet's foster-brother and one of the first to adopt Islam. Abu Salamah migrated to Abyssinia and then to Medina. He participated in the Battle of Badr and died in Medina. The Prophet promised him that he would be the first to receive the record of his deeds with his right hand on the Day of Judgment.
( 68 )

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Abu Shuraih Al-`Adawi (died 68 A.H.) : He accepted Islam shortly before the Conquest of Mecca. He belonged to the Bani Ka`b tribe and thus carried their banner in the Conquest of Mecca. He died in Ailah on the way between the Hejaz and Syria.
( 18 /639 )

( ) ǡ .
Abu `Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah (died 18 A.H./639 A.D.) : Real name: `Amir bin `Abdullah. He was a Companion from the Quraish and one of the ten Muslims who were given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise. Abu `Ubaidah killed his polytheist father in a battle. The Prophet gave him the title "The Trustee of Muhammad's Ummah. " Abu `Ubaidah was one of the commanders who led Muslim armies to the conquest of Syria. He died during the plague of `Amwas.
( 40 )

ǡ .
Abu Mas`ud Al-Ansari (died 40 A.H.) : His real name was `Uqbah bin `Amr bin Tha`labah. He pledged allegiance to the Prophet (peace be upon him) at Al-`Aqabah Pledge and took part in the Battle of Uhud. In addition, he was an active participant in subsequent Islamic events. `Ali bin Abi Talib appointed him his successor at Kufa when he headed for Siffin to fight Mu`awiah. Abu Mas`ud reported more than 100 Prophetic hadiths.
( 44 )

( ) ѡ .
Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (died 44 A.H.) : Real name: `Abdullah bin Qais. Abu Musa immigrated to Abyssinia, then moved to Medina after the conquest of Khaibar. `Uthman bin `Affan appointed him governor of Kufa. Abu Musa was involved in the Arbitration between `Ali and Mu`awiah, but then renounced both parties.

20-06-2004, 12:44 AM
( 59 /678 )

) 7 .
Abu Hurairah (died 59 A.H./678 A.D.) : Real name: `Abdul-Rahman bin Sakhr Al-Azdi. He adopted Islam in 7 A.H. and participated with the Prophet in the Conquest of Khaibar in the same year. He stayed in the company of the Prophet in pursuit of knowledge. Abu Hurairah was considered one of the greatest Muftis of his time. `Umar bin Al-Khattab appointed him governor of Bahrain, then removed him due to his lenient character and his tendency to dedicate himself to worship. He died in Medina.
( 68 )

ϡ ǡ .
Abu Waqid Al-Laithi (died 68 A.H.) : His real name was `Auf bin Al-Harith Al-Laithi. He participated in the Battle of Badr. He was from Medina, but died in Merv in Turkmenistan during the caliphate of Mu`awiah.
( 21 )

ǡ .
Ubai bin Ka`b bin Qais (died 21 A.H.) : A Jewish rabbi who was knowledgeable of the ancient scriptures, Ubai attended the Second Pledge of Al-`Aqabah, in which he declared his adoption of Islam and pledged allegiance to the Prophet. Ubai became one of the scribes of Revelation, and participated in all the battles led by the Prophet, including Badr and Uhud. Ubai was one of the four reciters who compiled the Holy Qur'an during the lifetime of the Prophet and was known as the Master of Reciters. He died during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 54 /674 )

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Usamah bin Zaid (died 54 A.H./674 A.D.) : He was born after the emergence of Islam. The Prophet made him leader of a huge army while he was still young. `Umar bin Al-Khattab held him in high esteem. Usamah withdrew from the turmoil that broke out following the assassination of `Uthman. He died in Medina.
( 20 )

.
Usaid bin Hudair (died 20 A.H.) : A Companion from the Ansar, he was regarded as the most distinguished of the Aus knights and their chief at the Battle of Bu`ath. Usaid was one of the heads who attended the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah on behalf of his people. The Prophet linked him in a brotherly association with Zaid bin Harithah. He died during the caliphate of `Umar bin Al-Khattab
( 93 )

.
Anas bin Malik bin Al-Nadr (died 93 A.H.) : A Companion from the Ansar, he belonged to the Khazraj tribe, and was the servant of the Messenger (peace be upon him). Anas participated in the conquests of the Islamic armies. He was one of the narrators who reported a great number of hadiths. He moved to Basra where he lived the rest of his life.
( 67 )

( ) ǡ .
Al-Ahnaf bin Qais (died 67 A.H.) : Full name: Al-Ahnaf bin Qais bin Husain Al-Murri Al-Manqari Al-Tamimi, the chief of the Banu Tamim. Al-Ahnaf was known for being a prudent and eloquent leader. He invaded Khurasan under the leadership of Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari. Al-Ahnaf withdrew from the dissension that broke out following the Battle of the Camel, but supported `Ali bin Abi Talib in the Battle of Siffin, and disagreed with `Ali bin Abi Talib over his choosing Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari as his representative in the Arbitration. Al-Ahnaf insisted on his opposition to Mu`awiah even after Mu`awiah assumed the caliphate.
( 31 /651 )

( ) ǡ .
Al-Aqra` bin Habis (died 31 A.H./651 A.D.) : Full name: Al-Aqra` bin Habis bin `Iqal Al-Darimi. He was one of the Arab dignitaries in the Pre-Islamic period. Al-Aqra` came to the Prophet in a delegation from the Banu Darim and declared his adoption of Islam along with them. He accompanied Khalid bin Al-Walid in his battles in Al-Yamamah against the Apostates and participated in the series of battles fought in Iraq. Al-Aqra` was killed in battle in Jauzajan.
( 71 /690 )

ӡ .
Al-Bara' bin `Azib (died 71 A.H./690 A.D.) : A Companion from the Khazraj tribe, he participated in the conquest of Persia. Al-Bara' also supported `Ali bin Abi Talib in the Battles of the Camel and Siffin and in his fight against the Kharijites. Al-Bara' dwelt in Kufa and died there.
(50 )

: ǡ .
Al-Harith bin Kildah (died 50 A.H.) : A Companion from the tribe of Thaqif who dwelt in Ta'if, he studied medicine in Persia and became a celebrated physician throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Al-Harith compiled many books on medicine. He died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah.
( 20 )

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Al-Habbab bin Al-Mundhir bin Al-Jamuh (died 20 A.H.) : A Companion who was known for his wise judgments before and after Islam. Al-Habab participated in the Battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench and all other battles commanded by the Prophet. In the Battle of Badr, Al-Habab advised the Prophet that the Muslim army should camp near the Well of Badr to prevent the polytheists from reaching water. He died during the caliphate of `Umar bin Al-Khattab.
( 50 )

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Al-Hasan bin `Ali (died 50 A.H.) : The first son born to `Ali bin Abi Talib and Fatimah, the Prophet' s daughter. Al-Hasan had a close physical similarity to the Prophet. After the death of his father, `Ali, Al-Hasan abdicated the caliphate to Mu`awiah on the condition that he would be the successor of Mu`awiah after his death. He died in Medina.
( 36 /656 )

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Al-Zubair bin Al-`Awwam (died 36 A.H./656 A.D.) : A Companion from the tribe of Quraish, cousin of the Prophet and one of the ten persons who were given the glad tidings by the Prophet that they would enter Paradise. Al-Zubair was given the title "the Prophet's Disciple. " He participated in all the battles led by the Prophet.
( 91 )

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Al-Sa'ib bin Yazid (91 A.H.) : At the age of seven, Al-Sa'ib accompanied his father and mother to perform the Farewell Hajj along with the Prophet (peace be upon him). He died in Medina.
( 25 )

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Al-Sa`b bin Jathamah Al-Laithi (died 25 A.H.) : He participated in most of the battles during the Prophet's lifetime. He witnessed the Muslim conquest of Persia.
( 32 /653 )

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Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib (died 32 A.H./653 A.D.) : The Prophet's uncle, one of the Arab dignitaries held in high esteem by the Prophet. Al-`Abbas attended the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah before adopting Islam. He was the predecessor of the `Abbasid dynasty. He died in Medina.
( 21 )

8 ܡ .
Al-`Ala' bin Al-Hadhrami (died 21 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him), born in Mecca where he spent his early years. In 8 A.H., the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared him ruler of Al-Bahrain. He later fought the apostatizing tribes there. Al-`Ala' is said to be the first Muslim naval commander.
( 13 )

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Al-Fadl bin Al-`Abbas (died 13 A.H.) : The Prophet's cousin and Companion, nicknamed Abu Muhammad, he was the eldest son of Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib. After the Prophet's death, he set off for Jihad in Syria, where he died as a martyr in the Battle of Ajnadin.
(40 )

ǡ : " " .
Al-Qa`qa` bin `Amr Al-Tamimi (died 40 A.H.) : A courageous knight who was known for his exploits both before and after Islam. Abu Bakr said about him, "His cry in battle is better than one thousand fighters. " He showed exceptional courage in the Battles of Yarmuk and Al-Qadisiyah. He witnessed the Battle of the Camel with `Ali bin Abi Talib. He settled in Kufa and died there.
( 64 )

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Al-Miswar bin Makhramah (died 64 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu `Abdul-Rahman. While still young, Al-Miswar attended the Prophet (peace be upon him) and reported hadiths. He transmitted hadiths after the Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs and other major Companions.

20-06-2004, 12:45 AM


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Al-Musayib bin Hazn : Father of Sa`id bin Al-Musayib, the distinguished jurist. He attended Al-Ridhwan Pledge of Allegiance.
( 50 /670 )

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Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah (died 50 A.H./670 A.D.) : A resourceful Companion from the Thaqif. He attended the Pledge of Al-Ridwan, narrated hadiths from the Prophet and participated in the Battle of Yamamah and in the conquests of Syria, Iraq and Kufa. Al-Mughirah assumed governship of Kufa and Basra and then was deposed by `Uthman bin `Affan. Later Mu`awiah appointed him governor of Kufa, where he died.
( 33 /653 )

( ) ǡ .
Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad Al-Kindi (died 33 A.H./653 A.D.) : Full name: Al-Miqdad bin `Amr bin Tha`labah bin Malik. He was one of the first seven persons who announced their conversion to Islam publicly, and was the first knight to fight in the cause of Allah. He married Duba`ah bint Al-Zubair, the cousin of the Prophet. He participated in the Two Migrations (to Abyssinia and Medina), and participated in all the battles commanded by the Prophet. He died during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 65 /684 )

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Al-Nu`man bin Bashir (died 65 A.H./684 A.D.) : A Companion of the Prophet and a poet, he composed a collection of poems. He assumed governship of Kufa under Mu`awiah and of Homs under Yazid. Al-Nu`man pledged allegiance to Abdullah bin Al-Zubair (who rebelled against the Umayyads) and was assassinated.
( 21 /642 )

( ) ӡ .
Al-Nu`man bin Muqrin (died 21 A.H./642 A.D.) : Full name: Al-Nu`man bin Muqarrin bin `Amr bin `A'idh, a Companion from the tribe of Banu Mazinah. He achieved great conquests in Persia, occupied Qirmisin, and was killed in the Battle of Nihawand.
( 63 )

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Buraidah bin Al-Husaib (63 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him), nicknamed Abu Sahl. He lived in Medina but later left for Basra. Shortly after his arrival in Basra, he set out for the conquest of Khurasan, but died in Merv.
( 20 /641 )

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Bilal bin Rabah (died 20 A.H./641 A.D.) : An Abyssinian slave who was bought and emancipated by Abu Bakr, thus ridding him of the torture to which he had been exposed on account of his being a Muslim. Bilal accompanied the Prophet and participated in all the battles commanded by him. He was known as "the Prophet's Muezzin. " The Prophet linked him in a brotherly relation with Abu `Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah. Bilal dedicated his life to Jihad after the death of the Prophet until he died in Syria.
( 64 )

14 .
Thabit bin Al-Dahhak (died 64A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Zaid. He attended Al-Ridhwan Pledge of Allegiance. He rode behind the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the Battle of the Trench. He reported 14 Prophetic hadiths.
( 11 )

8 ܡ .
Thumamah bin Athal (died 11 A.H.) : Full name: Thumamah bin Athal bin Al-Nu`man bin Maslamah Al-Hanafi. He was a courageous and influential Companion from Yamamah. He converted to Islam after meeting the Prophet in Medina, then returned to Mecca to propagate Islam. The Prophet appointed him governor of Bahrain in 8 A.H. He opposed the Apostates in Yamamah and warned them against following Musailimah the Impostor.
( 54 )

128 .
Thauban, the Prophet's Freed Slave (died 54 A.H.) : A slave bought by the Prophet (peace be upon him), then set free. Thauban continued serving the Prophet until his death. He reported 128 Prophetic hadiths.
( 74 )

ɡ .
Jabir bin Samurah (died 74 A.H.) : Son of Khalidah bint Abi Waqqas, nicknamed Abu `Abdullah. He died in Kufa during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan.
( 78 )

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Jabir bin `Abdullah Al-Ansari (died 78 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu `Abdullah. In the later part of his life he lost his eyesight. He narrated hadiths from the Prophet and from Abu Sa`id. He lived and died in Medina.
( 57 )

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Jubair bin Mut`im bin `Adi (died 57 A.H.) : A Companion from the dignitaries of the Quraish. He was especially known for his knowledge of genealogy. He adopted Islam in the period between the Hudaibiah Treaty and the Conquest of Mecca. He died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan.
() ( 8 )

ǡ ǡ .
Ja`far bin Abi Talib (died 8 A.H.) : Full name: Ja`far bin Abi Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim. He was one of the first to adopt Islam. He immigrated to Abyssinia and propagated Islam there. He held the banner in the Battle of Mu'tah and took it to his chest after his two arms were cut off. He stood firm until he was killed by more than eighty wounds to his body. He was called "the Flier" for it was narrated that he would have two wings instead of arms in Paradise.
( 64 )

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Jundub Al-`Alaqi (64 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him), nicknamed Abu `Abdullah. He lived in Kufa and then left it for Basra. He reported Prophetic hadiths after the scholars of both cities.
( 36 /656 )

642 .
Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman (died 36 A.H./656 A.D.) : A Companion and Muslim conqueror, he was the confidant of the Prophet regarding the Hypocrites. `Umar bin Al-Khattab appointed him ruler of Ctesiphon. Hudhaifah defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nihawand (642 A.D.) He died in Ctesiphon.
( 54 )

ǡ .
Hakim bin Hizam (died 54 A.H.) : Full name: Hakim bin Hizam bin Asad bin `Abd Al-`Uzza, nephew of Khadijah, the Prophet's wife. Being a friend of the Prophet both before and after his Mission, Hakim violated the boycott imposed by the Quraish on the Banu Hashim. Hakim adopted Islam along with his sons upon the Conquest of Mecca. He was generally known for his righteousness and generosity.
( 3 /625 )

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Hamzah bin `Abdul-Muttalib (died 3 A.H./625 A.D.) : The Prophet's uncle and foster-brother. He adopted Islam two years after the Prophet's Mission and was a major support to him. He immigrated to Medina and the Prophet linked him in a brotherly relation with Zaid bin Harithah. Hamzah participated in the Battle of Badr and was killed at the Battle of Uhud.
( 21 /642 )

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Khalid bin Al-Walid (died 21 A.H./642 A.D.) : A Companion from the clan of Makhzum and an Arab commander, he led the Islamic armies in the conquests of Persia and Syria and defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Ajnadin. He died in Homs.
( 37 /657 )

ǡ .
Khabbab bin Al-Aratt (died 37 A.H./657 A.D.) : One of the first to adopt Islam, he suffered a great deal of torture by the polytheists to divert him from his belief. In Medina the Prophet linked him in a brotherly relation with Jabr bin `Atiq. Khabbab died in Kufa.

20-06-2004, 12:51 AM
( 4 )

ǡ .
Khubaib bin `Adi (died 4 A.H.) : A companion from the Aus, a tribe of the Ansar, he participated in the Battle of Badr. The Prophet dispatched him to the Banu `Adal and Al-Qarah to teach them religion. However, they betrayed him and sold him to the Banu Al-Harith bin `Amr bin Naufal, who killed him in retaliation for killing their father at the Battle of Badr.
(37 )

( ) ǡ .
Khuzaimah bin Thabit Al-Ansari (died 37 A.H.) : Full name: Khuzaimah bin Thabit bin Al-Fakih bin Sa`idah Al-Ansari. He was one of the first to adopt Islam. Khuzaimah participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles witnessed by the Prophet. The Prophet honored him with the special merit: his testimony equaled the testimony of two persons. Khuzaimah was one of the commanders of `Ali's army at the Battle of Siffin in which he was killed.
( 45 /665 )

ǡ .
Dihyah Al-Kalbi (died 45 A.H./665 A.D.) : One of the Prophet's companions who had a very fair countenance. Gabriel appeared to the Prophet, most frequently, in Dihya's form. The Prophet entrusted him with a message to Caesar, the Byzantine empror. He died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan.
( 73 )

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Rafi` bin Khadij (died 73 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu `Abdullah. He transmitted the Prophetic hadiths that his uncles reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him). He lived and died in Medina.
( 68 )

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Zaid bin Arqam (died 68 A.H.) : The Battle of the Trench was the first battle he witnessed after accepting Islam. He later took part in 17 battles. He reported and transmitted many Prophetic hadiths.
( 11 )

( ) ǡ .
Zaid bin Al-Khattab (died 11 A.H.) : Full name: Zaid bin Al-Khattab bin Nufail bin `Abd Al-`Uzza. He was the paternal brother of `Umar bin Al-Khattab and one of the early immigrants from Mecca to Medina. He participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles commanded by the Prophet and participated in the war against the Apostates, where he was killed.
( 45 /665 )

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Zaid bin Thabit (died 45 A.H./665 A.D.) : A Companion who belonged to the tribe of Khazraj, he was one of the scribes of Revelation. He was distinguished among the Companions by his knowledge of matters related to inheritance. The Prophet told him to learn Hebrew and Syriac to translate the messages that he received in these languages.
( 8 /629 )

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Zaid bin Harithah (died 8 A.H./629 A.D.) : A Companion who had been a slave of the Prophet. The Prophet set him free after he preferred to stay with him instead of being redeemed by his family. The Prophet had adopted him before the practice of adoption was legally prohibited. The Prophet married him to his cousin Zainab bint Jahsh, then to Umm Kulthum bint `Utbah after he divorced Zainab. Zaid was commander at the Battle of Mu'tah.
( 68 )

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Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani (68 A.H.) : One of the attendants of Al-Hudaibiah Pledge of Allegiance. He carried the banner of Juhainah, his tribe, during the Conquest of Mecca. He reported some of the Prophetic hadiths included in the Two Sahihs of Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
( 11 ) ( )

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Salim, the freed slave of Abu Hudhaifah (died 11 A.H.) : Full name: Salim bin `Ubaid bin Rabi`ah. He was one of the first to adopt Islam and was counted among the four most reliable persons the Prophet chose for teaching people the Holy Qur'an. Salim held the banner of the Muslim army in the fight against the Apostates and was killed after his two arms were cut off.
( 24 )

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Suraqah bin Malik (died about 24 A.H.) : Suraqah pursued the Prophet when he was on his way to Medina (in the Hijrah). The Prophet invoked Allah against Suraqah, so the legs of his horse sank into the earth. Suraqah then pledged to let the Prophet leave safely to Medina and not tell the polytheists where he was. On the day of the Conquest of Mecca, Suraqah declared his adoption of Islam and led a virtuous life until he died during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 55 /675 )

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Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas (died 55 A.H./675 A.D.) : A Companion from the tribe of Quraish, one of the ten persons whom the Prophet gave the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise. He led the Islamic armies to the conquests of Persia and defeated Rustum, the Persian commander at the Battle of Qadisiyah. Sa`d ordered the building of the city of Kufa in Iraq.
( 14 /635 )

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Sa`d bin `Ubadah (died 14 A.H./635 A.D.) : A Companion and dignitary of the tribe of Al-Khazraj who belonged to the Ansar, he witnessed the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah and participated in the Battles of Uhud and the Trench. Having ambitions to the caliphate, he refrained from pledging allegiance to Abu Bakr and `Umar and moved to Syria, where he died.
( 5 /627 )

( ) ǡ .
Sa`d bin Mu`adh (died 5 A.H./627 A.D.) : Full name: Sa`d bin Mu`adh bin Al-Nu`man Al-Ausi. He was the chief of the Aus tribe in Medina and was counted among its courageous leaders. He adopted Islam in the period between the First and the Second Pledges of Al-`Aqabah. The prophet accepted Sa`d's verdict regarding the Banu Quraidhah, who had breached their covenant with the Prophet.
( 59 /679 )

30 ܡ .
Sa`id bin Al-`As (died 59 A.H./679 A.D.) : Full name: Sa`id bin Al-`As bin Sa`id bin Al-`As bin Umaiyah bin `Abd Shams Al-Umawi. He was especially known for his generosity and good reputation. The Caliph `Uthman bin `Affan appointed him governor of Kufa. Sa`id made great contributions to the process of compiling the scattered copies of the Holy Qur'an into one volume. He died in Medina.
( 51 /671 )

ǡ .
Sa`id bin Zaid (died 51 A.H./671 A.D.) : Full name: Sa`id bin Zaid bin `Amr bin Nufail Al-`Adawi. A Companion from the tribe of Quraish, he was one of the ten Companions given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise. He participated in all the battles led by the Prophet except Badr and Uhud and had a leading role in the conquests of Syria. He died in Medina.
( 35 /655 )

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Salman Al-Farisi (died 35 A.H./655 A.D.) : A Companion of Persian descent, he set out seeking the true religion. First he converted to Christianity and lost his freedom when he was sold as a slave. He was sold again and sent to Medina, where the Prophet bought him and set him free. Salman participated in the Battle of the Trench and was the one who suggested digging a trench to prevent the polytheists from approaching Medina. Salman participated in all other battles witnessed by the Prophet. He participated in the conquests of Iraq, assumed govership of Ctesiphon and died there.
( 47 )

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Salamah bin Al-Akwa` (died 47 A.H.) : One of the Companions who pledged allegiance to the Prophet at the Pledge of Al-Ridwan, he participated in seven battles with the Prophet. He was specially known for his capabilities in archery and running. He died at the age of eighty.
( 65 )

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Sulaiman bin Surad (died 65 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Mutarrif, formerly named Yasar but renamed Sulaiman by the Prophet (peace be upon him). He headed the Repentant Group that called for taking revenge against those involved in the murder of Al-Husain bin `Ali. Sulaiman was killed in a battle with `Abdullah bin Ziyad.
( 59 )

.
Samurah bin Jundub (died 59 A.H.) : A Companion who was famous for his honesty and truthfulness and was highly devoted to Islam. Ziad, the Umayyad Emir, used to entrust him with the rule of Basra whenever he went to Kufa. Samurah adopted severe policies against the Kharijites (a deviant sect). He died in Basra during the caliphate of Mu`awiah.

20-06-2004, 12:55 AM
( 38 )

.
Sahl bin Hunaif (died 38 A.H.) : He participated in nearly all battles fought by the Prophet (peace be upon him). Sahl is best known for his steadfastness at the critical Battle of Uhud. `Ali bin Abi Talib appointed him his successor in Medina when he headed for Basra. Later, he was appointed ruler of all Persia.
( 91 )

ǡ .
Sahl bin Sa`d Al-Sa`idi (died 91 A.H.) : Formerly named Hazn, but later renamed Sahl by the Prophet (peace be upon him). He died at the age of 100. He was the last Companion to die in Medina.
( 15 )

.
Suhail bin `Amr (died 15 A.H.) : Full name: Suhail bin `Amr bin `Abd Shams Al-`Amiri. He fought against the Muslims at the Battle of Badr, was captured and ransomed. He was the representative of the Quraish in the Hudaibiah Treaty with the Muslims. He converted to Islam after the Conquest of Mecca and settled in Medina. He joined the Islamic armies in Syria and participated in the Battle of Yarmuk, in which he was killed.
( ) ( 58 )

ǡ : .
Shaddad bin Aus (died 58 A.H.) : Full name: Shaddad bin Aus bin Thabit Al-Khazraji. He participated in the Battle of Badr. He was especially known for his being eloquent and self-possessed. He died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan and was buried in Jerusalem.
( 9 )

. 104 ǡ .
Sa`sa`ah bin Najiah (died 9 A.H.) : Full name: Sa`sa`ah bin Najiah bin `Iqal bin Muhammad bin Sufyan. He was one of the Arab dignitaries and chief of the tribe of Tamim both before and after the advent of Islam. He opposed the pre-Islamic Arabian custom of burying infant girls alive. Upon the emergence of Islam he had taken 104 girls from their fathers to save them from being buried alive.
( 28 )

ǡ : { } (: 207) ǡ .
Suhaib Al-Rumi (died 28 A.H.) : Full name: Suhaib bin Sinan bin Malik. He was called Al-Rumi (the Roman) because the Byzantines captured him when he was still young. `Ammar bin Yasir and he declared their adoption of Islam in the House of Al-Arqam. Suhaib was from a low social status and suffered a great deal on account of his religion. Upon his migration to Medina, the Quraish stipulated that he leave behind all the earnings he had acquired in Mecca. A Qur'anic verse was revealed regarding him which says: "And there is the type of man who gives his life to earn the pleasure of Allah. " (Surah Al-Baqarah 2, Verse: 207) He participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles witnessed by the Prophet. He died in Medina.
( 36 /656 )

.
Talhah bin `Ubaidullah (died 36 A.H./656 A.D.) : Full name: Talhah bin `Ubaidullah bin `Uthman bin Ka`b bin Sa`d. He was a Companion who belonged to the tribe of Quraish. He was one of the ten Companions given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise. His finger was paralyzed at the Battle of Uhud when he protected the Prophet from an arrow. He was one of the six persons nominated for the caliphate after the murder of `Umar bin Al-Khattab. He was killed by an arrow at the Battle of the Camel.
( 13 )

ǡ .
Tulaib bin `Umair (died 13 A.H.) : Full name: Tulaib bin `Umair bin Wahb bin Abi Kuthair bin Qusai. He was a Companion who belonged to the tribe of Quraish and was the first Muslim to assault a polytheist to defend the Prophet. He participated in the Battle of Badr and many other battles. Killed at the Battle of Ajnadin.
( 35 )

ǡ .
`Amir bin Rabi`ah (died 35 A.H.) : One of the early Companions who adopted Islam, he emigrated to Abyssinia and then to Medina. `Amir participated in the Battle of Badr and all subsequent battles witnessed by the Prophet. The Caliph `Uthman bin `Affan entrusted him with the rule of Medina when he set off for Pilgrimage. He died soon after the death of `Uthman bin `Affan.


.
`Amir bin Fuhairah : A member of the tribe of Azd and one of the early Companions who adopted Islam. His name was mentioned in books dealing with the great battles of Islam. He was killed at the Well of Ma`unah.
( 34 )

ǡ .
`Ubadah bin Al-Samit (died 34 A.H.) : Full name: `Ubadah bin Al-Samit bin Qais. He was a Companion who belonged to the Khazraj, a tribe from the Ansar. He was one of the representatives who participated in the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah on behalf of his people. The Prophet linked him in a brotherly relation with Abu Marthad Al-Ghanawi. He participated in all the battles witnessed by the Prophet as well as the conquest of Egypt by `Amr bin Al-`As. He was one of the compilers of the Qur'an during the lifetime of the Prophet. `Ubadah was the first judge in Palestine. He died in Ramlah.
( 53 )

.
`Abdul-Rahman bin Abi Bakr (died 53 A.H.) : Son of the great Companion Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq and brother of the Prophet's wife `A'ishah. He was present at Al-Hudaibiah Treaty between the Muslims led by the Prophet (peace be upon him), and the Quraish. He participated in Al-Yamamah Battle and the conquest of Syria.
( 63 )

ǡ .
`Abdul-Rahman bin Azhar (died 63 A.H.) : A nephew of `Abdul-Rahman bin `Auf, nicknamed Abu Jubair. He lived in Medina. He took part in the Battle of Hunian and memorized many Prophetic hadiths. He died in the Battle of Al-Harrah near Medina.
( 50 )

.
`Abdul-Rahman bin Samurah (died 50 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Sa`id. He accepted Islam during the Conquest of Mecca. He witnessed the Battle of Mu'tah and participated in the conquests of Sijistan, Kabul, Sind and Khurasan. He died in Basra.
( 32 /652 )

.
`Abdul-Rahman bin `Auf (died 32 A.H/652 A.D.) : Full name: `Abdul-Rahman bin `Auf bin Al-Harith bin Zuhrah. A Companion who belonged to the clan of Zuhrah, from the tribe of Quraish, he was one of the first to adopt Islam, one of the ten Companions given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise, and one of the six Companions nominated to the caliphate after the murder of `Umar bin Al-Khattab. He participated in the Battle of Badr and all battles witnessed by the Prophet. He was buried in Medina.
( 86 )

.
`Abdullah bin Abi Aufa (died 86 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Mu`awiah. He took part in Al-Hudaibiah Treaty and the principal events which followed. He lived in Medina but left for Kufa after the death of the Prophet (peace be upon him). He was the last Companion to live in Kufa.
( 14 )

.
`Abdullah bin Umm Maktum (died 14 A.H.) : Full name: `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Shuraih. A Companion who belonged to the tribe of Quraish, he was one of the early immigrants who moved to Medina before the Prophet. He was killed at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyah while holding the banner.
( 73 )

9 .
`Abdullah bin Al-Zubair (73 A.H.) : Son of Al-Zubair bin Al-`Awwam and Asma' bint Abi Bakr, he participated in the Islamic conquests and supported `A'ishah at the Battle of the Camel against `Ali bin Abi Talib. He revolted against the Umayyad governors in Hejaz, claimed himself caliph after the death of Yazid bin Mu`awiah and made Medina the center of his rule. His rule lasted for nine years until he was killed by Al-Hajjaj Al-Thaqafi in Mecca.
( 57 )

.
`Abdullah bin Al-Mughaffal (died 57 A.H.) : He participated in Al-Ridhwan Pledge of Allegiance. He was one of the ten Companions dispatched to Basra by `Umar bin Al-Khattab to help people understand the teachings of Islam. He died in Basra.
( 3 /625 )

.
`Abdullah bin Jahsh (died 3 A.H./625 A.D.) : Full name: `Abdullah bin Ri'ab bin Ya`mur. A Companion who belonged to the tribe of Banu Asad, he was the Prophet's brother-in-law. He was killed at the Battle of Uhud.

20-06-2004, 12:56 AM
( 80 )

.
`Abdullah bin Ja`far (died 80 A.H.) : A Companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him), nicknamed Abu Ja`far. He was the first Muslim baby born in Abyssinia. He immigrated to Medina in the company of his father. He memorized and narrated Hadith after the Prophet (peace be upon him).
( 28 )

.
`Abdullah bin Hudhafah Al-Sahmi (died 28 A.H.) : A Companion who belonged to the tribe of Quraish, he was one of the first to adopt Islam. He emigrated to Abyssinia and then to Medina, and participated in the conquests of Syria. He was captured by the Byzantines during the Islamic invasion of Caesarea. He died in Egypt during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 8 /629 )

ǡ .
`Abdullah bin Rawahah (died 8 A.H./629 A.D.) : A Companion who belonged to the Khazraj, a tribe from the Ansar, he was one of the representatives who witnessed the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah on behalf of his people. He participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles commanded by the Prophet. He was killed at the Battle of Mu'tah.
( 35 )

.
`Abdullah bin Zam`ah (died 35 A.H.) : He lived in Medina. He narrated hadiths after the Prophet (peace be upon him) and died in Medina.
( 32 )

.
`Abdullah bin Zaid (died 32 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Muhammad, he lived in Medina. It was `Abdullah who heard the Adhan in a dream.
(7 -63 )

ǡ 48 ǡ 63 .
`Abdullah bin Zaid bin `Asim Al-Ansari (7 B.H.-63 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Muhammad. He lived in Medina and was present at the Battle of Badr. He killed Musailimah the Imposter at the Battle of Al-Yamamah. He reported 48 Prophetic hadiths. He was killed at the Battle of Al-Harrah in 63 A.H./683 A.D.
( 43 /663 )

.
`Abdullah bin Salam (died 43 A.H./663 A.D.) : A Companion of a Jewish descent, he adopted Islam upon the Prophet's arrival in Medina. He witnessed the conquest of Jerusalem with `Umar bin Al-Khattab. He died in Medina.
( 68 )

. `
Abdullah bin `Abbas (died 68 A.H.) : A venerable Companion who had the title "the Learned Scholar of this Ummah. " Born in Mecca, he was the predecessor of the Abbasid caliphs. He narrated many hadiths form the Prophet, and supported `Ali bin Abi Talib in the Battles of the Camel and Siffin. `Abdullah was especially known for his knowledge of genealogy and the history of battles and expeditions. He lost his sight at the end of his life and died in Al-Ta'if.
( 73 /692 )

.
`Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (died 73 A.H./692 A.D.) : A Companion of a noble descent from the Quraish, he adopted Islam before attaining maturity and immigrated to Medina along with his father. He became one of the most distinguished Muftis. He participated in the conquest of Mecca, the Battle of Yarmuk and the conquest of Egypt. He died in Mecca.
( 65 )

.
`Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As (died 65 A.H.) : An ascetic Companion, he adopted Islam before his father `Amr bin Al-`As. He had a fair share of knowledge and mastered Syriac. He had the habit of fighting with two swords. Mu`awiah appointed him governor of Kufa for a short time. He died in Egypt.
( 3 /635 )

.
`Abdullah bin `Amr bin Haram (died 3 A.H./625 A.D.) : One of the representatives who witnessed the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah on behalf of his people, he participated in the Battle of Badr. It was reported that the angels shaded him with their wings when he was killed at the Battle of Uhud.
( 32 )

ǡ ǡ .
`Abdullah bin Mas`ud bin Ghafil (died 32 A.H.) : One of the earlier Companions to adopt Islam, he was one of the ten Companions given the glad tidings that they would enter Paradise. He mastered the recitation of the Holy Qur'an, its interpretation and the circumstances related to the revelation of certain Qur'anic verses. He participated in all the battles witnessed by the Prophet. Besides being knowledgeable of jurisprudence and hadith, he was a gifted poet. He administered the treasury of Kufa after the Prophet's death. `Abdullah died in Medina during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 50)

.
`Itban bin Malik (died 50 A.H.) : He lived in Medina and took part in the Battle of Badr. The Prophet (peace be upon him) linked him in a brotherly relation with `Umar bin Al-Khattab. `Itban reported ten Prophetic hadiths. He died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah.
(47 - 35 /577-656 )

(23 /644 ) ա .
`Uthman bin `Affan (47 B.H.-35 A.H./577-656 A.D.) : The third Rightly-Guided Caliph (23 A.H./644 A.D.), he was a rich noble man who belonged to the Umayyads, a clan of the Quraish. He was born in Mecca and adopted Islam shortly after the Prophet's Mission. He was given the title "Dhu Al-Nurain" (the Owner of the Two Lights) as he married the Prophet's two daughters Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum in succession. He equipped the army which was mobilized by the Prophet to invade Tabuk. `Uthman assumed the caliphate after the death of `Umar bin Al-Khattab. During his reign the Muslims made great conquests in Armenia, Caucasia, Khurasan, Kerman, Sijistan, Tunisia and Cyprus. `Uthman compiled the Holy Qur'an in one copy, and made expansions to the Sacred Mosque at Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque at Medina. He was the first caliph to use the police and judiciary systems.
( 2 /624 )

ǡ .
`Uthman bin Mazh`un (died 2 A.H./624 A.D.) : Known for his wisdom in the pre-Islamic period, he asked the Prophet to allow him to forgo marriage and the pleasures of life, but the Prophet denied him that. He participated in the Battle of Badr and died after returning home. When he died the Prophet kissed him and was in tears. He was the first immigrant Companion to die in Medina.
( 68 )

9 ܡ .
`Adi bin Hatim (died 68 A.H.) : A witty preacher, nicknamed Abu Wahb and Abu Tarif, chief of the Tai' tribe in the pre-Islamic period. He remained chief after the emergence of Islam. He played an important part in the battles against the apostates in the early months of Abu Bakr's caliphate. He participated in the conquest of Iraq. He later moved to Kufa, where he died.
( 58 )

.
`Uqbah bin `Amir Al-Juhani (died 58 A.H.) : A Companion who narrated many hadiths from the Prophet. Besides being an eloquent orator, he mastered many branches of knowledge such as the rules of inheritance, jurisprudence, poetry and prose. He participated in the compilation of the Holy Qur'an, witnessed the conquest of Damascus and Siffin and died during the caliphate of Mu`awiah.
( 13 /634 )

.
`Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl (died 13 A.H./634 A.D.) : A Companion who belonged to Makhzum, a clan of the Quraish. He and his father were among the severest enemies of Islam. After the conquest of Mecca, he fled to Yemen. His wife Umm Hakim asked the Prophet to forgive him. `Ikrima converted to Islam and led a virtuous life. He participated in the wars against the Apostates and was killed at the Battle of Yarmuk.
(23 - 40 /600-661 )

(35-40 /656-661 ) . .
`Ali bin Abi Talib (23 B.H.-40 A.H./600-661 A.D.) : The fourth Rightly-Guided caliph (35-40 A.H./656-661 A.D.) He was the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law and was one of the great fighters who participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench and Hunain. He assumed the caliphate after `Uthman bin `Affan. He was one of the great orators and scholars. He commanded his army at the Battles of the Camel, Siffin and Al-Nahrawan.
( 37 /657 )

ǡ .
`Ammar bin Yasir (died 37 A.H./657 A.D.) : One of the first to adopt Islam, he and his family suffered cruel torture inflicted by the Banu Makhzum. His father died from torture and his mother was killed by Abu Jahl. He first immigrated to Abyssinia and then to Medina. He showed extreme courage at the Battles of Badr and the Trench, and supported `Ali bin Abi Talib at the Battle of Siffin in which he was killed.

20-06-2004, 12:57 AM
(2-83 )

(36/656) .
`Umar bin Abi Salamah (2-83 A.H.) : Born in Abyssinia. He was brought up by the Prophet (peace be upon him). He was appointed ruler of Bahrain by `Ali bin Abi Talib and sided with him in the Battle of the Camel (36 A.H./656 A.D.) He died in Medina.
(40 23/584-644 )

(13 /634 ) .
`Umar bin Al-Khattab (40 B.H.-23 A.H./584-644 A.D.) : The second Rightly-Guided Caliph (13 A.H./634 A.D.) He embraced Islam five years before the Hijrah. He assumed the office of judge during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, thus becoming the first Muslim judge. He was appointed caliph after Abu Bakr and was the first to receive the title "the Emir of the Believers. " He made the Hijri year the official calendar for Muslims and was the first caliph to introduce the public ministries system. He established the first Muslim public treasury and was known for his asceticism and justice. His reign witnessed the great conquests of Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Ctesiphon, Egypt, Jazirah, Khurasan, Sijistan and Cyprus.
( 52 )

( 7) .
`Imran bin Husain (52 A.H.) : He accepted Islam in 7 A.H. He belonged to the tribe of Khuza`ah and thus carried their banner in the Muslim march to conquer Mecca. He died in Basra.
( 55 )

20 .
`Amr bin Umayyah (died 55 A.H.) : A brave Companion. Before adopting Islam, he participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud against the Muslims. Then he embraced Islam and witnessed the incident of Ma`unah Well. He narrated 20 Prophetic hadiths. He died during the reign of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan.
( 3 )

.
`Amr bin Al-Jamuh (died 3 A.H.) : A Companion from the heads of the Ansar. The Prophet appointed him the chief of the Banu Salamah. He was killed at the Battle of Uhud.
( 43 /664 )

.
`Amr bin Al-`As (died 43 A.H./664 A.D.) : Full name: `Amr bin Al-`As bin Wa'il bin Hashim bin Sa`id bin Sahm. He was a famous Arab commander and the conqueror of Egypt. He established the old city of Al-Fustat (near Cairo). He set a tricky plan which made Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan win the Arbitration against `Ali bin Abi Talib. He died in Cairo.
( 21 )

ǡ .
`Amr bin Ma`d Yakrib (died 21 A.H.) : He adopted Islam in 9 A.H., but renounced Islam after the Prophet's death. He then repented and became a good Muslim. He participated in the Battle of Yarmuk, in which he lost an eye, and fared well at the Battle of Qadisiyah. He was injured and died at the Battle of Nihawand.
( 24 )

.
`Umair bin Wahb Al-Jumahi (died 24 A.H.) : He was commissioned by the Quraish to murder the Prophet, but he repented and converted to Islam. He participated in the Battle of Uhud and all other battles witnessed by the Prophet. `Umair participated in the fight against the Apostates, witnessed the conquests of Syria, and witnessed the conquest of Alexandria with `Amr bin Al-`As. He died during the caliphate of `Uthman bin `Affan.
( 20 )

( ) ǡ .
`Iyad bin Ghunm (died 20 A.H.) : Full name: `Iyad bin Ghunm bin Zuhair Al-Fihri Al-Qurashi. He was cousin of Abu `Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah. `Iyad was one of the early immigrants to Medina. He participated in the Battle of Badr and all other battles commanded by the Prophet. He went to Syria and conquered Jazirah. He died in Syria.
( 23 )

.
Qatadah bin Al-Nu`man Al-Ansari (died 23 A.H.) : One of the most skillful archers, he participated in all the battles led by the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet (peace be upon him) cured his eye which had been put out at the Battle of Uhud. He died in Medina.
( 60 )

36 ܡ .
Qais bin Sa`d (died 60 A.H.) : He played the role of police chief during the Prophet's lifetime. In 36 A.H., he was appointed ruler of Egypt under `Ali bin Abi Talib. He died in Medina.
( 26 )

.
Ka`b bin Zuhair (died 26 A.H.) : Son of the poet Zuhair bin Abi Sulma, he was also a poet. He lived through pre-Islamic and Islamic eras. When he kept on composing defamatory verse regarding the Prophet (peace be upon him) and mentioning certain Muslim women in love poems, the Prophet (peace be upon him) declared his killing lawful. He then apologized to the Prophet (peace be upon him), adopted Islam and wrote a wonderful poem praising Islam. This made the Prophet (peace be upon him) forgive him and offer him one of his gowns.
( 51 )

.
Ka`b bin `Ujrah (died 51 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Muhammad. He reported Prophetic hadiths and died in Medina.
( 50 /660 )

: { } (: 118).
Ka`b bin Malik (died 50 A.H./660 A.D.) : One of the poets who composed verse defending the Prophet (peace be upon him), he attended the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah and participated in all the battles witnessed by the Prophet (peace be upon him) except Badr and Tabuk. He was one of the three Companions who regretted their absence at the Battle of Tabuk, regarding whom a Qur'anic verse was revealed which says: "(He turned in mercy also) to the three who were left behind; (they felt guilty) to such a degree that the earth seemed constrained to them, for all its spaciousness, and their (very) Souls seemed straitened to them, and they perceived that there is no fleeing from Allah (and no refuge) but to Himself. Then He turned to them, that they might repent: for Allah is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful" (Surah Al-Taubah No. 9, Verse: 118)
( 74 )

.
Malik bin Al-Huwairith (died 74 A.H.) : Nicknamed Abu Sulaiman, he reported Prophetic hadiths. He lived in Basra, where Abu Qilabah transmitted the hadiths he narrated on Prayer. He died in Basra.
( 36 )

ǡ .
Mujashi` bin Mas`ud (died 36 A.H.) : A brave Companion who conquered Kabul and signed a peace accord with its king. He also conquered Mekran and its neighboring territories. In the Battle of the Camel, he took `A'ishah's side against `Ali bin Abi Talib. He was murdered shortly before the battle and buried in Basra.
( 43 )

.
Muhammad bin Maslamah (died 43 A.H.) : A virtuous Companion who belonged to the Aus, a tribe of the Ansar, he was one of the few persons named Muhammad before Islam. He participated in killing Ka`b Al-Ashraf, a Jew who incited the Quraish to fight the Prophet (peace be upon him). He witnessed the conquests of Egypt and Syria. He withdrew from the dissension which took place after the murder of the Caliph `Uthman bin `Affan and did not take part in the Battles of the Camel or Siffin. He died in Medina.
( 3 /625 )

.
Mus`ab bin `Umair (died 3 A.H./625 A.D.) : A virtuous Companion who adopted Islam in the early years of the Mission but concealed his conversion from the polytheists. When they discovered it, they imprisoned him. Upon his release, he traveled to Abyssinia and then returned to Mecca after the First Pledge of Al-`Aqabah, taught people the Holy Qur'an and led them in Prayer. He participated in the Battles of Badr and Uhud, holding the Prophet's banner. He was killed at the Battle of Uhud.
( 18 /639 )

.
Mu`adh bin Jabal (died 18 A.H./639 A.D.) : A member of the Khazraj, a tribe of the Ansar, he attended the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah and participated in all the battles witnessed by the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Prophet appointed him judge in Yemen. He was one of the six Companions who recorded the Qur'an during the lifetime of the Prophet. He participated in the Battle of Yarmuk and died during the Plague of `Amwas.
(20 . -60 /603-680 )

(8 ) 37 /657 (41-60 /661-680 ) .
Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan (20 B.H.-60 A.H./603-680 A.D.) : The founder of the Umayyad State in Syria, he belonged to the Umaiyah clan of the tribe of Quraish. He was born in Mecca and was one of the opponents of the new religion until he embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca (8 A.H.) For his knowledge of writing and mathematics, he was made a scribe of the Messenger (peace be upon him). Mu`awiah ruled Syria during the reign of both Caliphs `Umar and `Uthman. He opposed `Ali bin Abi Talib and fought him at the Battle of Siffin (37 A.H./657 A.D.), which ended with the Arbitration. He became caliph (41-60 A.H./661-680 A.D.) and moved the capital of the caliphate to Damascus. He was one of the major conquerors in the Islamic era. His conquests reached the Atlantic Ocean.

20-06-2004, 12:57 AM


ǡ .
Ma`qil bin Yasar : A narrator of Prophetic hadiths. He lived in Basra, where he met Al-Hasan Al-Basri, who transmitted the hadiths he reported on marriage and interpretation of Surah Al-Baqarah. He died in Basra during the reign of Mu`awiah.
( 40 )

( ) .
Mu`aiqib (died 40 A.H.) : He lived in Medina where Abu Salamah bin `Abdul-Rahman transmitted the hadiths he reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
( 30 )

.
Nu`aim bin Mas`ud (died 30 A.H.) : A Companion who belonged to the Banu Ashja`, he adopted Islam on the night when the Battle of the Trench took place. He sowed discord between the tribes of Quraizhah and Ghatafan, who conspired against the Muslims during the Battle of the Trench. He settled in Medina and died there.
( 13 )

.
Hisham bin Al-`As (died 13 A.H.) : Full name: Hisham bin Al-`As bin Wa'il bin Hisham Al-Sahmi. One of the early Companions who adopted Islam in Mecca, he immigrated to Abyssinia and then returned to Mecca with the aim of following the Prophet to Medina, but people confined him in his home. He then stayed in Mecca until the Battle of the Trench. Afterwards, he traveled to Medina and participated in all subsequent battles until he was killed at the Battle of Ajnadin.
( 25 )

.
Wahshi bin Harb (died 25 A.H.) : One of the brave freed-slaves in Mecca in the pre-Islamic period, he killed Hamzah, the Prophet's uncle, at the Battle of Uhud. Afterwards, he converted to Islam and participated in the wars waged against the Apostates, killing Musailimah the Impostor. He participated in the Battle of Yarmuk. He settled in Homs and died there.
( 37 )

.
Ya`la bin Umayyah (died 37 A.H.) : He accepted Islam upon the Conquest of Mecca. He participated in the Battles of Al-Ta`if, Hunain and Tabuk. He was appointed ruler of Yemen by the Caliph Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq.

20-06-2004, 12:59 AM

20-06-2004, 01:00 AM
( 252 )

ɡ 219 ܡ .
Abu Ja`far Ashnas (died in 252 A.H.) : A Turkish Mamluk brought by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tasim. He took charge of building the city of Samarra on the Tigris River. In 219 A.H. Al-Mu`tasim appointed him ruler of Egypt but he was later deposed by Al-Mutawakkil. The great property he left was confiscated by the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu`izz Lidin Allah.
(718-755 )

ǡ ( 749 ) .
Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani (718-755 A.D.) : A major commander and propagator of the Abbasid Dynasty, he captured Naisapur, Merv, then Kufa (749 A.D.), declaring the end of the Umayyad Caliphate and helped Abu Al-`Abbas Al-Saffah become the first Abbasid Caliph. He was killed by the Caliph Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur due to Abu Muslim's growing influence.
(1734-1804 )

(1775-1804 ) ǡ (1799 ).
Ahmad Basha Al-Jazzar (1734-1804) : Governor of Sidon and Syria. He fortified Acre which he took as a base. With the help of the British fleet in the Mediterranean Sea, he managed to resist Napoleon's siege of the city.
( 360 )

352 ܡ () .
Ahmad bin Al-Hasan Al-Kalbi (died 360 A.H.) : He was appointed ruler of Sicily after his father's death in 352 A.H. He headed to southern Sicily and set the Byzantine fleet on fire. He died on his way to support the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu`izz opposite to the coast of Tripoli.
(1722-1773 )

( 1747 ).
Ahmad Shah Durani (1722-1773 A.D.) : One of Nadir Shah's generals who assumed power of the Afghan provinces in 1747 A.D., declared Afghanistan a united state and founded the Durani Dynasty.
(1841-1911 )

( 1882 ) ǡ (1901 ) .
Ahmad `Urabi (1841-1911) : An Egyptian military commander and leader of the National Party. He revolted against the Khedive Taufiq and the Turkish Pashas (1882 A.D.) He declared opposition to the English influence in Egypt. To suppress the `Urabi Revolution, the British forces blasted Alexandria and invaded Cairo. The Egyptian army was resolved and `Urabi was expelled. `Urabi returned back to Cairo in 1901 A.D.


1231 .
Ertugrul : Founder of the Ottoman Dynasty, he united the Oghuz Turkish tribes under his leadership. He founded a principality in northwestern Anatolia in 1231 A.D. Ertugrul led several raids against the Byzantine empire in order to expand his small state.
(1095-1188 )

ѡ "" .
Usamah bin Munqidh (1095-1188 A.D.) : Emir of Banu Munqidh in northern Hama, he was a man of letters and historian. He is known for his unabated attacks against the Crusaders. Among his achievements was the autobiographical book Al-I`tibar [Consideration].
( 564 / 1169 )

564 ܡ .
Asad Al-Din Shirkuh (died 564 A.H./1169 A.D.) : Uncle of Saladin (Salah Al-Din Al-Ayybi) and the commander of Nur Al-Din Mahmud, he was dispatched at the head of an army to Egypt in support of the Vizier Shawar against his rival Dirgham. Having accomplished his task and defeated Dirgham, Shirkuh went back to Syria. Vizier Shawar, however, tyrannized in Egypt and collaborated with the Crusaders. So Shirkuh was dispatched once again to Egypt. He defeated the Crusaders and eventually killed Shawar in 564 A.H. He was given the vizierate but shortly died afterwards.


( 805 ) ( 808 ) ( 803 ) (803 ).
The Barmakids : A Persian family which was so highly esteemed by the Abbasids that most of its members were appointed ministers. They were known for their generosity and interest in literary activities, mainly poetry. Most outstanding figures among the family were Yahya bin Khalid (died 805 A.H.), who was the educator and minister of Al-Rashid; Al-Fadl bin Yahya (died 808 A.H.), who was the foster-brother of Al-Rashid and the educator of Al-Amin; and Ja`far bin Yahya (died 803 A.H.) who was a close companion of Al-Rashid. However, Harun Al-Rashid raged at them and destroyed them in what was known as "the Barmakid Disaster" in 803 A.H.
( 112 /747 )

99 .
Al-Jarrah Al-Hakami (died 112 A.H./730 A.D.) : He was appointed ruler of Khurasan and Sijistan in 99 A.H. by `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, the Umayyad Caliph. However, when Al-Jarrah levied Jiziah [Tribute] on Muslim subjects, `Umar deposed him. During the rule of Caliph Yazid bin `Abdul-Malik, Al-Jarrah was appointed ruler of Armenia and Azerbaijan. He attempted to conquer the region around the Caspian Sea but died near Ardabil.
( 270 /884 )

ǡ ǡ .
Al-Hasan bin Zaid (died 270 A.H.) : An `Alawi ruler and distinguished Zaidi scholar whose lineage went back to Al-Hasan bin `Ali bin Abi Talib. He was the founder of the `Alawi State in Tabaristan. He successfully captured Rayy. His rule extended for twenty years.
(97-181 /716-797 )

. 138 .
Al-Hasan bin Qahtubah (97-181 A.H./716-797 A.D.) : A Muslim military leader who fought the Byzantines and captured many territories. Byzantine soldiers were so scared of him that they called him "The Dragon. " In Armenia he gained victory over the Kharijites and the Armenian rebels.
(1487-1524 )

(1502-1524 ) ǡ (1514 ).
Shah Isma`il Al-Safawi (1487-1534 A.D.) : Born in Ardabil, he was the founder of the Shiite Safavid State in Iran with Tabriz as its capital. He expanded his domains from Baghdad to Harah in Afghanistan, and seized Azerbaijan with the help of the Turks. He was defeated by Sultan Selim I in the Battle of Chaldiran (1514 A.D.)
( 247 /861 )

ѡ 236
Al-`Abbas bin Al-Fadl (died 247 A.H.) : A Military leader and Aghlabid ruler of Sicily (236 A.H.). He defeated the Byzantines in many battles. He died near Sargasso.
( )

( ) ( ) ( ) .
Al-Najashi (Negus, King of Abyssinia) : King of Abyssinia at the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him). He received and protected the early Muslims who immigrated to his country. The Prophet deputized him to conclude his marriage contract to Umm Habibah. Negus offered her a dowry of four hundred dinars. He converted to Islam and when he died the Prophet performed the funeral Prayer for him.
(1336-1405)

.
Timur (1336-1405) : Also Tamerlane, a Mongol Muslim emperor whose domain extended to include the vast areas of Persia, Turkey, Russia, and India. He took Samarkand of central Asia as the capital of his empire.
( 381 /992 )

(358 ) (361 ) (362 ).
Jawhar Al-Siqilli (died in 381 A.H./992 A.D.) : A brave commander who conquered the Maghrib during the reign of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu`iz. The greatest among his achievements was the capture of Egypt in 358 A.H. The fall of Egypt marked the end of the Ikhshidid State in Egypt. He built Al-Azhhar Mosque in Cairo and ruled Egypt until the arrival of Al-Mu`iz in 362 A.H.
( 87 /705 )

. 69 . 85 ܡ .
Hassan bin Al-Nu`man (died in 86 A.H./705 A.D.) : Hassan enjoyed a noble ancestral line going back to the royal family of Ghassan. In 69 A.H. he was appointed ruler of Ifriqiyah (present-day Tunisia) by `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. He suppressed the Berber revolts and founded the city of Tunis. He was deposed in 85 A.H. and died while fighting the Byzantines.
( 255 /869 )

247 .
Khafajah bin Sufyan (died 255 A.H.) : Ruler of Sicily. He took Palermo as a base and successfully conquered Sargasso and other Byzantine cities and fortresses.

20-06-2004, 01:01 AM
(1483-1546 )

(1518 ) (1533 1544 ) .
Khair Al-Din Barbarossa (1483-1546 A.D.) : A Turkish commander. He and his brother Aruj seized Algiers from Spain in 1518 A.D. and placed it and the other Barbari States under Turkish suzerainty. As admiral of the Turkish fleet under Suleyman I, he defeated the Italian admiral Andrea Doria twice (1533, 1544 A.D.) and ravaged the coasts of Greece, Italy, and Spain.
(1592-1666 )

(1628-1658 ) ǡ "" "" "" " ".
Shah Jahan (1592-1666 A.D.) : A Mughal emperor of India (1628-1658 A.D.) whose reign ushered in the golden age of Mongol art and architecture. The Taj Mahal (a red and white sandstone, marble mosque, meeting hall, and mausoleum) was built at his request as a memorial to his favorite wife.
(50-102 /670-720 )

(89 ) ( ) .
Tariq bin Ziad (50-102 A.H./670-720 A.D.) : A great Muslim leader, ruler of Tangier. He led the Muslim forces to conquer Andalusia. He crossed the Strait of Gibraltar [Jabal Tariq] (called after him). Muslim forces under his command successfully captured all Andalusian cities including the capital Toledo.
(1571-1629 )

(1587-1629 ) .
`Abbas I (1571-1629 A.D.) : Known as `Abbas the Great, he was shah of Persia under the Safavid Dynasty (1587-1629 A.D.) He broke the power of the tribal chiefs, ended the Uzbek threat, and extended his domain at the expense of the Turks and Portuguese.
( 114 /732 )

(721-732 ) ( ) ( 732 ) " " .
`Abdul-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi (died 114 A.H./732 A.D.) : An Arab Muslim commander and governor of Andalusia (721-732 A.D.) Planning to annex Gaul to Muslim provinces in Europe, he crossed the Pyrenees, captured Bordeaux and defeated an army under Eudo, duke of Aquitaine. He was then defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel, whose men killed `Abdul-Rahman at the Battle of Tour-Poitiers (732 A.D.)
(1808-1883 )

(1832-1847) (1837 ) 1300 /1883 .
`Abdul-Qadir Al-Jaza'iri (1808-1883 A.D.) : An Arab emir and scholar who led the Algerians (from 1832 to 1847 A.D.) against the French occupation. `Abdul-Qadir established an arsenal and organized his troops. A Jihad was then declared against the French. He managed to defeat the French in many raids until they signed the Tafna Treaty (1837 A.D.) in which the French recognized the sovereignty of `Abdul-Qadir in the west of Algeria. The French, however, violated the Treaty, launched a series of raids upon cities in western Algeria, and finally captured `Abdul-Qadir. `Abdul-Qadir was imprisoned for a while, then expelled to Damascas where he died in 1300 A.H./1883 A.D.
(1882-1963 )

"".
`Abdul-Karim Al-Khatabi (1882-1963 A.D.) : Moroccan revolutionist who led unabated public resistance against French and Spanish occupation. After some victorious battles, he announced the "Rif Republic, " but was soon trapped and exiled to Reunion Island.
( 209 )

208 209 .
`Abdul-Karim `Abdul-Wahid (died in 209 A.H.) : Military leader during the rule of `Abdul-Rahman bin Al-Hakam bin Hisham of Andulasia. He raided the Frankish territories around Andulasia and captured Alba and many fortresses. Having made the necessary preparations to go on the raids, he died in 209 A.H.
(1 -63 /621-683 )

(49 ) () ǡ () () () () () .
`Uqbah bin Nafi` (1 B.H.-63 A.H./621-683 A.D.) : A Muslim commander during the reign of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan, he conquered Tunisia where he became governor in 49 A.H., and founded the city of Qairawan. Under his leadership, the Muslim armies reached the Maghrib up to the Atlantic Ocean and conquered Tangier. On his way back to Qairawan, he was attacked and killed by the Berbers supported by the Byzantine forces.
(1275-1350 /1858-1931 )

" " .
`Umar Al-Mukhtar (1275-1350 A.H./1858-1931 A.D.) : A Libyan political and military leader who led the movement of resistance against Italian occupation. Al-Mukhtar successfully exhausted the Italian forces by a series of lightning raids. Consequently, Italy sent reinforcements to Libya and managed to bring the resistance forces to heel. `Umar Al-Mukhtar was captured and hanged in 1350 A.H./1931 A.D.
( 107 )

. ǡ 102 ɡ .
`Anbasah bin Suhaim Al-Kalbi : He was appointed ruler of Andulasia by Bishr bin Safwan, the governor of Ifriqiyah (present-day Tunisia). `Anbasah delved deeply into southern Europe through Pyrenees up to Rhone River. In one of the battles he was wounded and his wound proved fatal.
(49-96 /669-715 )

86 ܡ ǡ .
Qutaibah bin Muslim (49-96 A.H./669-715 A.D.) : A military leader, ruler of Al-Rayy during the reign of `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. When Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik assumed the caliphate, he appointed Qutaibah governor of Khurasan in 86 A.H. He conquered Transoxiana and seized Khwarazm, Sajistan, Samarkand, and managed to capture some Chinese lands.
(1844-1885 )

.
Muhammad Ahmad Al-Mahdi (1844-1885) : A Muslim religious leader in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. In 1881 he spread his influence over most of the Sudanese territories. He fought the British and captured Khartum. He died shortly afterwards in Omdurman.
(1875-1938 )

.
Muhammad Iqbal (1875-1938) : A great Indian Muslim poet and philosopher. He was the first to call for a Muslim independent state in Pakistan. He had many poetical and philosophical works of immense importance in Persian and Urdu.
(681-717 )

( 712 ) "" ( ) .
Muhammad bin Al-Qasim Al-Thaqafi (681-717 A.D.) : A great Arab leader, he conquered Sind (89 A.H./708 A.D.) during the reign of Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik. He was appointed ruler of Sind. He made major reforms and regulations. His domain extended to the whole Indus Valley after defeating the enemy forces led by Dahir.
( 257 /871 )

255 .
Muhammad bin Khafajah (died 257 A.H.) : He played a significant role in his father's raids against Byzantine cities. He ruled Sicily after the death of his father. He drove the Byzantines out of Malta and defeated their fleet in 255 A.H.
(1703-1792 )

.
Muhammad bin `Abdul-Wahhab (1703-1892 A.D.) : A Muslim reformer, founder of the Wahhabi Movement, he taught that the Holy Qur'an and the Prophet's Sunna should be strictly observed, and stressed that all spurious accretions to the Islamic creed must be expunged. The movement, although centered in Arabia, had also spread eastward to India and Sumatra and westward to North Africa and the Sudan. During his lifetime, he was supported by Muhammad bin Saud.
( 101 /720 )

73 ܡ .
Muhammad bin Marwan (died 101 A.H./720 A.D.) : Brother of `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan, the Umayyad Caliph. He was appointed ruler of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Arabian Peninsula. He participated in many battles against the Byzantines, most important of which was the Battle of Sevastopol (73 A.H.)
(1769-1849 )

(1805-1848 ) (1952 ) (1811 ) (1811-1819 ) , (1821 ) (1827 ) (1833 ) (1839 ) .
Muhammad `Ali (1769-1849 A.D.) : Governor of Egypt (1805-1848 A.D.), founder of the dynasty which ruled Egypt until 1952 A.D. He massacred the Mamluks in Al-Qal`ah (1811). He won great victories for the Turks in Arabia and the Sudan. He fought the rebels in Greece, but his fleet was destroyed (1827 A.D.) at Navarino by the British, French, and Russians. In the 1830s A.D. he turned against the Ottomans and made inroads in Syria and Asia Minor and defeated them in the Battles of Konya (1833 A.D.) and Nusaibin (1839 A.D.), but was forced to give up his gains by the European powers.
(1822-1883 )

(1872-1877 ) .
Midhat Basha (1822-1883) : An Ottoman political leader and one of the prominent Turkish administrative reformers of the 19th century. In 1872 he was appointed prime minister. He did his best to spread the constitutional authority. He was deposed by Sultan `Abdul-Hamid.

20-06-2004, 01:02 AM
( 120 /738 )

98 ܡ 102 107 ܡ .
Maslamah bin `Abdul-Malik (died 120 A.H./738 A.D.) : A Muslim commander who led the expedition against Constantinople during the reign of his brother Sulaiman bin `Abdul-Malik in 98 A.H. Maslamah was appointed ruler of Iraq (102 A.H.) by his brother Caliph Yazid, and of Armenia and Azerbaijan (107 A.H.) by his brother Caliph Hisham. He conquered the Byzantine territories and achieved great victories. He died in Damascus.
(1-62 /622-682 )

47 ܡ .
Maslamah bin Makhlad (1-62 A.H./622-682 A.D.) : Ruler of Egypt appointed by Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan in 47 A.H. He was a member of the Khazraj tribe of Medina. When Yazid bin Mu`awaih assumed the caliphate, he kept Maslamah in his post. Maslamah set the tradition of using mosque minarets for adhan. He died in Alexandria in 62 A.H.
(1874-1908 )

"" " " .
Mustafa Kamil (1874-1908 A.D.) : An Egyptian national leader. In his attempt to get the British occupation out of Egypt, he established Al-Liwa' magazine in Arabic, English and French. He also founded the National Party and was chosen the leader of the party to the end of his life.
(19-97 /640-715 )

ǡ ǡ .
Musa bin Nusair (19-97 A.H./640-715 A.D.) : One of the most remarkable figures of Islamic history. Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik, the Umayyad Caliph, appointed him governor of Ifriqiyah (present-day Tunisia) in 89 A.H. Musa played a vital role in the Conquest of Andalusia, which he undertook at the age of seventy-five. He had the desire to enter Spain and then head east towards Constantinople. Musa bin Nusair arrived at the French borders with the aim of invading all southern European countries. He retained the position of Emir of Morocco and Andalusia for about 18 years. He died in Wadi Al-Qura, Hejaz, while performing Hajj.
( 255 )

242 253 .
Yazid bin `Abdullah bin Dinar (died 255 A.H.) : A Turkish ruler. In 242 A.H. he was appointed ruler of Egypt by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutawakkil. He organized the country affairs and established devises for measuring the Nile River at Al-Raudah Island in Cairo. In the wake of the revolt that erupted in Alexandria against him, he was deposed by Al-Mu`tazz in 253 A.H.

20-06-2004, 01:04 AM

20-06-2004, 01:04 AM
( 15 )

.
Arwa bint `Abdul-Muttalib (died 15 A.H.) : Aunt of the Prophet Muhammad and one of the meritorious women of the Pre-Islamic and Islamic periods. She was known for her wisdom and skill in writing poetry.
( 73 )

ǡ ǡ .
Asma' bint Abi Bakr (died 73 A.H.) : A meritorious female Companion, she was one of the first to adopt Islam. She was called "the Woman of the Two Girdles" because she split her girdle to bind the food she carried to Abu Bakr and the Prophet on their Migration journey. She composed good poetry, and was the last woman immigrant to die.
( 30 )

.
Asma' Bint Yazid Al-Ansariyah (died 30 A.H.) : One of the greatest Arab women orators. She narrated hadiths. She was known for her courage and bravery. She attended the Battle of Al-Yarmuk providing water to the fighters and nursing the wounded, but when the fight raged, she used her tent pole to fight the Byzantines, killing nine.
( ) ( 30 )

.
Umm Al-Darda' (Khaiyrah bint Abi Hadrad Al-Aslami) (died 30 A.H.) : One of the meritorious female Companions, known for her discretion. She memorized Hadiths from the Prophet and reported them to compilers of Hadiths like Safwan bin `Abdullah. She spent most of her life in Medina, but died in Syria.
( ) ( 28 )

.
Umm Haram (Mulaikah bint Milhan bin Khalid Al-Ansariyah) (died 28 A.H.) : A female Companion who used to accompany fighters in battles. She attended the Conquest of Cyprus with her husband, but she fell off her mule and died.
( ) ( 8 )

( ) .
Umm `Atiyah Al-Ansariyah (Nasibah bint Al-Harith) (died 8 A.H.) : One of the great female Companions, she pledged her allegiance to the Prophet. She narrated many Hadiths, and participated in seven battles. During war she would make food for the fighters, nurse the wounded and care for the sick.
( ) ( 13 )

ǡ "" ǡ "".
Umm `Imarah (Nasibah bint Ka`b) (died 13 A.H.) : A female Companion known for her courage and considered as one of the great fighters. She participated in the Pledge of Al-`Aqabah and the Battles of Uhud, Al-Hudaibiah, Khaibar and Hunain. She used to fight and provide water and medicine to the wounded. At the Battle of Uhud she suffered twelve wounds, and had a hand cut off at the battle of Al-Yamamah.


ǡ .
Umm Qais bint Mihsan : A female Companion, among the vanguard Muslims, embarked on Hijrah [Migration], pledged allegiance to the Prophet (peace be upon him). It was she who handed a little boy to the Prophet to sit on his lap. When the boy urinated, the Prophet (peace be upon him) called for water to clean only the affected spot on his garment.
( 40 )

.
Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah bin Mu`ait (died 40 A.H.) : A female Companion who embraced Islam in Mecca, she was the first woman to emigrate from Mecca to Medina. She made her way from Mecca to Medina on foot.
( 40 )

.
Umm Hani' bint Abi Talib (died 40 A.H.) : Cousin of the Prophet (peace be upon him), sister of `Ali bin Abi Talib, named Fakhitah bint Abi Talib. She reported many Prophetic Hadiths.
( 15 )

( ) ǡ .
Umm Waraqah bint `Abdullah bin Al-Harith (died 15 A.H.) : A female Companion who embraced Islam and pledged allegiance to the Prophet (peace be upon him). She took part in the compilation of the Holy Qur'an. At the Battle of Badr she nursed the wounded and cared for the sick.
( ) ( 24 )

.
Al-Khansa' bint Amr (Tumadir bint Amr bin Al-Harith) (died 24 A.H.) : A famous poet, she came to the Prophet in a delegation, converted to Islam and recited some of her poetry which the Prophet praised. She was present at the Battle of Al-Qadisiyah with her four sons. She encouraged her sons to fight and they were all killed in the battle.
( 45 )

( ) .
Al-Rubaiyi` bint Mu`awwiz bin Al-Harith Al-Ansariyah (died 45 A.H.) : A prominent female Companion, she pledged her allegiance to the Prophet at the Pledge of Al-Ridwan and witnessed all battles commanded by the Prophet. She used to provide water to the fighters, treat the wounded and remove the injured and the dead from the battlefield.
( 30 )

"" "" .
Al-Rumaisa' bint Milhan (died 30 A.H.) : A female Companion of great prominence, she was mother of Anas bin Malik. She participated in many battles: at the Battle of Uhud she provided water to the thirsty and nursed the wounded, and at the Battle of Hunain she, along with `A'ishah, would fill water-skins to provide water for Muslim fighters while the battle was raging, then go back to refill them.
( 20 )

( ) .
Al-Shifa' bint `Abdullah Al-`Adawiyah Al-Quraishiah (died 20 A.H.) : A meritorious female Companion, she was one of the few people who were literate in the Pre-Islamic era. She taught writing to Hafsah, the Prophet's wife. The Prophet gave her a house in Medina, and the Caliph `Umar used to consult her.
( 54 )

ǡ .
Juwairiah bint Abi Sufyan (died 54 A.H.) : A female Companion and a great woman who fought in the cause of Allah. At the Battle of Al-Yarmuk, she fought bravely and made great bouts.
( 35 )

ǡ ǡ .
Khaulah bint Al-Azwar Al-Asadi (died 35 A.H.) : A poet and one of the most courageous women of her time. It was said that she was similar to Khalid bin Al-Walid, a great commander, in fighting. Many stories are told of her bravery in the conquests of Syria. Her poetry was imbued with pride and marked by precision.
( 35 )

.
Rufaidah Al-Ansariyah (died 35 A.H.) : A female Companion who used to go into battle to nurse the wounded and take care of the fighters. She was the first nurse in the Islamic era. When Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas was wounded at the Battle of the Trench, he was carried to her tent to be nursed.
( 62 )

.
Zainab bint `Ali bin Abi Talib (died 62 A.H.) : Sister of Al-Hasan and Al-Husain, she was present with Al-Husain at the Battle of Karbila' where he was killed. She was a dignified and great orator.


().
Subai`ah bint Al-Harith : A female Companion. Her late husband, Sa`d bin Khaulah of Bani `Amir, participated in the decisive Battle of Badr. He died in the Farewell Hajj. `Amr bin `Abdullah bin Al-Arqam transmitted the Prophetic Hadiths she narrated on divorce.

20-06-2004, 01:05 AM
( 77 )

.
Ghazalah Al-Haruriyah (died 77 A.H.) : Wife of Shabib bin Yazid Al-Haruri, she was known for her bravery and courage. She fought in battles heroically. One of the well-known stories told about her was that Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi, a fierce commander, could not stand fighting her in battle and ran away.
( 50 )

.
Fatimah bint Qais bin Khalid (died 50 A.H.) : A female Companion known for her discretion and wisdom, she was one of the first women to emigrate from Mecca to Medina. It was in her house that the council was held to choose a new caliph after the murder of `Umar bin Al-Khattab.
( 20 )

.
Qatilah bint Al-Harith (died 20 A.H.) : A Great poet whose poetry was considered to be of the first class. When her brother Al-Nadr was captured and killed by Muslims at the Battle of Badr, she composed a sympathetic elegy. Hearing it, the Prophet forbade the killing of captives. She converted to Islam and narrated Hadiths.
( ) ( 30 )

.
Lubabah Al-Kubra (Lubabah bint Al-Harith Al-Hilali) (died 30 A.H.) : A noble woman, she was wife of Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib, uncle of the Prophet. She converted to Islam in Mecca and was the second woman to embrace Islam after Khadijah.
( 40 )

( ) "".
Laila Al-Ghifariyah (died 40 A.H.) : One of the noble Muslim Companions, she used to go into battle with the Prophet to treat the wounded and care for the sick. She was also present at Battle of the Camel in Basra with the Caliph `Ali bin Abi Talib.
( 83 )

.
Mu`adhah bint `Abdullah Al-`Adawiyah (died 83 A.H.) : A great scholar of Hadith who narrated from `A'ishah and `Ali. She was one of the trustworthy narrators.
( 14 )

" " .
Hind bint `Utbah bin Rabi`ah (died 14 A.H.) : A female Companion from the Quraish, she was known for her courage, eloquence, discretion, dignity and her skill in writing poetry. Before adopting Islam she used to incite the polytheists against the Muslims. She converted to Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca. She participated in the Battle of Al-Yarmuk and encouraged Muslims in their fight against the Byzantines

20-06-2004, 01:07 AM



( ) ( 607 )

.
Umm Habib Al-Asbahaniyah (`A'ishah bint Mu`ammar bin Al-Fakhir) (died 607 A.H.) : A scholar of Hadith who learned from Fatimah Al-Jurdhaniyah. She narrated Abu Ya`la's Hadith book "Al-Musnad. "
( ) ( 740 )

.
Zainab bint Al-Kamal (Zainab bint Ahmad bin `Abdul-Rahim) (died 740 A.H.) : A scholar of Hadith from Syria, she learned hadiths from scholars of her time and narrated from them. Numerous students went to learn from her.
( ) ( 604 )

ѡ 86 .
Sitt Al-Katabah (Ni`mah bint `Ali bin Yahya bin Al-Tarrah) (died 604 A.H.) : A scholar from Damascus, she learned hadiths from her grandfather. Al-Hafizh bin `Asakir, a major compiler of Hadiths, approved her narration. She died in Damascus at the age of 86.
( ) ( 710 )

.
Sitt Al-Muluk (Fatimah bint `Ali bin Abi Al-Badr) (died 710 A.H.) : A jurist of the Hanbali School, she learned Hadiths and narrated some as well. She had the capacity of licensing scholars.
( 716 )

.
Sitt Al-Wuzara' (died 716 A.H.) : A scholar of jurisprudence and Hadith, she narrated Al-Bukhari's book of Hadith in Egypt and Damascus. Scholars traveled to learn from her.
( ) ( 574 )

ǡ .
Shahdah the Calligrapher (Shahdah bint Abi Al-Nasr Ahmad bin Al-Faraj) (died 574 A.H.) : She was a scholar of jurisprudence and Hadith. She gained fame and many people studied under her. She was known as "the Calligrapher" for her neat hand-writing.
( ) ( 607 )

.
`Afifah Al-Asbahaniyah (`Afifah bint Ahmad bin Abdul-Qadir) (died 607 A.H.) : A great scholar of Hadith from Baghdad, she learned hadiths from more than five-hundred narrators.
( ) ( 708 )

ǡ .
Fatimah Al-Ansariyah (Fatimah bint Sulaiman bin Abdul-Karim) (died 708 A.H.) : A scholar of Hadith, she learned from her father and from other scholars. Her narration was approved by scholars of Syria, Iraq, Hejaz and Persia. Being wealthy, she built many schools and made religious endowments.
( ) ( 532 )

97 .
Fatimah Al-Baghdadiyah (Fatimah bint `Ali bin Al-Muzhaffar) (died 532 A.H.) : She narrated hadiths and taught women religious matters. She died at the age of 97.
( ) ( 524 )

" " 99 .
Fatimah Al-Jurdhaniyah (Fatimah bint `Abdullah bin Ahmad) (died 524 A.H.) : A scholar of Hadith study from Isfahan (a city in Iran), she was so knowledgeable that people called her "the Scholar of Isfahan. " She died at the age of 99.
( 581 )

( ) ( ) ǡ ǡ .
Fatimah Al-Samarqandiyah (died 581 A.H.) : Her full name was Fatimah bint Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Samarqandi. Her father and husband were jurists. She learned from her father, and her husband used to consult her. She had the capacity to authorize fatwas (legal opinions) insomuch as her father and her husband. She died in Aleppo.
( 747 )

.
Fatimah bint Al-`Izz (died 747 A.H.) : A scholar of Hadith who learned from her father and from scholars of her time. She was charitable and pious.
( 600 )

ɡ .
Fatimah bint Sa`d Al-Khair (600 A.H.) : A scholar from Isfahan, she learned Hadiths form Fatimah Al-Jurdhaniyah and from the scholars of Isfahan.
( 714 )

ǡ .
Fatimah bint `Aiyash (died 714 A.H.) : A jurist and scholar. Ibn Taimiah, a great jurist, praised her and wondered at her intelligence. She gained renown, and women from Damascus and Cairo studied under her.
( ) ( 563 )

.
Nafisah Al-Bazazah (Nafisah bint Muhammad `Ali Al-Bughdadiyah) (died 563 A.H.) : She was a scholar of Hadith. Many famous jurists learned hadiths from her.
( 81 )

( ) .
Hujaimah bin Huyai (died 81 A.H.) : A scholar of jurisprudence and Hadith, she was of the generation that followed the Companions of the Prophet. She was knowledgeable and narrated from some Companions such as Abu Al-Darda', Salman Al-Farisi and `A'ishah.

20-06-2004, 01:09 AM




( ) ( 532 )

" " " " ǡ .
Al-Hurrah Al-Sulaihiyah (Arwa bint Ahmad bin Ja`far) (died 532 A.H.) : A Muslim Yemeni queen, known for her decisiveness and judgment. She was called "Young Balqis" because she was reminiscent of the ancient Queen of Sheba. She took power after the death of her husband, King Al-Makram Al-Sulaihi. She stayed at Dhi Gabalah and occupied neighboring forts and territories. She appointed ministers and governors. Grievances were sent to her for consideration. She used to meet with ministers and deliver her decisions from behind a screen. Her reign lasted for forty years.
( ) ( 637 )

(633 ) .
Radiyah Jalal Al-Din (Radiyah bint Shams Al-Din Al-Qutbi) (died 637 A.H.) : A Muslim Indian queen who assumed power in 633 A.H. after the death of her father Shams Al-Din, the third sultan of the Mamluk dynasty in India. She reigned for forty years until her brother Mahmoud Khan deposed her.
( 655 )

ߡ .
Shajar Al-Durr (died 655 A.H.) : A Muslim queen of Egypt who assumed power after the death of her husband King Al-Salih Najm Al-Din Ayyub. She married `Izz Al-Din Aybak and ceded the throne to him, yet she continued to manage state affairs.
( 545 )

ߡ () (531 ) .
`Alam Al-Hurrah (died 545 A.H.) : A Yemeni queen of the Banu Najah dynasty. She was known for her sagacity, piety, righteousness and generosity. She assumed power after the death of her husband, King Mansour bin Fatik, as a regent of her child, king Fatik. After the death of Fatik in 531 A.H., she continued to manage state affairs and reigned until her death.

20-06-2004, 01:10 AM
][/ALIGN]


( ) ( 539 )

.
Al-Sitt Al-`Adhra' (died 539 A.H.) : A noble woman who built the `Adhrawiyah School in Damascus for the Hanafi and Shafi`i jurists.
( 515 )

.
Khatun Al-Sifriyah (died 515 A.H.) : A slave girl owned by the Suljuk Sultan Malikshah, she gave birth to his two sons Sinjur and Muhammad. Even though a slave of Turkish origin, she rose to prominence under the Suljuk sultanate. She was generous charitable and known for her piety.
( 749 )

ǡ .
Khund Tughai (died 749 A.H.) : Wife of King Al-Nasir Muhammad bin Qalawun, she was notable for her piety and modesty. She owned vast property including one-thousand slave-girls and eighty eunuchs. She set all her slaves free for the sake of Allah.
( 557 )

ޡ (541 ) .
Zumurrud Khatun (died 557 A.H.) : A noble princess, wife of Buri bin Taghtakin, prince of Damascus. She memorized the Holy Qur'an, scribed books and narrated the Prophet's Hadiths. After the death of her husband, she married `Imad Al-Din Zanki, a famous commander. When he died in 541 A.H., she went to Mecca on a Hajj journey, then stayed in Medina until she died.
( 616 )

.
Sitt Al-Sham (died 616 A.H.) : Sister of Saladin and wife of Muhammad bin Asad Al-Din Shirkuh, she was generous and charitable. Drinks, food and medicine were prepared at her house and distributed among the poor. The needy used to go to her for assistance. She made many religious endowments in Damascus and elsewhere.
( 640 )

.
Daifah Khatun (died 640 A.H.) : Daughter of King Al-`Adil bin Ayyub and wife of Al-Zhahir bin Saladin King of Aleppo. After the death of her husband, she managed state affairs for six years as a regent of her child king. She built a school and a retreat for the Sufis and managed the affairs of her kingdom well.
( 581 )

.
`Ismat Al-Din Khatun (died 581 A.H.) : A noble princess, daughter of Mu`in Al-Din and wife of Saladin. She was known for her piety, generosity and charity. She built a school in Damascus for the Hanafi jurists and a retreat for the Sufis.
( 535 )

( ) ( ) .
`Alam Al-Amiriyah (died 535 A.H.) : Wife of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Amir bi Ahkam Allah. Known for her charity, she built the Mosque of Al-Andalus in Cairo, and next to it a haven for the widows and the aged. She also used to send alms to the needy.
() ( 512 )

.
Qurrat Al-`Ain (Urjwan) (died 512 A.H.) : Mother of Caliph Al-Muqtadi bi Amr Allah, she was known for her piety and charity. She performed three journeys for Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca). She lived during the caliphate of her son Al-Muqtadi, her grandson Al-Mustazhhir and her grand grandson Al-Mustarshid, and even saw the fourth generation of her children.

20-06-2004, 01:15 AM

20-06-2004, 01:16 AM
(605-688 )

ǡ .
Abu Al-Aswad Al-Du'ali (605 -688 A.D.) : A scholar of the generation that followed the Companions of the Prophet. He was appointed governor of Basra by the Caliph `Ali bin Abi Talib. Abu Al-Aswad was a great poet and scholar of Arabic, he initiated the rules of Arabic grammar. He was an outstanding jurist and professional preacher.
( 936 )

" . "
Abu Al-Hasan Al-Ash`ari (died 963 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar of Theology. He compared juristic opinions with those of Al-Mu`tazilah's. As founder of Al-Asha`irah school, he wrote nine books, the most famous of which was Al-Ibananh `An Usul Al-Dianah [Explaining Pillars of Religion].
( 957 )

. .
Abu Al-Hasan Al-Mas`udi ( died 957 A.D.) : A historian, geographer and traveler from Baghdad. He traveled to many countries, then settled in Egypt where he died. He wrote ten books on the history of nations. His books were very important.
(973-1048 )

ǡ .
Abu Al-Raihan Al-Bairuni ( 973-1048 A.D.) : An Arab historian, mathematician, astronomer, geographer, physician and pharmacist. He was one of the greatest scientists in history and the first to discover that the Earth turns on its axis. He authored more than 120 books.
( 915-965 )

.
Abu Al-Taiyib Al-Mutanabbi (915-965 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab poet and leader of the Imaginative Method of Arabic poetry. He is most famous for his poems on wisdom and eulogy and for his love for adventure. The Arabs considered him the "Most poetic Muslim".
( 748-825 )

.
Abu Al-`Atahiah (748-825 A.D.) : A poet. He abandoned the flirtatious and elegy poetry of his days. He was most famous for his poems on asceticism. The Caliph Harun Al-Rashid held him in high esteem.
( 973-1057 )

ǡ " " .
Abu Al-`Ala' Al-Ma`arri (973-1057 A.D.) : An ascetic poet and philosopher and scholar on religions, creeds and beliefs of each sect at that time. He was a brilliant historian and storyteller. He called himself "Prisoner in two prisons, " for he was blind, kept for some time in jail. His seventy books and divans (collection of poems) were translated into many languages.
( 897-967 )

"" .
Abu Al-Faraj Al-Asbahani (897-967 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar of literature, history and language. He wrote many books, most famous of which was Al-Aghani [Songs] in which he accurately scientifically recorded history in an accurate way.
(1030-1106 )

" " .
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi [Abulcasis] (1030-1106 A.D.) : The most brilliant and outstanding surgeon both in the Arab world and Europe. He was the first to write books of surgery such as Al-Tasrif liman `Ajaz `An Al-Ta'lif. Al-Zahrawi's genius was not only in surgery but also in medicine and its equipment. He invented several surgical instruments. His books were translated into many languages such as Latin, Hebrew, French and Italian.
(940-998 )

". "
Abu Al-Wafa' Al-Buzjani (940-998 A.D.) : An engineer, astronomer, and the best Arab mathematician in his time. He was an outstanding translator of Greek. He wrote five books, the most important of which was Al-Handasah [Geometry]
( 1340 )

" . "
Abu Bakr Al-Baitar (died 1340 A.D.) : A veterinarian who treated the horses of Al-Nasir bin Qalawun. He wrote Kashif Al-Wail fi Ma`rifat Amrad Al-Khail [The Comprehensive Book on Diseases of Horses] in which he included all his experience in treating horses.
( 1066 )

, , , , " . "
Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi (died 1066 A.D.) : A Shafi'i jurist. His contributions to the Shafi`i juristic school is well-known because of his valuable books on the methodology of this school. He was one of the major Hadith scholars. He compiled more than ten books, the most famous of which was Al-Sunan Al-Kubra [The Biggest Traditions]
(864-923 )

"" " . "
Abu Bakr Al-Razi [Razhes] (864-923 A.D.) : An outstanding physician and philosopher, he was brilliant at Chemistry, Music, Astronomy and composing poetry. He wrote more than two hundred books, the most famous of which were Al-Hawi [The Comprehensive] and a study on Smallpox and Measles.
( 1020 )

.
Abu Bakr Al-Karkhi (died 1020 A.D.) : A mathematician from Baghdad. He wrote many books on Algebra and arithmetic, such as Al-Kafi [The Sufficient] on arithmetic.
(788-845 )

". "
Abu Tammam (788-845 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab Abbasid poet, whose poems were characterized by a high degree of excellence. His style was most famous for its vast imagination and proverbs. He composed many poems but was most known by for poem which he wrote after the Caliph Al-Mu`tasim's victory at the battle of Amoriah.
( 1010 )

" . "
Abu Ja`far Al-Khazin (died 1010 A.D.) : One of the major astronomers in the Islamic era. He was brilliant at mathematics and geometry. He wrote more than four books, the most important of which was Al-Masa'il Al-`Adadiyah [Equations].
(995-1067 )

" " " . "
Abu Ja`far Al-Tusi ( 995-1067 A.D.) : An interpreter of the Holy Qur'an and a Shiite jurist, he was the founder of Al-Najaf University. His books were damaged several times. The most well-known among them were Al-Bayan Al-Jami` li`ulum Al-Qur'an [The Comprehensive Book on the Studies of Qur'an] and Al-Hadith `Inda Al-Shi`ah [Shiites and Prophetic Traditions].
( 1111 )

" " ǡ " . "
Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (died 1111 A.D.) : A Muslim scholar and philosopher, known as Hujjat Al-Islam [Expert on Islam]. He wrote more than fourteen books, the most important of which was Ihya' `Ulum Al-Din [Reviving Studies of Religion].
( 895 )

. . .
Abu Hanifah Al-Dainawari (died 895 A.D.) : An Arab engineer, chronicler, philosopher and Botanist. Abu Haiyan Al-Tauhidi said about him, "He [Abu Hanifah] was able to combine both the wisdom of the philosophers and eloquence of the Arabs, and be a scholar in all fields of knowledge. " He authored over ten books.
( 1010 )

.
Abu Haiyan Al-Tauhidi (died 1010 A.D.) : An Arab writer and philosopher, he belonged to the Mu`tazilah sect. Most known by his piety and firm belief in the oneness of Allah. He had a unique style of writing.

20-06-2004, 01:17 AM
(817-889 )

"" .
Abu Dawud Al-Sijistani (817-889 A.D.) : A scholar of Prophetic Hadiths. He compiled Al-Sunan [The Prophetic Traditions], which is considered one of the six major authentic books on Prophetic Traditions.
( 648 )

" . "
Abu Dhu'aib Al-Hudhali (died 648 A.D.) : An eminent poet, he lived through paganism and Islam. Participated in the Conquest of Ifriqiyah (present-day Tunisia).
(850-934 )

ǡ " . "
Abu Zaid Al-Balkhi (850-934 A.D.) : A geographer and philosopher. He wrote more than fourteen books. He is famous for his book Suwar Al-Aqalim [Maps of Countries].
( 990 )

" " .
Abu Sulaiman Al-Mantiqi (died 990 A.D.) : An Arab philosopher and scholar of Logic. He authored many books, most important of which was Suwan Al-Hikmah [Preserver of Wisdom] which dealt with the history of Greek and Islamic philosophy.
(1100-1165 )

.
Abu `Abdullah Al-Idrisi (1100-1165 A.D.) : A Moroccan traveler, geographer and physician. His writings in geography were of great importance to the modern world, and were translated into many European languages.
( 863 )

ǡ ". "
Abu `Uthman Al-Mazini (died 863 A.D.) : A scholar of Arabic, he wrote many books, most famous of which was Al-Tasrif [Morphology].
( 835 )

.
Abu `Ali Al-Khaiyat [Al-Bohali] (died 835 A.D.) : One of the best astronomers in the Islamic era. His books were translated into Latin.
(932-968 )

". "
Abu Firas Al-Hamdani (932-968 A.D.) : An Emir, poet and knight who engaged in many battles. He was the governor of Minbaga and Harran. When he was captured by the Byzantines, it inspired him to compose his most famous poems Al-Rumiyat.
( 951 )

( ) .
Abu Kamil (Shuja` bin Aslam) (died 951 A.D.) : An Egyptian engineer and mathematician. His books were known in Europe.
( 650 )

.
Abu Mihjan Al-Thaqafi (died 650 A.D.) : A poet, known for his chivalry and courage. He participated in the Battle of Al-Qadisiyah. His poetry always tackled matters of glory.
( 788-886 )

.
Abu Ma`shar Al-Balkhi (Abumasar) ( 788-886 A.D.) : An outstanding astronomer who studied the effect of stars on human life. He discovered some facts related to the ebb and flow of tides. He tackled different fields of knowledge throughout his books.
(961-1038 )

" . "
Abu Mansur Al-Tha`alibi (961-1038 A.D.) : An Abbasid writer, linguist and historian. He wrote about ninety books on culture, history and language. The most important was Yatimat Al-Dahr fi Shu`ara' Ahl Al-`Asr [Matchless Book on Contemporary Poets]
(878-950 )

.
Abu Nasr Al-Farabi [Alfarabi] (878-950 A.D.) : An outstanding Muslim philosopher and scholar of Logic, Mathematics, and Music. He tried to create a balance between Islamic Shari`ah [Law] and Greek philosophy. He wrote more than one hundred books.
(757-814 )


Abu Nuwas ( 757-814 A.D.) : One of the outstanding poets in the history of the Arabic culture. He was the national poet of Iraq at that time. Abu Nuwas was the first to modernize Bedouin poems.
( 1005 )

" : . "
Abu Hilal Al-`Askari (died 1005 A.D.) : An Arab writer and poet, and one of the major linguists. He wrote more than ten books, the most famous of which was Kitab Al-Sina`atain: Al-Nazhm wa Al-Nathr [Book of Two Arts: Poetry and Prose].
( 905 )

"" .
Ahmad Al-Ya`qubi (died 905 A.D.) : A geographer, historian and traveler from Baghdad. Although he wrote three books, he was best known for his book Al-Buldan [Countries] in which he recorded his notes on history and the social and cultural background of the countries he visited.
( 1388-1450 )

.
Ahmad bin `Arabshah (1388-1450 A.D.) : A historian and traveler from Damascus. He wrote many books in Farsi and Turkish.
(1871-1930 )

.
Ahmad Taimur (1871-1931 A.D.) : An Egyptian writer, researcher and historian. He was also an outstanding linguist. He wrote more than forty books.
(1868-1932 )

.
Ahmad Shauqi (1868-1932 A.D.) : An Egyptian poet who was one of the major poets of the modern times. He was called the "Emir of Poets, " as his work dealt with most kinds of poetry.
(1804-1888 )

"" .
Ahmad Faris Al-Shidyaq (1804-1888 A.D.) : A Lebanese linguist and writer. He was a pioneer in Arabic Journalism. He was the founder of the newspaper Al-Jawa'ib, and the author of over ten books.

20-06-2004, 01:19 AM
(1273-1331 )

.
Isma`il Abu Al-Fida' (1273-1331 A.D.) : An Arab Emir, he was a distinguished historian and geographer.
( 1323 )

" . "
Ibn Ajurrum (died 1323 A.D.) : Real name: Abu `Abdullah Al-Sanhaji. He was a Moroccan scholar of Arabic grammar. He was best known for his book [The Ajurumic Introduction to the Arabic Language].
( 1040 )

" " .
Ibn Abi Al-Rijal (died 1040 A.D.) : Andalusian astronomer and mathematician. He was best known for his book Al-Barri` fi Ahkam Al-Nujum [Comprehensive work on the position of the Stars]. His books were translated into Latin.
( 1281 )

" . "
Ibn Abi Al-Shukr (died 1281 A.D.) : An Andalusian astronomer, who lived in Cordoba and worked with Nusair Al-Din Al-Tusi in the observatory of Maraghah. He wrote more than ten books, the most famous of which was Al-Arba` Maqalat fi Al-Nujum [Four Short Studies on Stars].
( 1077 )

ѡ ǡ ӡ .
Ibn Abi Sadiq (died 1077 A.D.) : A physicist and philosopher from Naisabur. He studied physics and philosophy under Avecinne. He illustrated and explained the works of Abuqrat and Jalinis. He was known as "The Second Socrates. "
( 1248 )

" . "
Ibn Al-Baitar (died 1248 A.D.) : One of the greatest biologists in the Middle ages, he was also a botanist. He wrote more than six books, the most famous among them was Al-Jami` Limusanafat Al-Adwiah wa Al-Aghdhiah [The Comprehensive Book on Medicine and Food].
(1120-1200 )

" . "
Ibn Al-Jauzi (1120-1200 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab historian and jurist. He wrote about twenty books in which he tackled many fields of knowledge; most important of them was Al-Muntazhim fi Tarikh Al-Umam [The Well-Organized Book on History of Nations].
( 1249 )

.
Ibn Al-Hajib ( died 1249 A.D.) : An Egyptian jurist, he was an outstanding linguist. He wrote many books on Arabic Grammar, Morphology, Prosody and Principles of Jurisprudence.
(836-896 )

.
Ibn Al-Rumi (836-896 A.D.) : One of the most famous poets in the Abbasid Empire. His fame was based on his brilliant descriptions and bitter satire.
( 1375 )

ޡ ". "
Ibn Al-Shatir (died 1375 A.D.) : An astronomer and mathematician from Damascus. He wrote many books on astronomy, most important of which was Al-Istirlab [Astrolabe].
( 899 )

ǡ .
Ibn Al-Taiyib Al-Sarkhasi (died 899 A.D.) : An Arab philosopher, he was also a scholar in history, politics, culture and arts. He wrote more than fourteen books and was the teacher, friend and counselor of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tadid.
( 1148 )

ǡ " . "
Ibn Al-`Arabi (died 1148 A.D.) : The last outstanding Andalusian Hafizh [Memorizer of Prophetic Hadiths] at that time. Ibn Al-`Arabi wrote many books on the studies of the Holy Qur'an and Prophetic Hadiths; such as Ahkam Al-Qur'an [Injunctions in the Holy Qur'an].
( 970 )

.
Ibn Al-`Amid (died 970 A.D.) : A poet and writer. He was the counselor of Rukn Al-Dawalah. Ibn Al-`Amid was an outstanding figure in Arabic rhetoric.
( 1158 )

" " .
Ibn Al-`Awwam (died 1158 A.D.) : An outstanding botanist. Ibn Al-`Awwam helped to develop the science of botany, especially by his book Al-Filahah Al-Andalusiyah [Andalusian Agriculture].
(1181-1235 )

.
Ibn Al-Farid (1181-1235 A.D.) : Real name: `Umar bin `Ali bin Murshid bin `Ali. An Arab Sufi poet, he was most known for praising Allah in his poems.
(1494 -1563 )

.
Ibn Al-Naqib (1494-1563 A.D.) : A physician, astronomer, mathematician, poet and musician. Ibn Al-Naqib was most famous for his invention of astronomical equipment.
( 1204 )

.
Ibn Al-Yasmin (died 1204 A.D.) : An outstanding mathematician, he was brilliant in Algebra, geometry, logic, and astronomy. Ibn Al-Yasmin wrote many books on Algebra and logarithms.
( 1138 )

.
Ibn Bajah [Ibn Bajja] (died 1138 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab philosopher. Ibn Bajah illustrated and explained the books of Aristotle. He was known for his extensive knowledge of medicine, astronomy and music.
(1304-1377 )

29 ǡ .
Ibn Batutah (1304-1377 A.D.) : A traveler who traversed the whole world for twenty-eight years. He was best known for his accurate observations and honesty in narration.
(1263-1328 )

" " ". "
Ibn Taimiah (1263 - 1328 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab jurist and one of the leaders of the Hanbali school. Ibn Taimiah was entitled the "Reviver of Prophetic Traditions and Leader of Juristic Scholars. " He was the author of more than five books, most famous of which was Al-Fatawa [Legal Opinions].

20-06-2004, 01:20 AM
(1145-1217 )

" " .
Ibn Jubair (1145-1217 A.D.) : An Andalusian traveler who traveled through the Arab world three times. He recorded everything he saw on each journey in a separate book. Unfortunately only Rahalat Ibn Al-Jubair [Ibn Al-Jubair's voyage] has survived. He wrote many books and a divan.
( 923 )

" " " . "
Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari (died 923 A.D.) : A historian, interpreter and a Shafi`i jurist, he wrote many books such as Jami` Al-Bayan fi Tafsir Al-Qur'an which is known as Tafsir Al-Tabari [Interpretation of the Qur'an].
( 1100 )

" "" " .
Ibn Jazlah (died 1100 A.D.) : An Arab physician, he embraced Islam under the tutelage of Abi `Ali bin Al-Walid Al-Maghribi. Ibn Jazlah wrote many books, the most famous of which was Kitab Al-Minhaj fi Al-Adwiah Al-Murakkabah [Methodology of Compound Drugs] and Taqwim Al-Abdan [For Healthy Bodies]. His books were translated into Latin.
(942-1002 )

" "
Ibn Jinni (942-1002 A.D.) : A scholar of Arabic. Ibn Jinni was also a poet. He wrote more than five books, the most famous among them was Al-Khasa'is [Characteristics].
( 1449 )

" . "
Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani (died 1449 A.D.) : An Egyptian historian and outstanding scholar of Prophetic Hadiths. Ibn Hajar Al-`Asqalani wrote many books, the most important work was Fath Al-Bari Bisharh Sahih Al-Bukhari [The Inspirations on Explaining Sahih Al-Bukhari].
(994-1064 )

" " .
Ibn Hazm (994-1064 A.D.) : An Andalusian poet, philosopher, historian and jurist. Ibn Hazm was said to have written more than 400 books. His book Al-Fasl fi Al-Milal wa Al-Ahwa` wa Al-Nihal [An Explication of religions, Desires and Beliefs] is considered the first book in the discussion of Comparative Religions.
( 978 )

" . "
Ibn Hauqal (died 978 A.D.) : An Arab explorer and geographer. Ibn Hauqal traveled throughout the Islamic world. His most famous book was Surat Al-Ard [Shape of the Earth].
(1332-1406 )

". " .
Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 A.D.) : An Arab historian and philosopher. Ibn Khaldun is considered the founder of the philosophy of history and the science of Sociology. He wrote many books, but the most important was Al-Muqaddimah [The Introduction], which introduced unprecedented theories in history and sociology.
(1211-1282 )

" . "
Ibn Khalkan (1211-1282 A.D.) : An Arab historian and biographer, he compiled the famous reference Wafiyat Al-A`yan wa Anba' Abna' Al-Zaman [Noble People's Deaths and News of Great People].
(1126-1198 )

.
Ibn Rushd [Averroes] (1126-1198 A.D.) : An Andalusian Arab philosopher, he was a scholar of jurisprudence, poetry, medicine, mathematics, and astronomy. Ibn Rushd tried to create a balance between Greek philosophy and the Islamic religion.
( 1162 )

.
Ibn Zahr (died 1162 A.D.) : An Andalusian physician of Arabic origin. Ibn Zahr directed his efforts to establish modern treatment. He wrote many books on medicine which were of great importance until the end of the seventeenth century.
(1004-1071 )

.
Ibn Zaidun (1004 - 1071 A.D.) : An Andalusian minister, he was a writer and poet. Ibn Zaidun was known as Western Buhturi. He was best known for his eloquent and brilliant style.
(784-845 )

" " .
Ibn Sa`d Al-Zahri (784 - 845 A.D.) : A historian and scholar of the Prophet's Hadiths. He wrote Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra [Major Categories] on categories of the Companions and Followers of the Messenger (peace be upon him).
( 729 )

ǡ " " .
Ibn Sirin (died 729 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar in the studies of religion. Ibn Sirin was famous for his piety and his ability to interpret dreams and visions. He wrote Ta`bir Al-Ru'ya [Interpreting Visions].
(980-1037 )

"" "" .
Ibn Sina [Avecinne] (980-1037 A.D.) : A physician and philosopher of Islamic history. Considered a genius, he wrote more than 100 books on philosophy and medicine. The most famous among his books were Al-Qanun [Law] on medicine and Al-Shifa' [Healing] on philosophy.
(1100-1185 )

ǡ " " .
Ibn Tufail (1100-1185 A.D.) : An encyclopedic Andalusian scholar, philosopher, astronomer and poet. Ibn Tufail wrote the story Hai bin Yaqzhan in which he tried to create a balance between philosophy and the Islamic religion.
( 1320 )

" . "
Ibn `Izari (died 1320 A.D.) : An Arab Moroccan historian. While being the author of many books, his fame was derived from his book Al-Bayan Al-Mugharrab fi Akhbar Muluk Al-Andalus wa Al-Maghrib [The Comprehensive Book on the Caliphs of Andalusia and the Maghrib].
(1105-1175 )

" " " ."
Ibn `Asakir (1105-1175 A.D.) : One of the major Arab scholars of Prophetic Hadiths in his era, and a great historian. Ibn `Asakir was entitled Al-Hafizh bin `Asakir. He wrote many books, the most famous of which was Tarikh Dimashq Al-Kabir [History of Damascus].
(1298-1367 )

" "
Ibn `Aqil (1298-1367 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian linguist and author. The most important among his works was Sharh Alfiyit Ibn Malik [Explanation of Alfiyit Ibn Malik].
( 1350 )

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Ibn Qaiyim Al-Jauziah (died 1350 A.D.) : A Hanbali jurist from Damascus. Ibn Qaiyim opposed the methodology of philosophers and criticized them. He wrote many books, such as Madarij Al-Salikin [Guidelines for Worshippers].

20-06-2004, 01:20 AM
(1300-1372 )

ǡ " " " " .
Ibn Kathir (1300-1327 A.D.) : An outstanding historian, jurist and Hafizh [Memorizer of the Prophetic Hadiths]. He wrote more than eleven books. Most of his works are divided into many parts. He was most famous for Al-Bidayah wa Al-Nihayah [Beginning and End] and Tafsir Al-Qur'an Al-`Azhim [Interpretation of the Holy Qur'an].
( 1498 )

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Ibn Majid (died 1498 A.D.) : An Arab mariner who led Vasco da Gama on the trip along the coast of East Africa to the coast of India. He wrote about twenty books on navigation.
(1204-1274 )

" " .
Ibn Malik (1204-1274 A.D.) : An outstanding Andalusian linguist, known for his mastery of Arabic linguistics. He composed many poems, the most famous of which was Alfiyat Ibn Malik in which he analyzed Arabic grammar in a thousand verses.
(1232-1311 )

" " ǡ .
Ibn Manzhur (1232-1311 A.D.) : An Egyptian linguist, he compiled Lisan Al-`Arab [Dialects of the Arabs] - a comprehensive Arabic dictionary. He specialized in summarizing large books, while analyzing their contents and meaning. He summarized over eleven books.
( 1009 )

ʡ . .
Ibn Yunus (died 1009 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian astronomer. Ibn Yunus discovered many rules and equations which were of great importance in discovering Logarithms and the pendulum. Some of his books were translated into French. Chinese astronomers were very interested in his books.
(740-831 )

"" .
Al-Asma'i (740-831 A.D.) : A major Arab storyteller and scholar. He was an outstanding linguist, and teacher of the Caliph Al-`Amin. He wrote more than fifteen books, the most important of which was Al-Asma`iyat which is a compilation of famous Arabic poems.
(699-767 )

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Abu Hanifah Al-Nu`man (699-767 A.D.) : One of the greatest scholars of jurisprudence. He was the religious counselor of Iraq. He was the founder of the Hanafi school which is one of the four major juristic schools.
( 780-855 )

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Ahmad bin Hanbal (780-855 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar of jurisprudence and the Prophetic Hadiths. He was founder of the Hanbali school, which is one of the four major juristic schools.
( 707-774 )

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Al-Auza`i (707-774 A.D.) : One of the greatest scholars of jurisprudence and Prophetic Hadiths. Founder of a juristic sect which was most known at Syria. He was known for his asceticism and piety.
(767-819 )

". "
Al-Shafi`i (767-819 A.D.) : One of the four major scholars of jurisprudence. He studied jurisprudence under Imam Malik in Medina. He was the founder of the Shafi`i school, one of the four major juristic schools. He wrote many books, the most important of which was Al-Umm [The Source].
(712-795 )

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Malik bin Anas (712-795 A.D.) : The founder of the Maliki juristic school, one of the major four juristic schools. He wrote Al-Muwata', the first book on Islamic jurisprudence.
( 957 )

ǡ .
Al-Istakhri (died 957 A.D.) : An outstanding traveler and geographer. Al-Istakhri traveled throughout the Arab world and India. He was guided by the geographical books of Abu Zaid Al-Balkhi. His writings were translated into many languages.
(858-929 )

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Al-Battani [Albateginus] (858-929 A.D.) : Also known as Abu `Abdullah Muhammad. This outstanding Arab astronomer accurately specified the length of each season. He was most known for his book Al-Zij.
(820-897 )

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Al-Buhturi (820-897 A.D.) : An Abbasid poet of Arab origin. Al-Buhturi was the poet of Caliph Al-Mutawakil, and was most known for his fine preamble and brilliant descriptions of nature.
(810-870 )

" " .
Al-Bukhari (810 - 870 A.D.) : One of the major scholars on the Prophetic Hadiths. His book Sahih Al-Bukhari, is the greatest and most authentic book on Prophetic Hadiths.
(1213- 1297 )

( ) "" .
Al-Busiri (1213 - 1297 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian poet, he was most famous for his poems in which he praised the Messenger (peace be upon him), an example of which was Al-Burdah [The Mantle Ode]. He was also a scholar of Prophetic Hadiths and a skillful calligrapher.
( 1286 )

" " .
Al-Baidawi (died 1286 A.D.) : One of the outstanding interpreters of the Holy Qur'an. He wrote many books on the studies of religion. The most important was Anwar Al-Tanzil wa Asrar Al-ta'wil [Guidance in Revelations and Secrets of Interpretation], which was of great importance to the scholars of the Prophetic Hadiths.
( 892 )

" " .
Al-Tirmidhi (died 892 A.D.) : A scholar on Prophetic Hadiths. He wrote many books but his Al-Jami` Al-Sahih [The Authentic Compilation] is considered one of the six major authentic books on the Prophetic Hadiths.
( 1046 )

" . "
Al-Tha`labi (died 1046 A.D.) : Real name: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim Al-Naisaburi. He was an outstanding interpreter of the Prophetic Hadiths and a historian. He wrote more than five books. The most famous among them was Al-`Ara'is fi Qasas Al-Anbia' [Stories of the Prophets]
(775-868 )

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Al-Jahizh (775-868 A.D.) : An Abbasid man of letters of Arabic origin. Al-Jahizh was most famous for his brilliant sense of humor and irony. Having written more than 200 books, he was most famous for Al-Bukhala' [The Misers].

20-06-2004, 01:21 AM
(1054-1122 )

". "
Al-Hariri (1054-1122 A.D.) : An Arab poet and writer. Al-Hariri composed many poems. The most famous among them was Al-Maqamat [Discourses].
(642-728 )

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Al-Hasan Al-Basri (642-728 A.D.) : A jurist from Basra. Al-Hasan Al-Basri was the most knowledgeable scholar of religious studies at that time. He was one of the major scholars of Prophetic Hadiths and theology. He was a pious and ascetic man.
(965-1040 )

"" .
Al-Hasan bin Al-Haitham (Al-Hazem) (965-1040 A.D.) : An engineer, astronomer and mathematician. Al-Hasan bin Al-Haitham is considered one of the greatest Arab physicists in the Arab world during the Middle Ages. He was a pioneering optical scientist whose books were of great importance. He wrote many books on different fields of knowledge, such as Al-Manazhir on optical sciences.
( 1155 )

" " .
Al-Khazini (died 1155 A.D.) : An astronomer and engineer, he wrote many books, most important of which was Mizan Al-Hikmah [Balance of Wisdom] which was translated into many languages.
(1002-1071 )

" " .
Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi (1002-1071 A.D.) : A historian and scholar of the Prophetic Hadiths. Al-Khatib Al-Baghdadi wrote more than nine books. The most famous among them was Tarikh Baghdad [History of Baghdad] in fourteen volumes.
( 791 )

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Al-Khalil bin Ahmad (died 791 A.D.) : Major scholar of Linguistics and an authentic narrator of the Prophetic Hadiths. He is considered the founder of Arabic Prosody. He compiled the first alphabetic Arabic dictionary.
(995 )

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Al-Darqutni (died 995 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar from Baghdad. He studied the Prophetic Hadiths and linguistics. He wrote about four books. Al-Sunan [The Prophetic Traditions] was one of his major works.
( 869 )

" " .
Al-Darimi (died 869 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar on Prophetic Hadiths. Major Hadith scholars like Muslim, Abu Dawud, Al-Tirmidhi and Al-Nasa'i narrated from him. He assumed the post of judge in Samarkand. His book Sunan Al-Darimi [Al-Darimi's Prophetic Hadiths] is one of the six major authentic books on Prophetic Hadiths.
(1075-1144 )

"" .
Al-Zamakhshari (1075-1144 A.D.) : One of the major scholars in language, Arabic grammar and interpretation of the Qur'an. He wrote more than ten books, the most important of which was Al-Kashaf [The Search Light], on interpretation of the Holy Qur'an.
( 821 )

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Al-Shaibani (died 821 A.D.) : A Kufi linguist and author of many books which were of great importance to scholars of the Hanafi school.
(1863-1913 )

" . "
`Ali Yusuf (1863-1913 A.D.) : An Egyptian journalist. `Ali Yusuf established many political magazines which had a great impact on the people. He was called the "Master of Journalism. "
(1849-1905 )

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Muhammad `Abduh (1849-1905 A.D.) : An Egyptian politician. Muhammad `Abduh lead a major movement for reformation and renovation. He was the Mufti of Egypt.
(938-995 )

"" .
Al-Sahib bin `Abbad (938-995 A.D.) : An outstanding writer, linguist and poet. Al-Sahib bin `Abbad was one of the major ministers in the period of the Buyid state. He wrote many books, the most important of which was a dictionary of linguistics in seven volumes called Al-Muhit [The Comprehensive].
(761-822 )

" . "
Al-Farra' (761-822 A.D.) : An outstanding Kufi linguist. Al-Farra' was the master of language and literature at that time. He wrote many books covering different fields of study, one of which was Ma`ani Al-Qur'an [Meanings of the Qur'an].
( 729 )

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Al-Farazdaq (died 729 A.D.) : An Umayyad Arab poet, best known for his bitter satiric style. He engaged in a fierce poetic competition with his two opponents, Jarir and Al-Akhtal. They were known as "The Umayyad triangle. "
(1329-1415 )

" . "
Al-Fairuzabadi (1329-1415 A.D.) : An outstanding linguist and writer. He was the judge of Zubaid. He wrote many books, the most important of which was Al-Qamus Al-Muhit [The Comprehensive Dictionary].
( 805 )

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Al-Kisa'i (died 805 A.D.) : A Kufi linguist, one of the authentic reciters of the Holy Qur'an and a teacher of the Abbasid Caliphs Al-Rashid and Al-Amin. He wrote more than twenty books on Arabic grammar and recitation of the Holy Qur'an.
(796-873 )

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Al-Kindi (796 - 873 A.D.) : An outstanding Arab philosopher, he was known for his love of mathematics, logic, physical sciences, astronomy and music. He wrote many books dealt with different subjects.
( 944 )

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Al-Maturidi (died 944 A.D.) : A Hanifi jurist and scholar of theology and interpretation of the Holy Qur'an. Al-Maturidi was founder of Al-Maturidiyah School of theology. He wrote more than seven books.
(826-898 )

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Al-Mubarrid (826-898 A.D.) : An outstanding linguist from Basra, he was a scholar of Arabic culture. He wrote more than seven books, the most important of which was Al-Kamil [The Comprehensive].

20-06-2004, 01:22 AM
( 1631 )

" . "
Al-Muqarri (died 1631 A.D.) : A historian from Tlemcen. He wrote many books, the most important of which was Nafh Al-Tib min Ghusn Al-Andalus Al-Ratib [Anthology from Andalusia]. He died in Egypt.
(1364-1441 )

ǡ " " .
Al-Maqrizi (1364-1441 A.D.) : An Egyptian historian, born in Cairo. He became judge and authored many books, the most famous among them was Al-Nuqud Al-Islamiyah Al-Qadimah [Old Islamic Coins].
( 915 )

" " .
Al-Nasa'i (died 915 A.D.) : A Shafi`i Hafizh (Memorizer of the Prophetic Hadith) from Khurasan. Al-Nasa'i's book Al-Sunan Al-Kubra [The Biggest Sunan] is considered one of the six authentic books on Prophetic Hadiths.
( 965 )

"" "" .
Al-Nafri ( died 965 A.D.) : An Iraqi Sufi writer, most famous for his two books Al-Mawaqif and Al-Mukhatabat on Sufism
(747-822 )

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Al-Waqidi (747-822 A.D.) : One of the major Islamic historian, he was the judge of Baghdad. He wrote Fath Ifriqiyah [The Conquest of Tunisia].
( 1007 )

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Badi` Al-Zaman Al-Hamadhani (died 1007 A.D.) : An Arab writer and poet, he was the founder of Maqamat [Melodies]. He was famous for his praise of emirs and ministers.
( 815 )

" " .
Jabir bin Haiyan [Geber] (died 815 A.D.) : A chemist and philosopher, known as the "Father of Arab Chemistry. " He wrote hundreds of books on chemistry, most of which were translated into Latin, and were of great importance to Western scientists.
(653-733 )

" "
Jarir (653-733 A.D.) : An Arab poet who lived during the Umayyad caliphate. He was most known for his bitter satire of his rival poets. He was involved in satire competition with the two outstanding poets; Al-Akhtal and Al-Farazdaq. The three poets were known as "The Umayyad triangle. "
(1445-1505 )

600 .
Jalal Al-Din Al-Suyuti (1445-1505 A.D.) : An Egyptian encyclopedic scholar. Jalal Al-Din wrote more than 600 books on Jurisprudence, interpretation of the Prophetic Hadiths, Linguistics and History.
(1838-1897 )

" " . " " " " .
Jamal Al-Din Al-Afghani (1838-1897 A.D.) : Real name: Muhammad bin Safdar Al-Husaini. He was a philosopher who traveled throughout the East and West asking for Islamic unity. He founded the newspaper Al-`Urwah Al-Wuthqa [Firm Belief]. He mastered many Asian and European languages besides Arabic such as; Farsi, Sanskrit, Turkish, French, English and Rusian. He wrote [History of Afghanistan], and [A Critical Study of Al-Dahriyin] which were translated into Arabic by Sheikh Muhammad `Abduh.
(1872-1932 )

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Hafizh Ibrahim (1872-1932 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian poet, he was called the "Poet of the Nile. " He was one of the major poets of the Modern era.
( 674 )

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Hassan bin Thabit (died 674 A.D.) : An Arab poet. Hassan bin Thabit lived under paganism and Islam. He used to criticize those who satirized either the Messenger or Islam, and was thus entitled "The Messenger's Poet. "
(1801-1873 )

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Rifa`ah Al-Tahtawi (1801-1873 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian scholar and journalist. Rifa`ah Al-Tahtawi was one of the pioneers of the Modern Intellectual Revival Movement in Egypt. He founded the newspaper Al-Waqa'i` Al-Misriyah [The Egyptian News]. He wrote many books and translated others from French.
( 845 )

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Ziryab (died 845 A.D.) : Musical genius, and poet. Ziryab was also brilliant memorizer of the biography of kings, Caliphs and scientists' status. It is he who originated the fifth string of the lute and the first to use the chorus in his songs.
(1208-1283 )

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Zakariya Al-Qazwini (1208-1283 A.D.) : A historian and geographer. He wrote many books on physics, cosmology, politics and history.
( 797 )

( ).
Sibawaih (died 797 A.D.) : An outstanding Persian scholar of Arabic grammar. Being one of the major scholars of Arabic, he wrote Kitab Sibawaih [The Book of Sibawaih], discussing Arabic grammar.
( 990 )

" . "
Shams Al-Din Al-Maqdisi (died 990 A.D.) : An Arab geographer and traveler. He was one of the brilliant geographers. He wrote Ahsan Al-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat Al-Aqalim [The Best Book to Get to Know Countries].
(1802-1854 )

" " .
Shihab Al-Din Al-Alusi (1802-1854 A.D.) : An Arab writer and interpreter of the Holy Qur'an. Shihab Al-Din Al-Alusi wrote Ruh Al-Ma`ani [Lessons of the Holy Qur'an], which is an interpretation of the Holy Qur'an.
(1277-1349 )

" " 29 29 ǡ .
Safi Al-Din Al-Hilli (1277-1349 A.D.) : An outstanding Iraqi poet. Safi Al-Din Al-Hili composed many poems, the most famous among them was the divan Durar Al-Nuhur [Diamond Necklaces], which consists of 29 poems each includes 29 verses long, arranged alphabetically, with each verse beginning and ending with the same letter.
( 887 )

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`Abbas bin Firnas (died 887 A.D.) : An Arab Andalusian inventor. He also introduced eastern music to Andalusia. He produced glass from stone and created a machine to calculate time. He tried to fly wearing a robe of feathers.

20-06-2004, 01:23 AM
(1889-1964 )

" " " . "
`Abbas Mahmud Al-`Aqqad (1889-1964 A.D.) : An Egyptian critic, journalist, and poet, he participated in the Renovation Movement. He wrote Siar A`lam Al-Islam [Biography of Great Islamic Figures], `Abqariyt Muhammad [The Genius of Muhammad] , and `Abqariyt `Umar [The Genius of `Umar].
(1754-1822 )

(1798 ) .
`Abdul-Rahman Al-Jabarti (1754-1822 A.D.) : An Egyptian historian, he was most famous for his chronicle of the French Campaign in Egypt in 1798. His books were translated into French.
(1849-1902 )

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`Abdul-Rahman Al-Kawakibi (1849-1902 A.D.) : A Syrian journalist and writer, he was most famous for advocating liberalization and his call for development and reformation.
( 828 )

" " " . "
`Abdul-Malik bin Hisham (died 828 A.D.) : An Arab historian, writer, relater of poetry, and scholar of genealogy, language and Arabic grammar. He wrote Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah [The Prophet's Biography] which is known as Sirat Ibn Hisham [Biography of Ibn Hisham]
(1160-1233 )

"" .
`Izz Al-Din bin Al-Athir (1160-1233 A.D.) : An outstanding scholar in Prophetic Hadith and a great historian. He wrote more than four books on history and genealogy. An example is Al-Kamil [The Comprehensive] on history.
(1823-1893 )

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`Ali Mubarak (1823-1893 A.D.) : An Egyptian scholar who founded a scientific revival in Egypt. He worked to establish an Arabic Printing Office and the faculty of Dar Al-`Ulum.
( ) (1125-1200 )

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`Imad Al-Din Al-Katib (Al-`Imad Al-Asfahani) (1125-1200 A.D.) : A historian and one of the major writers. `Imad Al-Din Al-Katib accompanied Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi (Saladin) and recorded his history.
(1150-1209 )

" " .
Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi (1150-1209 A.D.) : An Imam, philosopher, physician and one of the major interpreters of the Holy Qur'an. He wrote many books in Arabic and Farsi, the most important of which was Mafatih Al-Ghaib [Keys to the Unseen], an interpretation of the Holy Qur'an.
( 647 )

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Ka`b bin Zuhair (died 647 A.D.) : One of the poets who lived in both eras of paganism and Islam. As a pagan, he satirized the Messenger, but upon embracing Islam, he composed the poem Al-Lamiyah, in which he praised the Messenger.
( 997 )

" . "
Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Khuwarizmi (died 997 A.D.) : Scientist and researcher from Khurasan. Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Khuwarizmi was the first to compile an Arabic encyclopedia, to which he gave the name Mafatih Al-`Ilm [Keys to the Branches of Knowledge].
( 768 )

" " " . "
Muhammad bin Ishaq (died 768 A.D.) : An Arab historian, memorizer of the Prophetic Hadiths and the best storyteller of his time. He wrote Al-Sirah Al-Nabawiyah [The Prophet's Biography] which is known as Sirat Ibn Ishaq [Biography of Ibn Ishaq].
(780-850 )

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Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khuwarizmi (780-850 A.D.) : An Arab mathematician, astronomer, geographer and historian, he was called "the Master. " He was the discoverer of algebra. He wrote many books on the above mentioned sciences, most of which were translated into Latin.
(1840-1904 )

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Mahmud Sami Al-Barudi (1840-1904 A.D.) : An outstanding Egyptian poet, whose poetry was much characterized by its simplicity and eloquence. He was one of the major contributors to a poetic development movement in the Arabic worlds.
( 708 )

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Nasr bin `Asim (died 708 A.D.) : An Arab jurist and linguist. He is considered one of the major linguists who established rules of Arabic grammar and was the first to add diacritical markings to the words of the Holy Qur'an.
(1201-1274 )

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Nusair Al-Din Al-Tusi (1201 - 1274 A.D.) : An astronomer and mathematician. Nusair Al-Din Al-Tusi wrote many books in Arabic and Farsi on mathematics, astronomy and religion. He was considered as a representative of both Arabic and Persian cultures.
( 748 )

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Wasil bin `Atta' (died 748 A.D.) : Founder and leader of Al-Mu`tazilah School. He made great efforts in refuting the claims and pretentions of Christian and Jewish contenders, and rebutted the arguments of deviant sects. He wrote many books.
(1179-1229 )

ȡ " . "
Yaqut Al-Hamawi (1179-1229 A.D.) : A Historian and geographer who lived in Halab. He wrote many books, the most important of which was Mu`jam Al-Buldan [Dictionary of Countries].

20-06-2004, 01:29 AM





(51 -13 /573-634 ) (: 11-13 /632-634 ) ǡ ǡ .
Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq : Real name: `Abdullah bin Abi Quhafah `Uthman bin `Amir (51 B.H.-13 A.H./573-634 A.D.), the first among men to believe in the new faith, and the first Rightly-Guided Caliph (ruled: 11-13 A.H./632-634 A.D.) Abu Bakr kept company with the Prophet before and after the Mission. He endured the persecution of the Quraish and spared nothing to support the new religion. He was the Prophet's companion in his Migration from Mecca to Medina. When he became caliph, he fought the Apostates and those who refused to pay the Zakah, and restored unity to the Muslim community.


(47 - 35 /577-656 ) (: 23-35 /644-656 ) .
`Uthman bin `Affan : Full name: `Uthman bin `Affan bin Abi Al-`As bin Umayyah (47 B.H.-35 A.H./577-656 A.D.), the third Rightly-Guided Caliph (ruled: 23-35 A.H./644-656 A.D.) He was a rich noble Companion who belonged to the Umayyads, a clan from the Quraish. He was born in Mecca and adopted Islam shortly after the Prophet's Mission. He was given the title "Dhu Al-Nurain" (the Owner of the Two Lights) as he married two of the Prophet's daughters (Ruqaiyah and Umm Kulthum) in succession. He equipped the army which was mobilized by the Prophet to invade Tabuk. `Uthman assumed the caliphate after the death of `Ummar bin Al-Khattab. During his reign the Muslims made great conquests in Armenia, Caucasia, Khurasan, Kerman, Sijistan, Tunisia and Cyprus. `Uthman compiled the Holy Qur'an in one copy, and made expansions to the Sacred Mosque at Mecca and the Prophet's Mosque at Medina. He was the first caliph to use the police and judiciary systems.


(23 -40 /600-661 ) (: 35-40 /656-661 ) . .
`Ali bin Abi Talib : Full name: `Ali bin Abi Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib Al-Hashimi Al-Qurashi (23 B.H.-40 A.H./600-661 A.D.), the fourth Rightly-Guided caliph (ruled: 35-40 A.H./656-661 A.D.), he was the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law. He was one of the great fighters who participated in the battles of Badr, Uhud, the Trench and Hunain. He assumed the caliphate after `Uthman bin `Affan. He was one of the great orators and scholars. He commanded his army at the Battles of the Camel, Siffin and Al-Nahrawan.


(40 -23 /584-644 ) (: 13-23 /634-644 ) .
`Umar bin Al-Khattab : Full name: `Umar bin Al-Khattab bin Nufail Al-Qurashi Al-`Adawi (40 B.H.-23 A.H./584-644 A.D.), the second Rightly-Guided Caliph (ruled: 13-23 A.H./634-644 A.D.) He embraced Islam five year before the Hijrah. He assumed the office of judge during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, thus becoming the first Muslim judge. He was appointed caliph after Abu Bakr and was the first to receive the title "the Emir of the Believers." He made the Hijri year the official calendar for Muslims, and was the first caliph to introduce the public ministries system. He established the first Muslim public treasury, and was known for his asceticism and justice. His reign witnessed the great conquests of Syria, Iraq, Jerusalem, Ctesiphon, Egypt, Jazirah, Khurasan, Sijistan and Cyprus.

20-06-2004, 01:31 AM





(48-96 /668-715 ) (: 86-96 /705-715 ) .
Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik : Full name: Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan (48-96 A.H./668-715 A.D.), the sixth Umayyad Caliph (ruled: 86-96 A.H./705-715 A.D.) During his reign the empire reached its peak by annexing Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarazm, Fergana, India, Tangier and Andalusia. Among his achievements were the building of both the Umawi Mosque in Damascus and the Dome of the Rock Mosque (Qubbat Al-Sakhrah)in Jerusalem. He also was the first caliph to establish hospitals in the Islamic era.


(54-99 /674-717 ) (: 96-99 /715-717 ) .
Sulaiman bin `Abdul-Malik : Full name: Sulaiman bin `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan (54-99 A.H./674-717 A.D.), the seventh Umayyad Caliph (ruled: 96-99 A.H./715-717 A.D.) He succeeded in conquering Jurjan and Tabaristan. He built a strong army and laid siege to Constantinople. He died in Dabiq.


(26-86 /646-705 ) (: 65-86 /685-705 ) ǡ .
`Abdul-Malik bin Marwan : Full name: `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan bin Al-Hakam Al-Umawi (26-86 A.H./646-705 A.D.), one of the greatest rulers (ruled: 65-86 A.H./685-705 A.D.) He was an intelligent, devout, ascetic and learned man. He was able to regain control of the empire after the assassination of Mus`ab and `Abdullah, sons of Al-Zubair during their war with Al-Hajjaj Al-Thaqafi. A great reformer, he established a postal system, Arabicized the divans and minted gold currency. He died in Damascus.


(61-101 /681-720 ) (: 99-101 /717-720 ) . ǡ .
`Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz : Full name: `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz bin Marwan bin Al-Hakam (61-101 A.H./681-720 A.D.), the eighth Umayyad Caliph (ruled: 99-101 A.H./717-720 A.D.) The Caliph Sulaiman bin `Abdul-Malik recommended him for the caliphate after his death. He was a pious caliph and knowledgeable scholar. He ordered that the Prophet's hadiths be compiled. He conducted administrative reformation in the state, and was known for his just rule. It is even said that he was the fifth of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, for his similarity to them.


(2-65 /623-685 ) (: 64-65 /683-685 ) .
Marwan bin Al-Hakam : Full name: Marwan bin Al-Hakam bin Abi Al-`As bin Umaiyah (2-65 A.H./623-685 A.D.), the fourth Umayyad caliph, and forefather of the Marwanids (ruled: 64-65 A.H./683-685 A.D.) He was a loyal follower of the Caliph `Uthman bin `Affan and participated in the Battle of the Camel. He established the standards for weights and measurements. He died of plague in Damascus.


(20 . -60 /603-680 ) (: 41 -60 /661-680 ) (8 ) 37 /657 (41 /661 ) .
Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan : Full name: Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan bin Harb (20 B.H.-60 A.H./603-680 A.D.), the founder of the Umayyad State in Syria (ruled 41-60 A.H./661-680 A.D.) He belonged to the Umaiyah clan from the tribe of Quraish. He was born in Mecca and was one of the opponents to the new religion until he embraced Islam on the day of the Conquest of Mecca (8 A.H.) For his knowledge of writing and mathematics, the Messenger made him one of his scribes. Mu`awiah ruled Syria during the reign of both Caliphs `Umar and `Uthman. He opposed `Ali bin Abi Talib and fought him at the Battle of Siffin (37 A.H./657 A.D.) which ended with the Arbitration. He became caliph (41 A.H./661 A.D.) and moved the capital of the caliphate to Damascus. He was one of the major conquerors in the Islamic era, his conquests reached the Atlantic Ocean.


(71-125 /690-743 ) (: 105-125 /724-743 ) ǡ () .
Hisham bin `Abdul-Malik : Full name: Hisham bin `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan (71-125 A.H./690-743 A.D.), the tenth Umayyad Caliph (ruled: 105-125 A.H./724-743 A.D.) During his reign the Islamic empire reached its utmost extent. He engaged in several wars with the Byzantines, his army conquered Narbonne and his empire expanded to Poitiers in France, where the Battle of Balat Al-Shuhada' (Tours-Poitiers) took place

20-06-2004, 01:33 AM





(104-136 /722-754 ) (: 132-136 /750-754 ) ( ) .
Abu Al-`Abbas Al-Saffah : Real name: `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Ali bin `Abdullah bin Al-`Abbas bin `Abdul-Muttalib (104-136 A.H./722-754 A.D.), the first Abbasid Caliph (ruled: 132-136 A.H./750-754 A.D.), he was named Caliph at Kufa and seized power over the Muslim empire after the killing of Marwan bin Muhammad (the last Umayyad Caliph in Syria). He made Al-Anbar the capital of his caliphate. He was the first caliph in the Islamic era to originate the vizierates.


(95-158 /714-775 ) (: 136-158 /754-775 ) ǡ .
Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur : Real name: `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Ali bin Al-`Abbas (95-158 A.H./714-775 A.D.), the second Abbasid Caliph. He was the first Arab Caliph to be keenly interested in sciences (ruled: 136-158 A.H./754-775 A.D.) He built Baghdad and made it the capital of his caliphate. He is the father of all the Abbasid Caliphs. Died while performing pilgrimage and was buried at Mecca.


(149-193 /766-809 ) (: 170-193 /786-809 ) ɡ .
Al-Rashid : Real name: Harun bin Muhammad bin Al-Mansur (149-193 A.H./766-809 A.D.), the fifth Abbasid Caliph (ruled: 170-193 A.H./786-809 A.D.) Engaged in several wars against the Byzantines while still a ruler of western regions, enabling his caliphate to reach Constantinople. He Seized power over Persian lands and appointed the Aghlabids rulers of North Africa. He was a friend to Sharlemagne, the Frank king. His age witnessed a great development of trade, literature and science. He enabled the Barmakids to play a vital rule in state affairs, but later excluded them. Died and buried in Tus.


(336-422 /947-1031 ) (: 381-422 /991-1031 ) .
Al-Qadir Bi Allah : Real name: Ahmad bin Ishaq bin Al-Muqtadir Bi Allah (336-422 A.H./947-1021 A.D.), he was very firm, so the Turks and Daylamites, who had the real power at that time, fell under his control. People loved him, so he managed to extend his control over the whole caliphate (ruled: 381-422 A.H./991-1031 A.D.) He conquered India. He was a scholar and wrote a book on the principles of jurisprudence.


(170-218 /786-833 ) (: 198-218 /813-833 ) .
Al-Ma'mun : Real name: `Abdullah bin Harun Al-Rashid (170-218 A.H./786-833 A.D.), the seventh Abbasid Caliph (ruled: 198-218 A.H./813-833 A.D.) He was greatly interested in literature and science, and built the Bait Al-Hikmah [The House of Wisdom] School in Baghdad. The translation movement flourished during his reign. He supported the Mu`tazilites and afflicted the people with the trial of dogma "The Qur'an is a created object." This episode was called "the Ordeal."


(206-247 /821-861 ) (: 232-247 /847-861 ) .
Al-Mutawakkil `Ala Allah : Real name: Ja`far bin Al-Mu`tasim Bi Allah bin Harun Al-Rashid (206-247 A.H./821-861 A.D.), the tenth Abbasid Caliph (ruled: 232-247 A.H./847-861 A.D.) He adhered to the Prophetic Tradition; thus he rejected and fought the Mu`tazilites and relieved the people from the ordeal of "Al-Qur'an is a created object." He attempted to move the caliphate capital to Damascus. After his death the Abbasid Caliphate started to deteriorate.


(609-656 /1212-1258 ) (: 640-656 /1242-1258 ) .
Al-Musta`sim Bi Allah : Real name: `Abdullah bin Al-Mustansir Bi Allah (609-656 A.D./1212-1258 A.D.), the last Abbasid Caliph in Iraq (ruled: 640- 656 A.H./1242-1258 A.D.) He was named caliph after the death of his father. He failed to stop the advance of the Mongols, who crushed Baghdad and burned its library. He was killed at the hands of Hulegu.


(510-566 /1116-1170 ) (: 555-566 /1160-1170 ) .
Al-Mustanjid Bi Allah : Real name: Yusuf bin Muhammad (510-566 A.H./1116-1170 A.D.), he removed taxation (ruled: 555-566 A.H./1160-1170 A.D.), and was one of the best caliphs in the treatment of his subjects. He died in Baghdad.


(179-227 /795-841 ) (: 218-227 /833-841 ) "".
Al-Mu`tasim Bi Allah : Real name: Muhammad bin Harun Al-Rashid (179-227 A.H./795-841 A.D.), one of the greatest Abbasid Caliphs (ruled: 218-227 A.H./833-841 A.D.) He recruited the Turks in his army. His era witnessed several wars; his commander Al-Afshin conquered Azerbijan. Al-Mu`tasim defeated the Byzantines and seized Amoriah. He built the city of Samarra as a camp for his soldiers. As his predecessor Al-Ma'mun, he supported the Mu`tazilites and afflicted the people with the trial of dogma "The Qur'an is a created object." This episode was called "the Ordeal."


(242-289 /857-902 ) (: 279-289 /892-902 ) .
Al-Mu`tadid Bi Allah : Real name: Ahmad bin Talhah bin Al-Mutawakkil `Ala Allah (242-289 A.H./857-902 A.D.) He managed to eliminate the ministers who used to seize actual authority during the reigns of his predecessors and acted as the absolute master of the Caliphate (ruled: 279-289 A.H./892-902 A.D.) Suppressed all revolutions that happened during his reign and directed his attention to reformation. Concluded an agreement with the Tulunid Khumarawaih, and married his daughter. After his death, weakness afflicted the state.


(448-487 /1056-1094 ) (: 467-487 /1075-1094 ) ǡ .
Al-Muqtadi Bi Amr Allah : Real name: `Abdullah bin Muhammad (448-487 A.H./1056-1094 A.D.) His grandfather, Al-Qa'im Bi Amr Allah, named him as his successor, so he assumed the caliphate at the age of 18 (ruled: 467-487 A.H./1075-1094 A.D.) He encouraged construction in Baghdad. His reign was characterized by affluence and safety. He died suddenly in Baghdad.


(263-295 /876-908 ) (: 289-295 /902-908 ).
Al-Muktafi Bi Allah : Real name: `Ali bin Ahmad Al-Mu`tadid Bi Allah (263-259 A. H/876-908 A.D.), he engaged in several wars with the Qarmatians who raided the pilgrims to the Sacred House until he eradicated them. Later he fought with the Tulinids and finally with the Byzantines, yet he could not stop their advance (ruled: 289-295 A.H./902-908 A.D.)


(127-169 /744-785 ) (: 158-169 /775-785 ) .
Al-Mahdi : Real name: Muhammad bin `Abdullah Al-Mansur (127-169 A.H./744-785 A.D.), he was well known for his wars against the Byzantines (ruled: 158-169 A.H./775-785 A.D.) Among his achievements were constructing public roads, developing the postal system and building the Mosque of Al-Rasafah. Trade prospered during his era.


(553-622 /1158-1225 ) (: 575-622 /1180-1225 ) .
Al-Nasir Li Din Allah : Real name: Ahmad bin Al-Mustadi' Bi Allah (553-622 A.H./1158-1225 A.D.) No Abbasid Caliph reigned longer than he (ruled: 575-622 A.H./1180-1225 A.D.) He was well known for his firmness and cunning. He withdrew power from the army commanders and put an end to the Seljuk domination.

20-06-2004, 01:34 AM



1

(154-206 /771-822 ) (: 180-206 /796-822 ) .
Al-Hakam I : Full name: Al-Hakam bin Hisham bin `Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil (154-206 A.H./771-822 A.D.), he was known for his firmness. He suppressed the Rabadi Revolution (ruled: 180-206 A.H./796-822 A.D.) Interested in literature and science, he was also an eloquent poet and preacher.
2 ()

(302-366 /914-976 ) (: 350-366 / 961-976 ) ǡ .
Al-Hakam II (Al-Mustansir) : Full name: Al-Hakam bin `Abdul-Rahman Al-Nasir (302-366 A.H./914-976 A.D.), the second Umayyad Caliph of Andalusia (ruled: 350-366 A.H./961-976 A.D.) Cordoba became the center of culture and science because of Al-Hakam's encouragement of scientific research and literature. He founded a library, which contained more than 400,000 volumes.
1 ()

(113-172 /731-788 ) (: 138-172 /756-788 ) (139 /756 ) .
`Abdul-Rahman I : Full name: `Abdul-Rahman bin Mu`awiah bin Hisham bin `Abdul-Malik (113-172 A.H./731-788 A.D.), he was entitled Saqr Quraish (The Falcon of Quraish). The founder of the Umayyad Dynasty in Andalusia (ruled: 138-172 A.H./756-788 A.D.), he conquered Seville and Cordoba and banished the opponent Emir Yusuf Al-Fahri in 139 A.H./756 A.D. He engaged in a fierce war with Charlemagne. At his death, he left a strong caliphate to his son Hisham.
2

(176-238 /792-852 ) (: 206-238 /822-852 ) .
`Abdul-Rahman II : Full name: `Abdul-Rahman bin Al-Hakam bin Hisham (176-238 A.H./792-852 A.D.), the fourth Umayyad Emir of Andalusia (ruled: 206-238 A.H./822-852 A.D.) Suppressed all revolutions that took place during his reign and paid great attention to construction. His reign was a turning point in the history of Andalusia. His castle was characterized by its royal grandeur and the Abbasid ornamentation. He built several mosques and castles and patronized poets.
3 ()

(277-350 /890-961 ) (: 300-350 /912-961 ) .
`Abdul-Rahman III (Al-Nasir) : Full name: `Abdul-Rahman bin Muhammad (277-350 A.H./890-961 A.D.), he suppressed the sedition of Ibn Hafsun (300-350 A.H./912-961 A.D.) His era witnessed the high point in Islamic Andalusian civilization with its capital, Cordoba, as the greatest capital in the Muslim world at that time. He built the city of Al-Zahra' with its marvelous palace.


(229-300 /843-912 ) (: 275-300 /888-912 ) ɡ ǡ .
`Abdullah : Full name: `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Abdul-Rahman bin Al-Hakam (229-300 A.H./843-912 A.D.), the seventh Umayyad Emir of Andalusia (ruled: 275-300 A.H./888-912 A.D.) Suppressed the dissension of Al-Muwallidin and conquered the Arabs of Seville and Elvira. He was a pious scholar, linguist and poet. Historians considered him the most pious Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty in Andalusia.
1

(139-180 /756-796 ) (: 172-180 /788-796 ) "" .
Hisham I : Full name: Hisham bin `Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil (139-180 A.H./756-796 A.D.), the second Umayyad Emir of Andalusia (ruled: 172-180 A.H./788-796 A.D.) He ruled Mardah during the lifetime of his father. After assuming the caliphate, he built several mosques and finished the building of the Mosque of Cordoba. Because of his justice, the people of Andalusia likened him to `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz.

20-06-2004, 01:38 AM






(319-365 /931-975 ) (: 341-365 /953-975 ) .
Al-Mu`izz Li Din Allah : Real name: Ma`d bin Isma`il bin Muhammad (319-365 A.H./931-975 A.D.), he conquered Fez and Sijilmasah. He sent his commander, Jauhar Al-Saqalli, to occupy Al-Fustat, the Egyptian capital, and construct the city of Cairo making it the Fatimid Capital. He titled Bulukkin bin Ziri ruler of Tunisia, which he left for Egypt (ruled: 341-365 A.H./953-975 A.D.) He seized Tripoli and Beirut and defeated Byzantine Emperor. He built the Mosque of Al-Azhar and supported scholars.


(302-341 /914-953 ) (: 334-341 /946-953 ) .
Al-Mansur : Real name: Isma`il bin Muhammad (302-341 A.H./914-953 A.D.), he suppressed the revolution of Abu Yazid Al-Nukari (ruled: 334-341 A.H./946-953 A.D.) He constructed the city of Al-Mansuriyah as his residence. He eliminated all riots and revolutions that took place during his reign. He died in Al-Mansuriyah and was buried in Al-Mahdiyah.
(: 297-322 /909-934 )

297-322 /909-934 ) : (259-322 /873-934 ) ǡ (: 297-322 /909-934 ) ɡ .
`Ubaidullah Al-Mahdi : Real name: `Ubaidullah bin Muhammad bin Ja`far (259-322 A.H./873-934 A.D.), he was the founder of the Fatimid State and its first caliph (ruled: 297-322 A.H./909-934 A.D.) He emigrated from Salamiyah in Syria to Morocco. Abu `Abdullah, the Shiite, with the help of the Kutamah tribe, had previously set `Ubaidullah free from capture at Sijilmasah and paved the ground for him to be paid homage. Thus he conquered Raqadah and put an end to the Aghlabids. Among his major achievements was his construction of the city of Al-Mahdiyah on the Mediterranean, southeast of Al-Qairawan, as the capital of his state.

20-06-2004, 01:40 AM




( )

( 656 /1258 ) (: 648-656 /1250-1258 ) .
Aybeg (`Izz Al-Din) : Full name: Aybeg bin `Abdullah Al-Salihi (died 656 A.H./1258 A.D.), he was the first Bahri (Naval) Mamluk to rule Egypt and Syria (ruled: 648-656 A.H./1250-1258 A.D.) He was a slave of Sultan Najm Al-Din Ayyub, who emancipated him and made him one of his emirs. After the death of Sultan Turan-Shah, Shajar Al-Durr seized power over the sultanate, and made him commander in chief. He married Shajar Al-Durr and became the Sultan after she relinquished power to him.


(754-778 /1353-1377 ) (767 ) (: 764-778 /1364-1377 ) ǡ .
Al-Ashraf II : Sh`aban bin Husain bin Muhammad bin Qalawun, known as Al-Ashraf II, (754-778 A.H./1353-1377 A.D.), a Qalawuni king during whose reign the Franks raided Alexandria (767 A.H.) He established a fleet of 100 ships to attack them and ordered the repair of what they destroyed. He firmly established himself as a truly just king (ruled: 764-778 A.H./1364-1377 A.D.) He achieved many victories and commissioned numerous architectural works.


() (666-693 /1268-1294 ) (: 689 -693 /1289 -1294 ) .
Al-Ashraf bin Qalawun : Real name: Khalil bin Qalawun (666-693 A.H./1268-1294 A.D.), he was one of Egypt's kings (ruled: 689-693 A.H./1289-1294 A.D.) He fought against the Franks and recaptured Acre, Sur, Sidon, Beirut, the Roman Castle, Bisan and all the coastal areas. He left behind many architectural monuments.


(738-761 /1337-1360 ) (753 ) (754 ) (755 ) (: 752-755 /1352-1355 )
Al-Malik Al-Salih Salah Al-Din : Real name: Salih bin Muhammad bin Qalawun (738-761 A.H./1337-1335 A.D.), he was a Qalawuni king of Egypt and Syria. When unrest spread inside Syria in 753 A.H., he departed Egypt for Damascus in the company of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tadid, and successfully aborted the revolution. He went back to Egypt where he also aborted the revolutions that erupted in Upper Egypt (754 A.H.) Finally, he was dethroned by some commanders of his army (755 A.H.) (ruled: 752-755 A.H./1352-1355 A.D.)


(684-741 /1285-1340 ) (693-694 /1293-1294 ) (698 /1298 ) (709-741 /1308-1340 ) (693 ) (694 ) (698 ) (709 ) .
Al-Malik Al-Nasir : Real name: Muhammad bin Qalawun, known as Al-Malik Al-Nasir, (684-741 A.H./1285-1294 A.D.), he was one of the greatest Qalawuni kings (ruled: 693-694 A.H./1293-1294 A.D.), (698 A.H./1298 A.D.) and finally (709-741 A.H./1308-1340 A.D.). He left behind immense architectural monuments. He ruled over Egypt and Syria in 693 A.H. while sill a boy, but was dethroned due to young age in 794 A.H. Then, he regained rule over Egypt in 698 A.H. and settled in the Citadel, but with no real authority. Finally, he regained his throne and all his authority in 709 A.H. He accomplished the building of Al-Mahmudyiah Canal, and renovating the Citadel.


( ) (620-689 /1223-1290 ) (: 678-689 /1278-1290 ) ǡ "".
Al-Mansur Qalawun : Qalawun (Saif Al-Din) Al-Alfi (620-689 A.H./1223-1290 A.D.), he was the first Qalawuni King of Egypt and Syria (ruled: 678-689 A.H./1278-1290 A.D.) Tartars attacked his domain but were defeated. He was one of the most outstanding kings of the Mamluks. He left behind many monuments, foremost among them was the large Bimaristan [Hospital].
1 ( )

(625-676 /1228-1277 ) "" ҡ (658 ) (: 658-676 /1260-1277 ) ɡ (659 ) .
Baybars I (Rukn Al-Din) : Baybars Al-`Ala'i Al-Bindiqdari (625-676 A.H. -1228-1277 A.D.), he was one of the Mamluks of Sultan Najm Al-Din Ayyub who emancipated him and made him one of his emirs. He was promoted until he became commander in chief during the reign of Qutuz. He engaged in several wars for Qutuz against the Tartars in Palestine. He succeeded Qutuz and seized power over Egypt and Syria (658 A.H.) (ruled: 658-676 A.H./1260-1277 A.D.) He was well known for his bravery in the wars against the Tartars and the Crusaders. He conquered Nubia and Dongola. During his reign, the capital of the Islamic Caliphate was moved to Egypt (659 A.H.) He died in Damascus.
( )

( 658 /1260 ) (: 657-658 /1259-1260 ) ߡ "" (657 ) (658 ) .
Qutuz (Saif Al-Din) : Full name: Qutuz bin `Abdullah Al-Mu`azzi (died 658 A.H./1260 A.D.), he was the third Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria (ruled: 657-658 A.H./1259-1260 A.D.) He was a slave to Aybeg and was promoted Commander in chief during the reign of Al-Mansur bin Al-Mu`izz. He seized power after Al-Mansur (657 A.H.). Qutuz triumphed over the Tartars at the Battle of `Ain Jalut [The Spring of Goliath] (658 A.H.), thus saving the country from the Mongols and preserving the last refuge of Muslim culture.

20-06-2004, 01:42 AM









( ) (766-841 /1365-1438 ) (824 ) (: 824-841 /1421-1438 ) ǡ .
Al-Ashraf Barasbay : Real name: Barasbay (Abu Al-Nasr) Al-Daqmaqi Al-Dhahiri (766-841 A.H./1365-1438 A.D.), he managed state affairs on behalf of Al-Salih bin Tatar for some weeks. Then, he dethroned him and declared himself sultan in 824 A.H. (ruled: 824-841 A.H./1421-1438 A.D.) Princes obeyed him and he perfectly maintained control of the state. He conquered Cyprus and took its king captive. In Egypt, he established schools and many architectural monuments.


(879-923 /1474-1517 ) (: 922-923 /1516-1517 ) (922 ) ( 922 /1516 ) .
Al-Ashraf Tuman-Bay : Tuman-Bay (879-923 A.H./1474-1517 A.D.), he was a Circassian king of Egypt (ruled: 922-923 A.H./1516-1517 A.D.) Sultan Qansawh Al-Ghuri appointed him prime minister and let him act on his behalf when he (Al-Ghuri) went to Allepo to fight the Ottomans in 922 A.H. After the death of Qansawh Al-Ghuri he was made sultan. The Ottomans defeated him and conquered Cairo under the command of Sultan Selim I (922 A.H./1516 A.D.) His death marked the beginning of the Ottoman rule of Egypt.


( ) (815-901 /1412-1496 ) (: 872-901 /1468-1496 ) "" (872 ) ǡ .
Al-Ashraf Qait Bay : Qait Bay (Saif Al-Din) (815-901 A.H./1412-1496 A.D.), Mamluk sultan of Egypt and Syria (ruled: 872-901 A.H./1468-1496 A.D.) In the days of Al-Dhahir Tamarbuga (872 A.H.) he was appointed commander-in-chief. Mamluks paid him homage by appointing him sultan after dethroning Tamarbuga. His reign was remarkable for great events and wars, as the state was exposed to external danger, foremost among which was the Ottoman attempt to occupy Allepo and its surroundings. He spent a lot of money on supplying his armies with weaponry. He left behind many architectural achievements in Egypt, the Hijaz and Syria, some of which can still be seen.


( ) (738-801 /1338-1398 ) (: 784-801 /1382-1399 ) "" (791 ) ǡ (792 ) " " " " .
Al-Dhahir Barquq : Real name: Barquq (Saif Al-Din) Al-`Uthmani (738-801 A.H./1338-1399 A.D.), he was the first Circassian to assume power in Egypt (ruled: 784-801 A.H./1382-1399 A.D.) He was promoted to higher positions during Al-Mansur Al-Qalawuni's reign until he was given the highest rank in the army; then he took over the sultanate. He undertook many reforms and established a school bearing his name. When he was dethroned in (791 A.H.), he departed for Al-Kark, seized it and moved on Damascus and captured it. He defeated the army of Al-Salih Al-Qalawuni and went back to Egypt as sultan in 792 A.H. where he died. He abolished some taxes and established the Al-Shari`ah Bridge in Al-Ghur and the Al-`Urub Canal in Jerusalem.


( ) ( 857 /1453 ) "" (: 842-857 /1437-1453 ) .
Al-Dhahir Jaqmaq : Real name: Jaqmaq (Saif Al-Din) Al-`Ala'i Al-Dhahiri (died 857 A.H./1453 A.D.) He was commander-in-chief in Al-Ashraf Barsbay's state, then, the king's counselor during the reign of his son Al-`Aziz Yusuf. Rebel Mamluks dethroned Al-`Aziz and set Jaqmaq in his place (ruled: 842-857 A.H./1437-1453 A.D.) He controlled the state well and reigned until his death.


( ) (759-824 /1358-1421 ) ޡ ̡ (815 ) (: 815-824 /1414-1424 ) (817 ) " " .
Al-Malik Al-Mu'aiyad : Real name: Shikh (Abu Al-Nasr) bin `Abdullah Al-Mahmudi (759-824 A.H. \1358-1421 A.D.), he was one of the Mamluks of Al-Dhahir Barquq. During the reign of Al-Nasir Faraj, he was deputy and ruler of Syrian Tripoli, then the commander-in-chief and the king's counselor. In 815 A.H. he dethroned Al-`Abbas bin Muhammad and assumed power himself (ruled: 815-824 A.H./1414-1424 A.D.) He crushed rebels in Syria in 817 A.H. He established the Mosque of Al-Malik Al-Mu'aiyad in Egypt.


( ) (850-922 /1446-1516 ) (: 905-922 /1499-1516 ) (905 ) .
Qansawh Al-Ghuri : Qansawh (Saif Al-Din) bin `Abdullah (850-922 A.H./1446-1516 A.D.), he was sultan of Egypt and Syria (ruled: 905-922 A.H./1499-1516 A.D.) First, he was chief of the royal divan in Allepo, then was made sultan in Cairo (905 A.H.) He left many architectural monuments. He fought against Sultan Selim I at Marj Dabiq near Allepo, where he was defeated and died of grief.

20-06-2004, 01:43 AM



1

1 (: 1603-1617 ) ǡ ( ) .
Ahmet I : He engaged in several wars with the Persians and Austrians (ruled: 1603-1617 A.D.). He appointed Murad Pasha as his Grand Vizier. Ahmet I built the Mosque of Istanbul which is now known by his name.


(: 1324-1360 ) (1324 ) .
Orhan : (Ruled: 1324-1360 A.D.), he held power over the entire Asia Minor, defeated the Byzantines, conquered Bursa and took it as his capital (1324 A.D.) He extended Ottoman sway from Angora in central Anatolia to Thrace in Europe and took the title sultan of the Gazis (warriors of the faith).
1

(: 1512-1520 ) (1516 ) 1516 .
Selim I : The ninth Ottoman Sultan (ruled: 1512-1520 A.D.), he acquired victory over the Mamluks at the Battle of Marj Dabiq (1516 A.D.) Conquered Syria and Egypt. Following the abdication of Al-Mutawakkil, last Abbasid caliph, Selim I was the first Ottoman sultan to be acknowledged as Caliph of the Muslim world.
1

(: 1520-1566 ) 1 (1526 ) ǡ .
Suleyman I, the Magnificent : The tenth Ottoman Caliph and the most honorable (ruled: 1520-1566 A.D.), he succeeded his father Selim I. He completed his father's conquests at Balkans and widened his empire by occupying Belgrade and Rhodes and then invaded Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs (1526 A.D.) He engaged in war with the Safivids and occupied Baghdad and Tabriz. During his reign the empire reached its utmost power. Art and literature flourished in his reign. He also made registration of laws and jurisprudence.
1

1 2 (1823-1861 ) (: 1839-1861 ) (1854-1855 ).
Abdulmecid I : Abdulmecid I bin Mahmud II (1823-1861 A.D.) Succeeded his father as Caliph of the Ottoman State (ruled: 1839-1861 A.D.). Made social and administrative reforms which were known as Tanzhimat. His reign witnessed the Crimean War (1854-1855 A.D.)
2

2 (: 1922 -1924 ) (1922 ) (1923 ) (1944 ).
Abdulmecid II : Abdulmecid II (ruled: 1922 -1924 A.D.), the last Ottoman Caliph (1922 A.D.), left the country after the Republic of Turkey had been declared (1923 A.D.) Died in Paris (1944 A.D.)
1

(: 1281-1324 ) ǡ .
`Uthman I : Real name: `Uthman bin Ertugrul (ruled: 1281-1324 A.D.), the founder of the Ottoman dynasty that ruled Turkey after the 13th century. He led his army to conquer Iznik and Bursa and controlled most of Asia Minor.
1

1 1(: 1413-1421 ) .
Mehmet I : Mehmet I bin Bayezid I (ruled: 1413-1421 A.D.). He achieved victory over the Venitians at Gallipoli.
2 ()

(: 1444-1446 ) (1451-1481 ) (1453 ) .
Mehmet II (the Conqueror) : He is considered the true founder of the Ottoman Empire (ruled: 1444-1446, and 1451-1481 A.D.) He destroyed the remains of the Byzantine Empire by capturing (1453) Constantinople, which he made his capital. He conquered the Balkan Peninsula including Greece, Bosnia, and several Aegean islands, and annexed the Crimea, Trebizond, and Karamania.
5

5 (1844-1918 ) (: 1909-1918 ) .
Mehmet V : Mehmet V Rashad (1844-1918 A.D.) (ruled: 1909-1918 A.D.) The Young Turkey Party used him to fulfill their aims. Participated in the First World War in which Turkey lost most of its possessions.
1

(: 1359-1389 ) (1365 ) .
Murad I : Real name: Murad bin Orhan (ruled: 1359-1389 A.D.). He made Adrianopole the capital of his empire (1365 A.D.) He extended the Ottoman Empire by conquering Macedonia and Serbia and forced the Byzantine Emperor to pay him tribute. He founded the Janissaries. He was killed after his victory at the Battle of Kossovo.
2

(1430 ) (1441-1443 ) (: 1421-1444 ) (1446-1451 )
Murad II : He occupied Thessalonica (1430 A.D.) Hunyadi next achieved victory over him, but Murad managed to take revenge at the Battle of Kossovo. He constructed the Ottoman naval power (ruled: 1421-1444 A.D.) and (1446-1451 A.D.).
3

3 2 (1546-1595 ) (: 1574-1595 ) (1576 ) (1584 )
Murad III : Murad III bin Selim II (1546-1595 A.D.), (ruled: 1574-1595 A.D.) He acquired victory over Persia in 1576 A.D. He extended his empire to the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea by acquiring Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Shirwan.
4

4 ( 1609-1640 ) (: 1623-1640 ) (1638 ).
Murad IV : Murad IV (about 1609-1640 A.D.), the last of the warrior-sultans (ruled: 1623-1640 A.D.). Recovered Baghdad from the Persians (1638 A.D.)

20-06-2004, 01:45 AM





(268-334 /882-946 ) (323 ) (: 323-334 /935-946 ) .
Al-Ikhshid : Real name: Muhammad bin Taghj Al-Ikhshid (268-334 A.H./882-946 A.D.), he was the founder of the Ikhshidid State in Egypt and Syria (323 A.H.) (ruled: 323-334 A.H./935-946 A.D.) The Abbasid Caliph Al-Radi Bi Allah assigned him the rule of Egypt, Syria and the Hijaz. He engaged in several wars against Saif Al-Daulah Al-Hamdani, but they finally concluded a treaty placing Aleppo, Antioch and Homs under the control of Saif Al-Daulah, and the rest of the Syrian regions added to the Ikhshidid authority with Egypt. Al-Ikhshid died in Damascus and was buried in Jerusalem.
( )

(292-357 /905-968 ) (312 ) (: 355-357 /966-968 ) 22 .
Kafur (Abu Al-Misk) : Kafur bin `Abdullah, the Ikhshidid (292-357 A.H./905-968 A.H.), he was an Abyssinian slave. Al-Ikhshid bought him (312 A.H.), then emancipated him and promoted him until he ruled Egypt (ruled: 355-357 A.H./966-968 A.D.) He was a wise politician who ruled Egypt for 22 years. He successfully managed the affairs of the state under the reign of the sons of Al-Ikhshid, Anujur and `Ali, and then assumed the sultanate himself for two years. He died in Cairo and was probably buried in Jerusalem.

20-06-2004, 01:46 AM





( 348 /959 ) ǡ .
Abu Al-`Aish bin Kannun : Real name: Ahmad bin Al-Qasim Kannun bin Muhammad (died: 348 A.H./959 A.D.), he was an Idrisid ruler. He refused to be loyal to the Fatimids and paid homage to `Abdul-Rahman Al-Nasir, ruler of Andalusia. He engaged in many battles in the outlying regions of Andalusia for Al-Nasir, who ordered a palace be built for Ahmad in every regions he passed through. He martyred in one of his battles.
2

(177-213 /793-828 ) (: 188-213 /802-828 ) ( ) (188 ) ( ) .
Idris II : Real name: Idris bin Idris bin `Abdullah bin Al-Hasan (177-213 A.H./793-828 A.D.), the second Idrisid Caliph in Western Morocco (ruled: 188-213 A.H./802-828 A.D.) His father died while he was still a baby, so Rashid, the freed slave of his father, and Abu Khalid Al-`Abdi held power until Idris reached eleven years old. The Berber tribes paid him homage at the Mosque of Oulili (188 A.H.) His control expanded as far as Western and Central Maghrib. He built the city of Fez and made it his capital.


( 177 /793 ) (: 172-177 /788-793 ) (172 /788 ) .
Idris bin `Abdullah : Full name: Idris bin `Abdullah bin Al-Hasan (died: 177 A.H./793 A.D.), founder of the Idrisid State in Morocco (ruled: 172-177 A.H./788-793 A.D.) He revolted against the Abbasids and succeeded in gaining the support of the Berber tribes at Oulili. He declared the rise of the Idrisid State in 172 A.H./788 A.D. and conquered Tadla and Tlemcen.


( 313 /944 ) ǡ (310 ) ɡ .
Al-Hasan Al-Hajjam : Real name: Al-Hasan bin Muhammad (died: 313 A.H./944 A.D.), the last Idrisid ruler in Fez. He gathered the remnants of his supporters and seized Fez (310 A.H.) He also captured the cities of Luwatah, Safrun, and Meknes. He was finally defeated by Musa bin Abi Al-`Aafiah in a battle near Fez. He fled to Andalusia where he died.
1

( 250 /864 ) (: 234-250 /849-864 ) ǡ ǡ .
Yahya I : Real name: Yahya bin Muhammad bin Idris (died: 250 A.H./864 A.H.) He was interested in construction, specially in Fez, his capital (ruled: 234-250 A.H./849-864 A.D.) During his reign Fez was a stopping for the people of Andalusia, Tunisia and other cities of the Maghrib, so it became crowded and he ordered building houses on its outskirts. He built the Mosque of Al-Qarawiyin. He died in Fez.

20-06-2004, 01:47 AM






(578-635 /1182-1237 ) (598 ) (606 ) (607 ) (609 ) (626 ). (: 626-635 /1229-1237 )
Al-Ashraf Musa : Full name: Al-Ashraf Musa bin Muhammad Al-`Adil (578-635 A.H./1182-1237 A.D.) His domination was first in Edessa, then he widened his state by adding Carrhae and Nizip (606 A.H.), then Sinjar and Khabur (607 A.H.) and after his brother Ayyub's death he seized power over Khalat and Mayafarqin and their outskirts (609 A.H.) He relinquished part of his domains to his cousin Al-Kamil and took from him Damascus (626 A.H.) (ruled: 626-635 A.H./1229-1237 A.D.)


() () (627-662 /1230-1263 ) " " .
Al-Ashraf Musa bin Ibrahim : Real name: Musa bin Ibrahim bin Asad Al-Din Shirkuh (627-662 A.H./1230-1263 A.D.), he was ruler of Homs and Al-Rahbah. He vanquished the Tartar army which included about 6000 soldiers, while his army was only 1500 soldiers. He married Ummat Al-Latif, a well-known scholar at that time. He died in Homs and was the last of his family to rule Homs.


( ) (603-647 /1206-1249 ) (: 637-647 /1240-1249 ) (639 /1239 ) (642 -647 /1245 -1249 ) .
Al-Salih Najm Al-Din Ayyub : Real name: Ayyub bin Al-Kamil (603-647 A.H./1206-1249 A.D.), he was a firm sultan (ruled: 637-647 A.H./1240-1249 A.D.) He seized power over Damascus two times in 639 A.H./1239 A.D. and in 642-647 A.H./1245-1249 A.D. The Franks invaded Damietta, so he prepared an army to meet them, but he died in Mansurah of tuberculosis. One of his achievements was constructing the Fortress of Al-Raudah in Cairo.
1

(540-615 /1145-1218 ) (579 ) (596 ) (: 596-615 /1199-1218 ) (604 ) (612 ) (604 ) .
Al-`Adil I bin Ayyub : Real name: Muhammad bin Ayyub bin Shadhi (540-615 A.H./1145-1218 A.D.), Vice Sultan of Saladin and the governor of Aleppo (579 A.H.) He controlled Egypt (596 A.H.) (ruled: 596-615 A.H./1199-1218 A.D.), Syria, Armenia (604 A.H.) and Yemen (612 A.H.) Put an end to the Ismailites in Egypt by arresting most of them (604 A.H.) He died in Damascus while preparing for a war with the Franks. He built a school which still bears his name.
1

() ( 1) (576-635 /1180-1238 ) (: 615-635 /1218-1238 ) (620 ) ǡ .
Al-Kamil I bin Muhammad : Real name: Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ayyub (576-635 A.H./1180-1238 A.D.) His father named him governor of Egypt, then he assumed control over it after his father's death (ruled: 615-635 A.H./1218-1238 A.D.) He widened his empire by conquering Carrhae, Edessa, Saruj, Al-Raqqah, Amid, the fortress of Kifa, then finally Syria. His son Al-Mas`ud conquered Mecca (620 A.H.) He died in Damascus and was buried in its castle. He left a school which still bears his name.
2

() (569-636 /1173-1239 ) ء (615-618 ) .
Al-Mujahid Shirkuh II : Real name: Shirkuh bin Muhammad bin Shirkuh (569-636 A.H./1173-1239 A.D.), he was known as "The Warrier King, Asad Al-Din." He was ruler of Aleppo as were his father and grandfather. He was well known for his bravery. He participated in the battles of the seaport of Damietta (615-618 A.H.) He settled in Al-Mansurah and was a scholar of Prophetic Tradition, which he narrated in Damascus and Homs. Some of the greatest scholars of Egypt and Syria permitted him to narrate after them. He died in Homs.
1

(599 -642 /1202 -1244 ) (: 626 -642 /1230 -1244 ) .
Al-Muzhaffar I Mahmud : Real name: Mahmud bin Muhammad bin `Umar (599-642 A.H./1202-1244 A.D.), ruler of Aleppo (ruled: 626-642 A.H./1230-1244 A.D.) He assumed power over Aleppo after his brother Qilij Arslan and maintained his rule until his death. He was a brave, generous and intelligent ruler who loved education and supported scholars.


( 648 /1250 ) (: 647-648 /1249-1250 ) ǡ ǡ .
Al-Mu`azham Turan Shah : Real name: Turan Shah bin Najm Al-Din Ayyub (died 648 A.H./1250 A.D.), he was the last Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt (ruled: 647-648 A.H./1249-1250 A.D.) and the grandfather of kings of the fortress of Kifa. He was the Vice Sultan of his father at the fortress of Kifa. He was able to defeat the Franks and regained Dameitta. He was killed by the Bahri Mamluks in Faraskur.


(576-624 /1180-1227 ) (: 615-624 /1218-1227 ) " ".
Al-Mu`azham `Isa : Real name: `Isa bin Muhammad bin Ayyub, known as Al-Mu`azham, (576-624 A.H./1180-1227 A.D.), sultan of Syria and one of the recognized scholars (ruled: 615-624 A.H./1218-1227 A.D.) He was so courageous that he used to go alone to fight the Franks and the soldiers then followed him. He was a scholar of Hanafi Jurisprudence and of the Arabic language. He wrote several books, one of which was Al-Sahm Al-Musib fi Al-Rad `Ala Ibn Al-Khatib [Sound Refutation of Ibn Al-Khatib's Allegation].


( 564 /1169 ) .
Al-Mansur Shirkuh bin Shadhi : Real name: Shirkuh bin Shadhi bin Marwan, he was known as "Al-Malik Al-Mansur." He was the first Ayyubid to rule Egypt. The greatest commander of the army of Mahmud bin Zangi, he triumphed over the Crusaders at the Battle of Tal Bastah. He was the minister during the reign of the Fatimid Caliph Al-`Adid. He died suddenly (died 564 A.H./1169 A.D.) and was buried in Cairo, then his body was moved to Medina.


(532-589 /1137-1193 ) (: 570-589 /1174-1193 ) (1171 ) (1187 ) ǡ .
Al-Nasir Salah Al-Din (Saladin) : Real name: Yusuf bin Ayyub bin Shadhi (532-589 A.H./1137-1193 A.D.), he was the founder of the Ayyubid State (ruled: 570-589 A.H./1174-1193 A.D.) and the great opponent of the Crusaders. He used his position as vizier to the Fatimid Caliph Al-`Adid to overthrow the Fatimid Dynasty and establish himself as the first Ayyubid sultan (1171 A.D.) He ended the Zangid domination at Homs and occupied Syria and Mosul. He conquered Tiberias and defeated the Crusaders at the Battle of Hittin (1187 A.D.) He conquered Jerusalem and captured its king. He then concluded a treaty with the Crusaders.


() ( 587 /1191 ) (: 582 -587 /1186-1191 ) (582 )
Taqi Al-Din bin Shahinshah : Real name: `Umar (Al-Muzhaffar) bin Shahinshah bin Ayyub (died 587 A.H./ 1191 A.D.), he was ruler of Hama (ruled: 582-587 A.H./1186-1191 A.D.) He was a courageous man who had many confrontations with the Franks. He was the vice sultan of his uncle Saladin in Egypt (582 A.H.) Taqi Al-Din attacked the Fortress of Manzikert to occupy it, but died before accomplishing his aim.

20-06-2004, 01:49 AM






(284-366 / 897-976 ) ( : 366 /976 ) .
Rukn Al-Daulah : Real name: Al-Hasan bin Buwaih (284-366 A.H./897-976 A.D.), one of the three brothers (the others being `Ali and Ahmad) who founded the Buyid Dynasty in Persia (ruled until: 366 A.H./976 A.D.) His authority expanded to Isfahan, Rayy and Hamadan.


(324-372 /936-983 ) ( : 372 / 983 ) ( ).
`Adud Al-Daulah : Real name: Fannakhusru bin Al-Hasan (324-372 A.H./936-983 A.D.), the greatest Buyid sultan (ruled until: 372 A.H./ 983 A.D.) His authority extended as far as Persia, Mosul, Iraq and Arabia. Out of his love of urbanization, he built hospitals, bridges and viaducts throughout his realm. He enclosed Medina by a wall.


(281-338 /894-949 ) (: 323-338 /934-949 ) .
`Imad Al-Daulah : Real name: `Ali bin Buwaih (281-338 A.H./894-949 A.D.), one of the three brothers (the others being Al-Hasan and Ahmad) who founded the Buyid Dynasty in Persia (ruled: 323-338 A.H./934-949 A.D.) With the help of his brothers, `Imad Al-Daulah subdued a large portion of the Abbasid domains, forcing the Abbasid caliph to recognize his authority.

20-06-2004, 01:50 AM





(598-647 /1202-1249 ) (: 625-647 /1227-1249 ) (626 ) 36000 .
Abu Zakariya Al-Hafsi : Abu Zakariya Al-Hafsi (598-647 A.H./1202-1249 A.D.), founder of the Hafsid State in Tunisia (ruled: 625-647 A.H./1227-1249 A.D.) He directed his policy to expand his authority by capturing Algiers, Ceuta, Tangier, Meknes and Sijilmasah. He constructed a number of schools and mosques and a great library that included 36,000 volumes. He concluded a 10-year peace treaty with Frederic II.


(625-675 /1228-1277 ) (: 647-675 /1249-1277 ) ǡ .
Al-Mustansir Muhammad : Real name: Muhammad bin Yahya bin `Abdul-Wahid (625-675 A.H./1228-1277 A.D.), a Hafsid king (ruled: 647-675 A.H./1249-1277 A.D.) He was the first to use a brass coin as currency. He was involved in a fierce battle with Louis IX, in which he scored a resounding triumph. He left great architectural monuments.

20-06-2004, 01:51 AM





( ) ( ) ( 381 /991 ) (: 356-381 /967-991 ) (367 ) .
Sa`d Al-Daulah : Real name: Sharif (Sa`d Al-Daulah) bin `Ali (Saif Al-Daulah) Al-Taghlibi (381 A.H./991 A.D.), ruler of Allepo and Homs and all the districts between them (ruled: 356-381 A.H./967-991 A.D.) He seized power during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Ta'i`. He defeated the Byznatines in many raids, and died in Aleppo.


( ) (303-356 /915-967 ) ǡ ǡ (333 ) .
Saif Al-Daulah Al-Hamdani : Real name: `Ali bin `Abdullah bin Hamdan Al-Taghlibi (303-356 A.H./915-967 A.D.), known for his courage. He ruled Wasit and its surrounding area, and widened his state by adding Damascus and Allepo (333 A.H.) He engaged in several wars with the Byzantines. He sponsored poets and men of letters.


( 317 /929 ) (392 ).
`Abdullah bin Hamdan : `Abdullah bin Hamdan bin Hamdun Al-Taghlibi (died 317 A.H./929 A.D.), one of the greatest commanders of the Abbasid State. Al-Muktafi Bi Allah appointed him ruler of Mosul and its surroundings (292 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 01:52 AM





(761-803 /1360-1400 ) (: 778-803 /1376-1400 ) ҡ .
Isma`il bin Al-`Abbas : Isma`il bin Al-`Abbas bin `Ali (761-803 A.H./1360-1400 A.D.), he ruled the Rasulid State until he died in Ta`izz (ruled: 778-803 A.H./1376-1400 A.D.) Historians described him as a compassionate, tolerant and judicious politician. He engaged himself in the study of literature, history and mathematics.


(706-764 /1306-1363 ) (: 721-764 /1322-1363 ) .
`Ali bin Dawud : `Ali bin Dawud bin Yusuf (706-764 A.H./1306-1363 A.D.), known as Al-Mujahid, a Rasulid caliph of Yemen (ruled: 721-764 A.H./1322-1363 A.D.) He was a poet and a well-appreciated writer. His reign was long and he was loved by his subjects. One of his main achievements was building two schools, one in Mecca and the other in Ta`izz.


( 647 /1250 ) (: 626-647 /1229-1250 ) (630 ) ʡ .
`Umar bin `Ali : `Umar bin `Ali bin Rasul (died 647 A.H./ 1250 A.D.), he was known as Al-Malik Al-Mansur, the founder of the Rasulid Sate in Yemen (ruled: 626-647 A.H./1229-1250 A.D.) He occupied Yemen and showed loyalty to the Ayyubids, until he formed a great army and engaged them in war and seized power (630 A.H.) He widened his state by dominating Mecca and its outskirts, until it extended from Mecca to Hadramaut. The Hijaz and Yemen became part of the Rasulid State during the reign of `Umar and his successors.


( 696 /1296 ) (: 694-696 /1295-1296 ) (694 ) "".
`Umar bin Yusuf : `Umar bin Yusuf bin `Umar (died 696 A.H./1296 A.D.), known as Al-'Ashraf, the third Rasulid Caliph of Yemen (ruled: 694-696 A.H./1295-1296 A.D.) His father declared him as his heir. He ruled in 694 A.H., but his reign lasted for only two years. He was a virtuous scholar and wrote many books on astronomy, medicine, and genealogy. Among his books was Al-Asturlab [The Astrolabe].


(619-694 /1222-1295 ) (: 647-694 /1250-1295 ) (659 ) (655 ) .
Yusuf bin `Umar : Yusuf bin `Umar bin `Ali bin Rasul(619-694 A.H./1222-1295 A.D.), known as Al-Muzhaffar, ruler of Sanaa (ruled: 647-694 A.H./1250-1295 A.D.) His skill as a ruler guaranteed him a long reign. He was the first Caliph to cover the Ka`bah from inside and outside (659 A.H.) after Baghdad had stopped sending the Kiswah [Covering of the Ka`bah] (655 A.H.) He was a prolific writer and scholar of medicine, astronomy and genealogy.

20-06-2004, 01:54 AM





(398-454 /1008-1062 ) (: 406-454 /1016-1062 ) ǡ .
Al-Mu`izz bin Badis : Al-Mu`izz bin Badis bin Mansur (398-454 A.H./1008-1062 A.D.), one of the Sanhaji kings of Ifriqiyah (ruled: 406-454 A.H./1016-1062 A.D.) He engaged in a number of wars with the Zanatah Berber tribe and defeated them in all combats. In 440 A.H. he declared his independence from the Fatimids. The Fatimid Caliph Al-Mustansir dispatched the nomads of Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaim against him. They defeated him at Haidaran conquering Tunisia, Al-Qairawan and Sousse. Finally, he retreated to Al-Mahdyiah.


( ) ( 386 /996 ) (: 373-386 /984-996 ) .
Al-Mansur bin Bulukkin : Al-Mansur (Abu Al-Fath) bin Bulukkin bin Ziri bin Mannad (died 386 A.H./996 A.D.), who ruled Ifriqiyah and the Maghrib (ruled: 373-386 A.H./984-996 A.D.) He exempted the people of Tunisia from many taxes.


( ) ( 373 /984 ) (: 361-373 /971-984 ) .
Bulukkin bin Ziri : Bulukkin (Abu Al-Futuh) bin Ziri Bin Mannad (died 373 A.H./984 A.D.), the real founder of the Sanhaji Principality in Tunisia (ruled: 361-373 A.H./971-984 A.D.) He was one of the leaders of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Mu`izz Li Din Allah, who made him ruler of Ifriqiyah, save Sicily and Tripoli. The people of Western Maghrib began a revolution and renounced their loyalty to the Fatimids. Bulukkin attacked them and captured Fez and Sijilmasah casting out the Umayyad officials. Thus, the entire Maghrib submitted to him.


(422-501 /1031-1108 ) (: 454-501 /1062-1108 ) (480 ) (484 ) .
Tamim bin Al-Mu`izz : Tamim bin Al-Mu`izz bin Badis (422-501 A.H./1031-1108 A.D.), one of the Sanhaji kings of Ifriqiyah (ruled: 454-501 A.H./1062-1108 A.D.) He was made king while in a time of great turmoil and unrest. He reestablished his rule over all. He recaptured the cities of Sousse, Sfax and Tunis from the hands of the Banu Hilal. He was attacked by the Franks in 480 A.H., who then captured Al-Mahdyiah and Sicily in 484 A.H. He defeated the Italians who attacked him with ships of war and killed a great number of them.


( 360 /971 ) (: 334-360 /945-971 ) ǡ ɡ .
Ziri bin Mannad : Ziri bin Mannad Al-Sanhaji (died 360 A.H./971 A.D.), the first Sanhaji king to rule Central Morocco (ruled: 334-360 A.H./945-971 A.D.) He was famous and brave. He built the city of Ashir and ordered Bulukkin, his son, to build the cities of Milianah, Algeries and Al-Mudiah. He was killed in a battle against Ja`far bin `Ali Al-Andalusi.


(457-509 /1065-1116 ) (: 501-509 /1107-1116 ) .
Yahya bin Tamim : Yahya bin Tamim bin Al-Mu`izz (457-509 A.H./1065-1116 A.D.) a Sanhaji king of Ifriqiyah (ruled: 501-509 A.H./1107-1116 A.D.) He assumed power and declared allegiance to the Abbasids. He built a great fleet with which he conquered Genoa and Sardinia.

20-06-2004, 01:55 AM





( 301 /914 ) (: 295-301 /907-914 ) (298 ).
Ahmad bin Isma`il Al-Samani : Ahmad bin Isma`il bin Ahmad Al-Samani (died 301 A.H./914 A.D.), a Samanid Emir of Transoxiana (ruled: 295-301 A.H./907-914 A.D.) The Abbasid Caliph Al-Muktafi recognized his authority. Ahmad marched with his army until he passed Rayy and occupied Sijistan (298 A.H.)


(234-295 /748-907 ) (: 279-295 /892-907 ) (279 ) .
Isma`il bin Ahmad Al-Samani : Isma`il bin Ahmad bin Asad bin Saman (234-295 A.H./748-907 A.D.), the second Samanid Emir of Transoxiana (ruled: 279-295 A.H./892-907 A.D.) The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tadid recognized his authority (279 A.H.), then he placed him over Khurasan. He succeeded in suppressing revolutions during his reign and was a judicious politician. He died in Bukhara.
2

2 ( 395 /1005 ) (: 391-395 /1001-1005 ) " " .
Isma`il bin Nuh II : Isma`il bin Nuh II bin Mansur (died 395 A.H./1005 A.D.), known as Al-Muntasir, the last Samanid Emir of Transoxiana (ruled: 391-395 A.H./1001-1005 A.D.) He was captured by the Turkish King Ilk Khan who occupied Bukhara, but he escaped and sought refuge in Khwarazm where he met with his patrons and supporters. He formed an army and engaged in a fierce battle against the Turkish King, in Bukhara, where he was killed. After Isma`il's death, the Samanid Dynasty perished.


( 279 /892 ) ɡ .
Nasr bin Ahmad Al-Samani : Nasr bin Ahmad bin Asad bin Saman (died 279 A.H./892 A.D.), the founder of the Samanid Dynasty of Transoxiana. He widened his state by adding Samarkand, Shash, Fergana, Bukhara and Ghazni. He was known for his wisdom and piety and for his interest in literature.


(293-331 /905-943 ) (: 301-331 /914-943 ) ѡ .
Nasr bin Ahmad bin Isma`il : Nasr bin Ahmad bin Isma`il Al-Samani (293-331 A.H./905-943 A.D.), ruler of Khurasan and Transoxiana (ruled: 301-331 A.H./914-943 A.D.) He ruled the state while still young with the assistance of his father's friends. As an adult, he widened his power over Khurasan, Jurjan, Rayy and Naisabur. He died of tuberculosis.

20-06-2004, 01:57 AM





(891-965 /1486-1557 ) (: 923-946 /1517-1540 ) (930 ) .
Ahmad Al-Hasani : Full name: Ahmad bin Muhammad Al-Hasani (891-965 A.H./1486-1557 A.D.), the real founder of the Sa`did Dynasty in Marrakech and Sousse (ruled: 923-946 A.H./1517-1540 A.D.) After fighting with the Portuguese he dominated Tilmist and Asifi and the neighboring territory around Sousse. He was deposed and imprisoned by his brother Al-Mahdi.


() (956-1012 /1549-1603 ) (: 986-1012 /1577-1603 ) ǡ (1000 ) .
Ahmad Al-Mansur : Full name: Ahmad bin Muhammad Al-Mahdi (956-1012 A.H./1549-1603 A.D.), known as Al-Mansur, a Sa`did sultan who was known for his conquests and love of knowledge (ruled: 986-1012 A.H./1577-1603 A.D.) He dispatched a unit of his army to capture the Sahara. As he was ambitious to subdue the Sudan and his armies, he conquered the region of Kagho (1000 A.H.) He established two bastions in Fez and two strong fortresses in Al-Ara'ish.


( 923 /1517 ) (: 916-923 /1510-1517 ) ӡ (916 ) .
Muhammad Al-Qa'im Bi Amr Allah : Real name: Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Hasani (died 923 A.H./1517 A.D.), founder of the Sa`did Dynasty (ruled: 916-923 A.H./1510-1517 A.D.) With the help of the ruler of Fez, he set out for Sousse to fight Portuguese troops. Both the people of Sousse and Dar`ah and its surroundings paid him homage. He then captured Tarudant and fortified it.


(896-964 /1491-1557 ) (: 946-964 /1540-1557 ) ӡ .
Muhammad Al-Mahdi : Real name: Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Hasani (896-964 A.H./1491-1557 A.D.), a Sa`did sultan who conquered the cities of Funti and Asifi, captured Meknes and Fez and founded the port of Aghadir (ruled: 946-964 A.H./1540-1557 A.D.) He fought the Ottoman Turks and recaptured Tlemcen from them.


(933-981 /1527-1574 ) (: 964-981 /1557-1574 ) (965 ) (969 ) .
Mulai `Abdullah Al-Ghalib : Real name: `Abdullah bin Muhammad Al-Mahdi (933-981 A.H./1527-1574 A.D.), a Sa`did sultan who ruled in Fez and Marrakech (ruled: 964-981 A.H./1557-1574 A.D.) He defeated the Turk Hasan bin Khayr Al-Din in 965 A.H. and tried to capture the city of Al-Buraihah from the Portuguese in 969 A.H. He worked for the development of agriculture and industry in Marrakech which witnessed a period of prosperity under his reign.

20-06-2004, 01:58 AM





( 465 /1072 ) (: 455-465 /1063-1072 ) ʡ .
Alp Arslan : Alp Arslan bin Dawud (died 465 A.H./1072), a great Seljuk sultan of Persia (ruled: 455-465 A.H./1063-1072 A.D.) He conquered Syria and Transoxiana and won great victories over the Byzantine Christians, especially at Manzikert (1071 A.D.), where he captured Emperor Romanus IV. He was known for his benevolence and spent a large amount of money in building schools throughout his realm.


(385-455 /995-1063 ) (: 429-455 /1037-1063 )
Tughrul-Beg : Tughrul-Beg bin Seljuk (385-455 A.H./995-1063 A.D.), founder of the Seljuk Dynasty (ruled: 429-455 A.H./1037-1063 A.D.) He eliminated the Al-Basasiri revolution against the Abbasids and ended the Buyid rule in Persia. His authority extended from the Oxus River to the Black Sea.
1

1 ( 485 /1092 ) (: 465-485 /1072-1092 ) .
Malik Shah I : Malik Shah I bin Alp Arslan (died 485 A.H./1092 A.D.), a great Seljuk sultan during whose reign the Seljuk State reached the zenith of its power (465-485 A.H./1072-1092 A.D.) His authority expanded to the region from the Byzantine territories to Yemen, including Turkey, Khurasan, Syria, Iraq and Arabia. He removed all taxes from his entire realm, constructed highways and mosques, excavated canals and dug wells on the way to Mecca to provide water for the pilgrims to the Sacred House.

20-06-2004, 01:59 AM




( 289 /902 ) (: 265-289 /879-902 ) ( ) (287 ) .
`Amr bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar : `Amr bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar (died 289 A.H./902 A.D.), second emir of the Saffarid State (ruled: 265-289 A.H./879-902 A.D.) The Abbasid caliph Al-Mu`tamid charged him with all the territories of Khurasan, Sijistan, India, Asbahan and Kerman. Later, Al-Mu`tadid charged him with Rayy and Transoxiana. He lost war with Isma`il bin Ahmad Al-Samani (ruler of Transoxiana) and was captured. He was jailed in Baghdad until he died.


( 265 /879 ) (: 254-265 /868-879 ) (247 ) (259 ) .
Ya`qub bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar : Ya`qub bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar, known as Abu Yusuf (died 265 A.H./ 879 A.D.), the founder of the Saffarid State in Khurasan (ruled: 254-265 A.H./868-879 A.D.) He widened his authority by occupying Sijistan (247 A.H.), Harah, Bushinj, Keraman, Shiraz, Persia and finally Naisabur (259 A.H.) For triumphing over the Turks, all emirs venerated him. He attacked Baghdad but was defeated by the army of the Caliph Al-Mu`tamid under the command of his brother Al-Muwaffaq.

20-06-2004, 02:01 AM





(220-270 /835-884 ) (: 254-270 /868-884 ) .
Ahmad bin Tulun : Ahmad bin Tulun (220-270 A.H./835-884 A.D.), the founder of the Tulunid State in Egypt and Syria (ruled: 254-270 A.H./868-884 A.D.) The Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta`in placed him in control of Egypt over which he seized power and built the city of Al-Qata'i` near Al-Fustat, making it his capital. He widened his state by extending his domain to Syria and Mosul. He built the Mosque which is now known by his name in Cairo. He died in Cairo.


( ) ( 282 /896 ) (: 270-282 /884-896 ) " " .
Khumarawaih bin Ahmad : Khumarawaih (Abu Al-Jaish) bin Ahmad bin Tulun (282 A.H./896 A.D.), ruled the Tulunid State in Egypt (ruled: 270-282 A.H./884-896 A.D.) He married his daughter Qatr Al-Nada to the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tadid. Khumarawaih's authority expanded from the Euphrates to Nubia.

20-06-2004, 02:02 AM





(1056-1139 /1645-1727 ) (: 1082-1139 /1672-1727 ) - - ǡ 76 .
Al-Maula Isma`il : Real name: Isma`il bin Muhammad (1056-1139 A.H./1645-1727 A.D.), a great Muslim sultan of the Alawis dynasty (ruled: 1082-1139 A.H./1672-1727 A.D.) His reign was a prosperous one that witnessed a rise in architectural and military activities. He ordered the construction of 76 castles which are still landmarks in Morocco and established a powerful army. His authority expanded to all the Maghrib and reached the Sudanese border.


(1040-1082 /1630-1672 ) (: 1075 -1082 /1664 -1672 ) .
Al-Maula Al-Rashid : Real name: Al-Rashid bin Muhammad Al-`Alawi (1040-1082 A.H./1630-1672 A.D.), a great Alawi sultan of the Maghrib (ruled: 1075-1082 A.H./1664-1672 A.D.) He conquered Taza, Sijilmasah and Fez. After he had dominated Marrakech, which he made his capital, and Sousse, he dispatched his army to subjugate Tangier. He was known for his conquests and love of knowledge which was manifested in his construction of Al-Sharatin School in Fez.


(1204-1276 /1790-1859 ) (: 1238-1276 /1819-1859 ) (1273 ) .
Al-Maula `Abdul-Rahman : Real name: `Abdul-Rahman bin Hisham (1204-1276 A.H./1790-1859 A.D.), an Alawi sultan of the Maghrib(ruled: 1238-1276 A.H./1819-1859 A.D.) He had a great interest in the welfare of his people and worked for the spread of knowledge and the promotion of agriculture and industry. In 1273 A.H., he concluded a treaty with the British organizing trade and granting security for the subjects of both parties. He rebuilt the port of Tangier, built two towers at Sale, a large hospital and a number of mosques.


(1134-1204 /1721-1790 ) (: 1171-1204 /1757-1790 ) ( 48000) .
Al-Maula Muhammad : Real name: Muhammad bin `Abdullah bin Isma`il (1134-1204 A.H./1721-1790 A.D.), an Alawi sultan of the Maghrib (ruled: 1171-1204 A.H./1757-1790 A.D.) He worked for the reformation and welfare of his state. His reign was one of prosperity. He founded a number of cities, mosques and schools, built a strong naval power and fortified ports and borders of his realm. Notable among his achievements was that he spent a great amount of money to ransom about 48,000 Muslim captives from the Franks.


( 1075 /1664 ) (: 1050 -1075 /1640 -1664 ) .
Muhammad bin Al-Sharif : Full name: Muhammad bin Muhammad Al-Hasani (died 1075 A.H./1664 A.D.), founder of the Alawis Dynasty whose descendants are still in power in Morocco (ruled: 1050-1075 A.H./1640-1664 A.D.) Having been given the homage of the people of Sijilmasah, which became his capital, he set out for the neighboring regions and captured Fez and some cities of the Sahara.

20-06-2004, 02:03 AM





(961 ) ( 963 ).
Alptegin : Alptegin was a Turkish mercenary soldier who was appointed ruler of Khurasan. In 961 A.D. he revolted against the Samanids and founded the Ghaznavid Dynasty (died: 963 A.D.)


( 387 ).
Sebuktegin : Sebuktegin was a Ghaznavid sultan who was chosen by the army commanders to succeed Alptegin, founder of the Ghaznavid Dynasty. As he endeavored to expand his authority, he dominated Khurasan, Sijistan and a great portion of the mountain regions on the borders of India (died: 387 A.H.)


(361-421 /971-1030 ) (: 389-421 /998-1030 ) ʡ .
Mahmud : Mahmud bin Sebuktegin (361-421 A.H./971-1030 A.D.), the most famous Ghaznavid sultan (ruled: 389-421 A.H./998-1030 A.D.) This renowned commander conquered India and Bukhara and ended the Samanid rule in Transoxiana. He also captured Panjab and Gujarat. His era witnessed a flourish in the arts and literature.
1

( 432 /1040 ) (: 422 -432 /1029 -1040 ) .
Mas`ud I : Full name: Mas`ud bin Mahmud bin Sebuktegin (died: 432 A.H./1040 A.D.), a Ghaznavid sultan (ruled: 422-432 A.H./1029-1040 A.D.) whose authority expanded as far as Khurasan, Ghazni, India, Sind, Sijistan, Kerman, Makran, Rayy and Asbahan. He conquered some Indian forts. He left many architectural monuments.

20-06-2004, 02:05 AM





(410-500 /1019-1106 ) (: 463-500 /1069-1106 ) (465 ) (463 ) (475 ) (479 ) ǡ .
Yusuf bin Tashfin : Yusuf bin Tashfin, (410-500 A.H./1019-1106 A.D.) the Almoravid king of Western Maghrib (ruled: 463-500 A.H./1069-1106 A.D.) He led a series of triumphant military invasions in Western Maghrib. He founded the city of Marrakech and took it as the capital of his state. Later, it became the base from which several campaigns were launched in Western Maghrib. His authority extended as far as Central Maghrib (present day Algeria). He captured Fez and set out for Andalusia, where he victoriously crushed the Christian Restoration Movement at the Battle of Al-Zallaqah. After this battle, thirteen of the Sectarian Kings of Andalusia paid him homage.

20-06-2004, 02:06 AM




(542-614 /1147-1217 ) (: 610-614 /1213-1217 ) (612 ).
Abu Yahya `Abdul-Haqq : Real name: `Abdul-Haqq bin Mihyu Al-Marini (542-614 A.H./1147-1217 A.D.), founder of the Marinid Dynasty which ruled in Western Maghrib (ruled: 610-614 A.H./1213-1217 A.D.) He stayed with his tribe in the Rif region from which he raided neighboring regions. In 612 A.H. he ended the Almohad rule.


( ) (607-685 /1210-1286 ) (: 656-685 /1256-1286 ) (674 ) (672 ) (673 ) ɡ .
Abu Yusuf Ya`qub : Real name: Ya`qub bin `Abdul-Haqq (607-685 A.H./1210-1286 A.D.), a Marinid king (ruled: 656-685 A.H./1256-1286 A.D.) He defeated the Banu `Abdul-Wad troops. He recaptured the city of Sale from the Spaniards. In 672 A.H. he captured Tangier and Ceuta; in 673 he dominated Sijilmasah and expanded his authority over the entire Maghrib; and in 674 he brought about the end of the Almohad State. Then he set out to conquer Andalusia by capturing Seville, Jerez and Cordoba. He founded the city of Al-Baida', and ordered the establishment of hospitals and schools and assigned salaries for physicians and teachers.

20-06-2004, 02:07 AM



1

() ( 951 /1544 ) (: 920-951 /1516-1544 ) 1 " " ǡ .
Fakhr Al-Din I : Full name: Fakhr Al-Din I bin `Uthman bin Mulhim (died 951 A.H./1544 A.D.), He was the Emir of Al-Shuf in Lebanon (ruled: 920-951 A.H./1516-1544 A.D.) He paid homage to Selim I, after the Battle of Marj Dabiq, and consequently received the title Amir Al-Barr [Emir of Land]. His authority expanded from Jaffa to Tripoli. He built many forts and died in Al-Shuf.
2

(890-1044 /1572-1635 ) (: 1010-1044 /1602-1635 ) .
Fakhr Al-Din II : Fakhr Al-Din bin Qurqumaz (890-1044 A.H./1572-1635 A.D.), he was one of the greatest emirs of Banu Ma`n (ruled: 1010-1044 A.H./1602-1635 A.D.) He formed a strong army and expanded his power from Aleppo and all Lebanese regions to the borders of Jerusalem. He reformed his army and the taxation system and tried to reunite his state.


( 1068 /1658 ) (: 1044-1068 /1635-1658 ) ǡ .
Mulhim : Full name: Mulhim bin Yunus bin Qurqumaz (died 1068 A.H./ 1658 A.D.), he fled after his uncle Fakhr Al-Din bin Qurqumaz had been killed, then returned home to rule Al-Shuf, Al-Gharb, Al-Jard, Al-Matn and Kasrawan regions (ruled: 1044-1068 A.H./1635-1658 A.D.) His reign lasted for 20 years. He lost Wadi Al-Qaran to one of the emirs of Syria. Mulhim died in Sidon.

20-06-2004, 02:08 AM





(533-580 /1138-1184 ) (: 558-580 /1163-1184 ) (558 ) (560 ) .
Abu Ya`qub Yusuf : Real name: Yusuf bin `Abdul-Mu'min (533-580 A.H./1138-1184 A.D.), an Almohad king of Marrakech (ruled: 558-580 A.H./1163-1184 A.D.) He was given homage first in Seville (558 A.H.) and then in Marrakech (560 A.H.) He expanded his authority until it reached Santarim, in west Andalusia. He built the Seville Mosque and to him is ascribed a new dinar currency that bears his name. He was fatally wounded during a combat with a French garrison.


( 610 /1213 ) (: 595-610 /1199-1213 ) (609 ) .
Al-Nasir Muhammad : Al-Nasir Muhammad (died 610 A.H./1213 A.D.), a great king of the Almohad State of Western Maghrib (ruled: 595-610 A.H./1199-1213 A.D.) His authority extended as far as Tunisia, Western Maghrib and Andalusia. He managed to suppress the revolution led by Yahya bin Ishaq who attempted to seize Tripoli, Tunisia and the city of Al-Mahdiyah. His reign witnessed the famous Battle of Al-`Uqab (609 A.H.) with the French.


(487-558 /1094-1163 ) (: 524-558 /1129-1163 ) (541 ) ( ) .
`Abdul-Mu'min Al-Kumi : `Abdul-Mu'min bin `Ali (487-558 A.H./1094-1163 A.D.), founder of the Almohad State in the Maghrib (ruled: 524-558 A.H./1129-1163 A.D.) He put an end to the Almoravids and conquered Marrakech, their capital, in 541 A.H. His authority expanded to Tripoli, Tunisia, Central and Western Maghrib. In Andalusia he subdued Cordoba, Granada and Seville. He ordered the construction of a powerful fleet and encouraged architectural development. He instituted land taxes on tribes living in the Maghrib.


(554-595 /1160-1199 ) (: 580-595 /1184-1199 ) ǡ (585 ) ǡ .
Ya`qub bin Yusuf : Ya`qub bin Yusuf bin `Abdul-Mu'min (554-595 A.H./1160-1199 A.D.), a great king of the Almohad State in Western Maghrib (ruled: 580-595 A.H./1184-1199 A.D.) In 585 A.H., he conquered four cities in France. He devoted his efforts to the welfare of his nation. He suppported scholars and students. His era witnessed the construction of schools, mosques, hospitals and arches, the digging of a large number of wells and the foundation of the city of Rabat.

20-06-2004, 02:09 AM





( ) (220-249 /835-864 ) (: 242-249 /856-864 ) .
Abu Ibrahim Ahmad : Real name: Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Al-Aghlab (220-249 A.H./835-864 A.D.), the seventh Aghlabid king of Tunisia (ruled: 242-249 A.H./856-864 A.D.) He built many mosques, extended the Mosque of Al-Qairawan, enclosed the city of Sousse and conquered many forts in Sicily. He built about 10,000 forts. He crushed the rebellion launched by the Ibadi Berbers of Tripoli.


( 261 /875 ) (: 250-261 /864-875 ) (255 ) .
Abu Al-Gharaniq : Real name: Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Al-Aghlab (died 261 A.H./875 A.D.), the ninth Aghlabid king of Tunisia (ruled: 250-261 A.H./864-875 A.D.) During his reign the Byzantines occupied parts of Sicily. He sent his troops to Malta and occupied it in 255 A.H. and built fortresses and strongholds on the coast. Great wars broke out during his reign.


( ) (173-226 /790-841 ) (: 223-226 /816-841 ) ǡ .
Abu `Iqal : Real name: Al-Aghlab (Abu `Iqal) bin Ibrahim bin Al-Aghlab (173-226 A.H./790-841 A.D.), the fifth Aghlabid king of Tunisia (ruled: 223-226 A.H./816-841 A.D.) He was a good ruler. His reign witnessed the subjugation of fortresses of Sicily, whether by reconciliation or surrender.


(800 ) ( 196 /812 ).
Ibrahim bin Al-Aghlab : Ibrahim bin Al-Aghlab was the founder of the Aghlabid State in Northern Tunisia. He was appointed by Harun Al-Rashid as ruler over Tunisia (800 A.D.) He defeated his opponents and brought the Berber tribes under submission. He built the cities of Al-`Abbasyiah and Al-Qasr near Al-Qairawan (died 196 A.H./812 A.D.).


(237-289 /852-902 ) (: 261-289 /875-902 ) ǡ (289 ) .
Ibn Al-Aghlab : Real name: Ibrahim bin Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Al-Aghlab (237-289 A.H./852-902 A.D.), one of the Aghlabid kings of Tunisia (ruled: 261-289 A.H./875-902 A.D.) He crushed revolutions and the people enjoyed safety in his reign. He defeated the Franks and captured some of their forts. He was removed in 289 A.H. by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mu`tadid. He built the city of Raqadah and the Palace of Al-Fath.


( ) (172-223 /788-838 ) (: 201-223 /816-838 ) (212 ) ǡ .
Ziadat Allah I : Ziadat Allah (Abu Muhammad) bin Ibrahim bin Al-Aghlab (172-223 A.H./788-838 A.D.), the fourth Aghlabid ruler of Tunisia (ruled: 201-223 A.H./816-838 A.D.) At first, trials and turmoil spread, then he reaffirmed his position with the aid of the Berber tribes. He prepared a great fleet in 212 A.H., and launched it for Sicily, capturing most of its fortresses. He built a wall for the city of Sousse.

20-06-2004, 02:10 AM





( 417 /1029 ) (: 370-417 /980-1029 ) (405-547 /1015-1152 ) .
Hammad bin Bulukkin : Hammad bin Bulukkin bin Ziri (died 417 A.H./1029 A.D.), founder of the Banu Hammad Berber dynasty which ruled in Central Maghrib (405-547 A.H./1015-1152 A.D.) He seceded from his cousins, the Zirids, and constructed Qal`at Hammad city as his capital (ruled: 370-417 A.H./980-1029 A.D.)

20-06-2004, 02:48 PM

20-06-2004, 02:48 PM



Abrahah Al-Habashi : The commander who led a huge army supported by elephants in an attempt to destroy the Ka`bah



Mothers of the Believers : Wives of the Messenger



Emir of the Believers : A title given to the caliph


( ) .
Arab genealogy : Arabs used to pride themselves on their noble birth and pure lineage. The Prophet's ancestry can be traced back to the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him).



The people of Al-Suffah : Poor Immigrants who used to live in a covered section of the Prophet's Mosque


( ) .
The people of Yathrib : The Prophet met some of the people of Yathrib during the Hajj season and invited them to get into the new religion, Islam.



The first man to embrace Islam : It was Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him



The first child to accept Islam : It was `Ali bin Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him



The first woman to embrace Islam : It was Khadijah, the Prophet's wife


.
Evacuation : Jews were expelled from Medina due to their violation of the covenant they had held with the Prophet (peace be upon him).


.
Hamzah's conversion to Islam : Hamzah's acceptance of Islam was a great blow to the Quraish because Hamzah was widely respected and his courage was legendary.


.
`Umar bin Al-Khattab's conversion to Islam : Muslims' confidence increased when `Umar became a Muslim. News that `Umar became a Muslim quickly spread among the Quraish who became very annoyed.


.
Turning away
Avoidance
Shunning : The Quraish turned away from the Prophet's call to Islam



Threatening the Romans


.
Warning the Quraish : The Prophet (peace be upon him) climbed up the mountain Safa and proclaimed, "O Banu `Abdul-Muttalib! O Banu Fihr! O Banu Ka`b! If I told you that there had been knights (horsemen) on the other side of this mountain about to attack you, would you have believed me?" "Yes" they replied. Then the Messenger of Allah said, "Then, I warn you of Allah's terrible punishment (if you did not embrace Islam)."


.
Persecution : The Quraish's wrath was wreaked on their fellow tribesmen who had become Muslims. They began to imprison and torture them by beating them, letting them hungry and thirsty, even leaving them exposed on the sun-baked ground when the heat was most intense.



The Quraish's persecution of the Prophet : The Quraish persecuted the Prophet (peace be upon him) and all who believed in him


.
Surrender of Mecca : A small skirmish broke between the Muslims and the Quraish in which twelve idol worshippers were killed when they tried to stop the advance of the Muslim forces. The rest gave in without further bloodshed.


.
His Father : Muhammad's father was `Abdullah bin `Abdul-Muttalib. `Abdullah, the tenth son of `Abdul-Muttalib, was the best among `Abdul-Muttalib's sons. His father married him to Aminah, daughter of Wahb, chieftain of Banu Zuhrah. `Abdullah and Aminah had a very happy life. He died before Muhammad's birth.



Bedouins
Desert Arabs
Nomads : Arabs of any of the nomadic tribes that lived in Arabia

20-06-2004, 02:49 PM


.
His Mother : Muhammad's mother was Aminah bint Wahb. Wahb was the chieftain of Banu Zuhrah. At that time, Aminah's lineage and position made her the noblest woman in the Quraish. She died when Muhammad (peace be upon him) was six years old.


( ) .
Honesty : When Muhammad grew up, he started his own business. He had no money of his own. He was well known for his honesty. People wanted him to exploit their money in business in return of a share in the profit.



The Divine command to emigrate : Allah commanded the Prophet to emigrate from Mecca to Yathrib, later known as Medina.


( )
Trustworthy
The Honest : An attribute of the Prophet (peace be upon him)



Al-Ansar : The Supporters: The people of Medina, whether of the tribe of Aus or Khazraj, who welcomed the Prophet (peace be upon him) and supported him



Al-Aus : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar


.
Al-Isra' [Night Journey] : The miraculous journey which Prophet Muhammad made by night from Mecca to Jerusalem.



Preparing for Hijrah [Emigration] : The Prophet asked his Companions to be ready for Hijrah to Yathrib


.
Seeking help from the people of Al-Ta'if : When the insults from the Quraish became unbearable and they refused to embrace Islam, the Messenger of Allah went to Ta`if to ask the help of the people of the Thaqif. He hoped they would be sympathetic to his call.



Al-Buraq : The animal on which the Prophet (peace be upon him) rode on his Night Journey [Al-Isra']


( ) ǡ 610 .
The Mission : The Messenger of Allah was alone in the Cave of Hira' on the day destined for the start of his Mission. He was forty years old and it was the seventeenth of Ramadan, the sixth of August 610 A.D.



Followers of the Companions : The first generation after the Companions



Business : The Prophet (peace be upon him) traveled in caravans as a young man


( ) ǡ .
Naming : The Prophet's mother sent word to his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, telling him that she had given birth to a boy. He came, threw a fatherly glance at him , carried him and took him to the Ka`bah. He praised Allah and prayed for his grandson whom he named Muhammad. The Arabs were not familiar with this name and were surprised by it.


.
Monotheism : Monotheism is worshipping Allah alone, associating none with Him.



The Pre-Islamic Era : After the Prophet of Allah, Jesus the Son of Mary, there was a long period without a Prophet. Light and knowledge disappeared. Christianity fell into disrepute and became a matter of sport for the corrupt and the hypocrites. Judaism, on the other hand, preached rites and rules lacking all life and spirit.


.
Pre-Islamic Arabs : The Pre-Islamic Arabs slowly forgot about the pure religion of Islam preached by their forefathers Abraham and Ishmael (peace be upon them). They began to be ungrateful to Allah by worshipping idols and images in place of Allah. Some of them were polytheists who believed that their gods shared Allah's power.


.
His Grandfather : Muhammad's grandfather was `Abdul-Muttalib bin Hashim. He took care of Muhammad (peace be upon him) after the death of his parents .



Public Call : Proclaiming the call to Islam in public



Al-Khazraj : A tribe in Medina, later a section of the Ansar

20-06-2004, 02:50 PM


.
Caliphate : Abu Bakr was chosen caliph (successor of the Prophet), thus becoming the first of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs.


( ) .
Solitude : Muhammad was taken to solitude. He was always content when he was alone. He used to leave Mecca and its people and meditate in solitude.


.
Call to Islam : Muhammad (peace be upon him) started to convey the Divine Message and spread the new religion beginning with his next of kins , then the idolaters of Mecca and then the whole world.



Invitation to Yathrib : The Prophet was invited to Yathrib where he can freely advocate Islam


ǡ ( ) .
Secret Call : The Prophet (peace be upon him) kept his mission secret for three years.



The Message : The Prophet Muhammad was sent with the Message of Islam to all mankind



Tending sheep : The Prophet (peace be upon him) tended sheep during his boyhood



Expeditions : These are the detachments which the Prophet (peace be upon him) had dispatched to fulfill military objectives and which he did not command himself.



Travel to Syria on business : The Prophet (peace be upon him) traveled to Syria in a caravan



Al-Sirah [Biography] : History of the life of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)



The Poisoned Ewe : Poisoned meat of a ewe presented to the Prophet Muhammad by a Jewish woman in an attempt to kill him



Companions : The Muslims who were in the company of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and died still adhering to Islam



Companionship : Abu Bakr had the honor of accompanying the Prophet during the Hijrah journey


( ) .
Truth telling : The Prophet (peace be upon him) was well known for his truthfulness even before receiving the Divine revelation.


( ) .
Calling tribes to Islam : The Prophet of Allah contacted members of various Arab tribes when they came to Mecca for Hajj. He explained the beliefs of Islam to them and asked them to protect him from his enemies.



The plot to kill the Prophet : Just before the Prophet's Hijrah, the Quraish plotted to kill the Prophet. They plotted that a man of each tribe would take part in the murder of the Prophet so that it would be too difficult for Banu Hashim to take revenge.



Al-`Uzza : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period


.
His Uncle : Muhammad's uncle was Abu Talib bin `Abdul-Muttalib. After the death of his grandfather, Muhammad (peace be upon him) was put under the care of his uncle Abu Talib.



Ghazawat [Battles] : These are the battles commanded by the Prophet (peace be upon him)



Al-Lat : An idol worshipped by the Thaqif in the Pre-Islamic period

20-06-2004, 02:51 PM



Fraternization : The Prophet (peace be upon him) established brotherly ties between the Muhajirun and the Ansar


" " ( ).
Medina Al-Munawwarah [Illuminated] : Previously known as Yathrib



AL-Mustafa [The Select] : One of the names of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) because he was chosen by Allah to be His Messenger to all mankind.


.
Al-Mi`raj [Ascension] : It is the miraculous ascension of the Prophet (peace be upon him) from Jerusalem to the Heavens to meet his Lord.



The Hypocrites : A sect which appeared in Medina after the Hijrah. It pretended to adopt Islam while actually remaining infidels


( ) .
Outstanding traits : The Prophet had numerous traits, most known among which were truth telling and honesty.



Al-Muhajirun : The Immigrants: those who immigrated from Mecca to Medina


571
The Prophet's Birth : The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born in Mecca (Rabi` I 12, 571 A.D.), in the Year of the Elephant.


( ) ( ) .
Prophethood : In the month of Ramadan, Gabriel appeared to Muhammad at the Cave of Hira' for the first time. This was the start of Muhammad's mission as the Messenger of Allah. Gradually, in the next twenty three years, Allah completed the revelation of His last book, the Qur'an, to His Prophet, to teach mankind His perfect religion, Islam.



The Negus : King of Abyssinia who received the Muslims who had immigrated to his country from Mecca and protected them


Victory is only from Allah : Allah granted victory to Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch


622 .
Emigration (Hijrah) to Medina : Emigration (Hijrah) from Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D.was a turning point in the history of Islam; the Prophet (peace be upon him) founded the Islamic state in Medina, which was the nucleus on which many other states were founded later on.



Emigration to Abyssinia : The people of Mecca strongly opposed the Islamic Call and persecuted its followers, which caused many of the believers to emigrate to Abyssinia .



Revelation : At the age of forty, during his solitude in the Cave of Hira', the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) received the first Divine Revelation.


11 632
Death : The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) died in Rabi` I, 11 A.H./632 A.D.


( )
Splitting of the moon : A miracle of the Prophet (peace be upon him)



The beginning of the Hijri Calendar : The Prophet's emigration from Mecca to Medina marked the beginning of the Hijri Calender.


. . .
Arab Clans : Arabs were divided into clans and tribes. Each tribe was ruled by a chief called the Sheik. Only a few tribes lived in the city but most of them wandered in search of pasture and water.


( ) .
Clans of the Quraish : The Prophet (peace be upon him) belonged to the tribe of the Quraish. Banu Hashim, the family of the Prophet (peace be upon him), were caretakers of Ka`bah. Serving pilgrims was a great honor. The Quraish were respected all over Arabia because of the services they used to provide to the pilgrims and responsibility for the care and maintenance of the Ka`bah.



He was recognized as caliph : The first companion to be recognized as caliph was Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq

20-06-2004, 02:52 PM


( ) ( ) .
Al-Hudaibiah Pledge of Allegiance : The Prophet left Medina for Al-Hudaibiah in Dhul-Qa`dah, 6 A.H.The Quraish were alarmed. He sent `Uthman bin `Affan to inform the Quraish that Muslims did not want war, they wanted to perform `Umrah. `Uthman remained in Mecca more than the Muslims had expected and rumor spread that he was killed. Then, the Messenger of Allah called for a pledge of allegiance. He sat under a tree and Muslims promised that they would fight with him to the last man.


ǡ .
The First Pledge of Al-`Aqabah : Twelve Ansars attending the Hajj season met the Messenger of Allah and gave him their pledge that they would believe in Allah, abstain from theft, fornication, and killing children and obey him in what was right and proper.


( ) ( ) .
The Second Pledge of Al-`Aqabah : Seventy-two men and two women from the Ansar met Allah's Messenger in a valley near `Aqabah where they pledged their allegiance. The Messenger of Allah talked to them, recited the Qur'an, prayed to Allah and urged people to stick to the principles of Islam.



Founding the Muslim State : The Prophet laid the foundation of the new Muslim state in Medina.



Successors of the Followers : The second generation after the Companions


:" ".
Conveying the Message : Communicating the Message to all people. Allah, then, commanded Muhammad (peace be upon him) to convey His religion openly. Allah said: "Loudly proclaim what you are commanded and turn away from the idol worshippers." (Verse 15:94)


( ) .
Demolishing the idols : The Prophet commanded that all the idols inside and outside the Ka`bah be demolished.



The Quraish's pursuit of Muslims : The Quraish pursued the Muslims in an attempt to divert them from Islam



The Quraish's rejection : The Quraish rejected the Message and declared its animosity for the Prophet (peace be upon him)


( ) .
Consolidation : In his attempt to build a new Muslim state in Medina, the Prophet started with consolidating the Muhajirun and the Ansar.


( ) .
The Second of Two : A title of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq because he accompanied the Prophet during the Hijrah journey.



Compilation of the Prophet's traditions : The Muslim scholars exerted much effort to preserve the Prophet's traditions by compiling them.



Farewell Hajj : It was the first and last Hajj performed by the Prophet.


Chambers
Rooms : The Prophet built some chambers for his wives next to the Mosque.


( ) ( ) .
Ja`far's Display of Islam to the Negus : The Negus summoned the Muslims and asked them, "Why did you desert your people's religion and embrace the new faith? In his answer, Ja`far bin Abi Talib set out the personality of the Prophet and the characteristics of the new religion


ǡ ( ) ( ) .
Digging the ditch : The Muslims decided to fortify themselves in Medina and defend the city. Their enemy numbered more than ten thousands so, Salman Al-Farisi suggested that a ditch should be dug around the city for protection.


( ) .
League of the Nobility ( chieftains) : League of the Virtuous [Hilf Al-Fudul] was the most renowned league ever known in Arabia. The Prophet Muhammad attended Hilf Al-Fudul. This league was formed because a noble of the Quraish took merchandize from a man from Zubaid and denied payment. All the fair-minded young men in Mecca were full of enthusiasm to put the matter right. They pledged to restore rights to the wronged people.



The last of the Messengers



The Last Prophet
The Seal of Prophets



Enmity : There was an enmity of the most detestable kind between the Aus and the Khazraj tribes

20-06-2004, 02:52 PM


( ) .
`Arafah Sermon : On the Day of `Arafah, the Prophet delivered a comprehensive sermon in which he set out some topics of much interest to the Muslims in this life and in the hereafter.



Al-Arqam's House : The place where the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to meet with the believers when the Call was conveyed secretly


( ) .
Reaction of the people of Ta'if : The people of Ta'if were rude to the Prophet and scoffed at him. They incited the town's riff-raff to shout insults at the Prophet and stone him.


( ) ( ) .
The reaction of Al-Muqauqis : Al-Muqauqis, the ruler of Egypt under the Byzantine Empire, was courteous to the envoys sent by the Messenger of Allah. The Muqauqis sent him gifts including two slave girls. One of them was Mariah, the mother of Ibrahim, the son of the Prophet.


( ).
The reaction of the Negus : The Negus treated well the envoys sent by the Messenger of Allah.


( ) .
The reaction of Chosroes : When Chosroes, the emperor of Persia, read the letter, he tore it up indignantly. When the Messenger of Allah heard of Chosroes' reaction, he replied, "May Allah shatter his kingdom."


( ) .
The reaction of the Roman King, Heraclius : Heraclius received the Prophet's message with much respect, yet he wanted to know more about the Prophet. Abu Sufyan was presented to the king. Heraclius proved to be an intelligent examiner who knew the history and behavior of the prophets. When Heraclius heard Abu Sufyan's answers, he was certain that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah.



Messages : The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent messages to the kings and rulers of adjacent states inviting them to embrace Islam


( )
The Prophet
Allah's Messenger : A title of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)


.
Suckling
Wet-nursing : It was a custom in Mecca for the babies to be put under the care of a desert tribe where they grew up in a healthy outdoor environment. `Abdul-Muttalib looked for a wet-nurse for his fatherless grandson, whom he loved more than all other children. Halimah Al-Sa`diyah was the Prophet's wet-nurse.


( ) ( ) ǡ ǡ .
Umm Mu`bad's goat : During their travel, the Messenger of Allah's party passed by the tent of Umm Mu`bad, who had a goat which was giving no milk because of the drought. The Messenger of Allah stroked its udder, invoked the name of Allah and prayed for a blessing. Milk flowed. He gave Umm Mu`bad and his companions milk to drink until they were all satisfied. Then, he drank last of all.



Strain of revelation : The Prophet would be exhausted upon receiving a Divine revelation


.
Splitting open the Prophet's chest : When Muhammad was still a child, two angels came and split open his chest. They removed a black clot from his heart. They then cleansed his heart and returned it in its place .


.
Al-Hudaibiah Peace Treaty : The Muslims and the Quraish then signed Al-Hudaibiah Peace Treaty. The two parties agreed to abandon war for ten years. During that period, both sides would be safe and would refrain from fighting one another. Whoever came to Muhammad from the Quraish without the permission of his guardian would be returned to them, but whoever came to the Quraish from the Muslims need not be returned to him. Whoever wanted to enter into an alliance or agreement with Muhammad could do so and whoever wanted to enter into an alliance or agreement with the Quraish could do so.


ǡ ʡ ǡ .
Babyhood : When Halimah took Muhammad for home, she found countless blessings; her animals' udders and her own breasts overflowed with milk. Her aged camel and lame donkey were rejuvenated. Every body said, "Halimah, you have a blessed child." She continued to enjoy prosperity from Allah until the baby had spent two years with Banu Sa`d and was weaned.


( 611) .
Advent of Islam : Islam emerged in Mecca during the 7th century A.D. It commenced with the revelation sent down to the Prophet Muhammad (611 A.D.) Muhammad is the last Prophet and Messenger of Allah sent to the world.



Apostasy Movement : Some tribes took advantage of the turmoil among the Muslims following the Prophet's death and declared their apostasy.



The Year of the Elephant : It is the year in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) was born. It was also the year in which Abrahah tried to demolish the Ka`bah.


.
Religious life of the Arabs : The Arabs in the Pre-Islamic era adhered to polytheism and idol-worship of the most detestable kind. They were involved in Shirk [Polytheism] and worshipped gods other than Allah. Every tribe, region or city had a specific idol. Indeed, every house had its own idol. Inside the Ka`bah and in its courtyard, stood three hundred and sixty idols.



Idolatry : Idolatry was widespread in the Arabian Peninsula, including Mecca, in the Pre-Islamic era.

20-06-2004, 02:53 PM



One's kin
One's blood relatives
ext of kins : The Prophet (peace be upon him) started his call by inviting his nearest relatives to the new Faith


Compensatory `Umrah


.
The Cave of Thaur : It is the cave in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companion Abu Bakr stopped to take shelter from the polytheists during the Hijrah journey from Mecca to Medina.


.
The Cave of Hira' : Muhammad (peace be upon him) had a calm nature and a natural tendency to meditation . He used to seclude himself in the Cave of Hira' to practice self-purification and ponder over the creation around him.



Conquering the Jewish Forts : Muslims conquered the Jewish suburbs of Medina because of their alliance with the enemies of Muslims during the Battle of the Ditch.


8 /630 .
The Conquest of Mecca : Muslims conquered Mecca in 8 A.H./630 A.D.


( ) .
`Ali's saving the Prophet's life : `Ali slept in the Prophet's bed on the night scheduled for the murder.


.
Weaning : When Muhammad was two years old, he was weaned. He was growing up in a way different from other children. Halimah took him to his mother and asked if she could keep him for a longer period and Aminah agreed.



Quba' : A location near Medina where the Prophet (peace be upon him) established the first mosque


ǡ ( ) ( ) .
Suraqah's experience : The Quraish offered a hundred camels to anyone who handed Muhammad over, dead or alive. Suraqah bin Malik was eager to get the reward. He was tracing the Prophet's footsteps when his horse stumbled and he was thrown off it. He tried three times to go on, but he failed. Just as he caught sight of the Messenger of Allah, his horse stumbled once more. Its feet sank into the sand and Suraqah fell down. Then he was hindered by a sandstorm in front of him.



Scribes of the revelation : Scribes of the revelation were those who shouldered the task of writing down the revelation.



The Quraish's attempt to induce the Prophet : The Quraish tried to induce the Prophet to give up his Mission


( ) ǡ .
The attempt to destroy the Ka`bah : The Prophet Muhammad's birth year witnessed the failure of the attack on Ka`bah by the powerful Abyssinian ruler, Abrahah. He commanded a mighty army supported by elephants to destroy Ka`bah. Weak and helpless, the Meccans left the care of Ka`bah in the hands of Allah. Allah sent flocks of birds carrying little stones in their claws. The birds pelted Abrahah's army, killed his elephants and made his army turn to heels


The Prophet's last illness


( ) .
The Prophet's Mosque : The Prophet's Mosque in Medina was built by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his Companions just after their arrival in Medina.



Quba' Mosque : It is the mosque built by the Prophet (peace be upon him), and it is the first mosque built in the Islamic era



Consultation : The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to consult his Companions on many issues


.
Covenant with the Jews : In order to booster the internal front, the Prophet made a covenant with the Jews of Medina. The Jews had a subordinate place in the federation established among the eight clans of Medina. They were regarded as allies of the main participants in the Constitution of Medina.


( ) .
Miracles of the Prophet : As the Prophet (peace be upon him) called everyone to accept Islam, the unbelievers began opposing him more vigorously. The Prophet (peace be upon him) had to show some miracles on demand. Among the Prophet's major miracles were the Holy Qur'an, Isra' [The Night Journey] and others.



Miracle : A miracle is an event that appears inexplicable by the laws of nature, so held to be supernatural in origin or an act of Allah.

20-06-2004, 02:54 PM



The Quraish's boycott of the Banu Hashim : The Quraish boycotted the Banu Hashim and severed all commercial and social relations with them



Manah : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period



The Quraish reaction towards Abu Bakr : The Quraish persecuted Abu Bakr for his stand in supporting the Islamic Call


ǡ ( ) .
Intimations of Prophethood : The first intimations of Muhammad's Prophethood came in the form of dreams, so vivid that they were as clear as the break of the day.


( ) .
Prophethood : The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) was forty when the Mission was entitled on him. It had always been a Divine practice that whenever darkness had become too intense and wickedness widespread, a Messenger appeared.



Forewarner : One who warns sinful people against the imminent punishment of Allah


( ) .
The Prophet's noble lineage : The Prophet's lineage goes to the Prophet Ishmael, son of the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon them).


ǡ .
Early life : The Messenger of Allah tended sheep with his foster brothers and was brought up in an unsophisticated and natural environment. He led the healthy life of the desert and spoke Standard Arabic for which the Banu Sa`d were reputable . He was sociable and popular among his counterparts. His foster brothers loved him and he loved them. Eventually he returned to Mecca to live with his grandfather and mother. He thrived under Allah's care and grew up healthy and strong.



The Quraish violation of the treaty : The Quraish broke the treaty they had signed with the Prophet (peace be upon him)



Hubal : An idol worshipped in Mecca in the Pre-Islamic period



Burying baby girls alive : One of the customs of Arabs in the Pre-Islamic period



Waraqah bin Naufal : He was the cousin of Khadijah, the Prophet's wife


( ) ǡ ( ) .
Death of Abu Talib : In the tenth year of the prophethood, Abu Talib, the Prophet's uncle died. It was Abu Talib who cared for and defended the Prophet against the Quraish. Just after Abu Talib's death, the Quraish stepped up their torture of the Prophet and troubles fell on the Messenger of Allah, one after another.


( ) .
Death of Khadijah : In the tenth year of the prophethood, Khadijah, the Prophet's wife, died. She was noted for her loyalty , support and devotion to the Prophet (peace be upon him).



Arab tribes coming to Medina



Yathrib : The old name of Medina


( ) .
The Jews of Medina : Upon arriving at Medina, the Messenger of Allah made a covenant with the Jews. They were conferred liberty to practice their religion and their title to their wealth.

20-06-2004, 02:55 PM

20-06-2004, 02:56 PM


: 12 . .
The Atabegs : Atabeg was a Turkish title used by the Seljuks for members of the court ministers and leaders. Some of the Atabegs managed to take control of the state leading to the emergence of the petty states in the 12th century A.D. in Iran and Syria. They ruled for a long period of time, most remarkable among them were the Atabegs of Azerbaijan and Iran.
(627-982 /1229-1574 )

. . .
The Hafsids (627-982 A.H./1229-1574 A.D.) : The Hafsids were a dynasty of the Berbers from Morocco who ruled Tunisia. Their state was founded by Abu Zakariya Yahia, grandson of Abu Hafs. He broke all ties with the Almohads and ruled Tunisia independently. The Hafsid rule was brought to an end by Turkish Ottomans.
(40-132 /661-750 )

. . . 138-422 /756 -1031 . . .
The Umayyad Caliphs (40-132 A.H./661-750 A.D.) : The Muslim Umayyad Caliphs belong to the Banu Umayyah of the Quraish. The first among them was Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan and the last was Marwan II. Damascus was their capital. After being overcome by the Abbasids, they moved to Andalusia and ruled in Cordoba from 138-422 A.H./756-1031 A.D. Their first ruler in Andalusia was `Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil. Their rule was brought to an end at the hands of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (Kings of Petty States).
(11-40 )

ǡ ǡ . : .
The Rightly-Guided Caliphs (11-40 A.H.) : The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are the first four Caliphs who succeeded the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Rightly-Guided Caliphs are the outstanding members of the Community and its symbols, leaders of the Call and its guards. They preserved the unity of the Muslim community and managed the affairs of the Islamic state. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, `Umar bin Al-Khattab, `Uthman bin `Affan and `Ali bin Abi Talib.
(132-656 /750-1259 )

. 130 /748 . . . . . . .
The Abbasid Caliphs (132-656 A.H./750-1259 A.D.) : They assumed the Caliphate following the Umayyads. They trace their lineage to Al-`Abbas, the Prophet's uncle. After half a century of secret arrangements, the Abbasid Revolution began in Khurasan under the leadership of Abu Muslim Al-Khurasani, 130 A.H./748 A.D. During their rule the Muslim empire reached its zenith in all aspects of life. Their first Caliph was Abu Al-`Abbas Al-Saffah. He was followed by Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur who ended the revolutionary period, reaffirmed their rule and established Baghdad, the capital, which witnessed a scientific, cultural and literary renaissance that stretched throughout the Middle Centuries. Unfortunately, the state eventually began to decline and suffer from weakness and decentralization. Many petty states emerged such as the Tulunids, the Ikhshidids and the Fatimids. The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Al-Musta`sim, the last caliph, was killed by Hulegu.
(909-1171 )

. 14 . 969 . . .
The Fatimids (909-1171 A.D.) : The Fatimids are traced back to `Ali bin Abi Talib and his wife, Fatimah. This state was established by `Ubaidullah Al-Mahdi in Tunisia. It witnessed 14 caliphs, and reached its utmost expansion during the era of Al-Mu`izz, who annexed North Africa to his state and sent Jauhar Al-Siqilli, his commander-in-chief, to occupy Egypt. Jauhar established Cairo which later became the state capital to which Al-Mu`izz moved and extended his influence over Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The last caliph was Al-`Adid whose ministry was led by Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi, who eventually precipitated the fall of the Fatimid state. The most notable architectural and cultural achievements were the establishment of Cairo and the construction of Al-Azhar Mosque.
(1174-1249)

. . .
The Ayyubid Dynasty (1174-1249 A.D.) : From Kurdish descendants, the Ayyubid state was established by Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi and was attributed to his father, Ayyub bin Shadhi. It gained power over Egypt, Syria and Yemen. Salah Al-Din succeeded in uniting a strong Muslim power to confront the Crusaders. He also succeeded in converting Egypt to the Sunni School.
(323-358 /935-969 )

. . . .
The Ikhshidid State (323-358 A.H./935-969 A.D.) : This state succeeded the Tulunid rule of Egypt and Syria. It was founded by Muhammad bin Tughj. The most influential among their rulers was Al-Wasi Kafur. Their state was brought to an end by the Fatimids.
(172-363 /788-974 )

. . . . . . . .
The Idrisid State (172-363 A.H./788-974 A.D.) : A Shiite Muslim state in Morocco which was established by Idris bin `Abdullah. It gained independence from the Abbasid Caliphate and extended authority over West Morocco and Tilmisan. Its capital was first in Walili then in Fez. It was frequently attacked by the Abbasids and the Aghlabids. Internal disputes weakened the state until it submitted to the Fatimids. The Hamudid state in Andalusia was an offshoot of the Idrisid state. The most notable among its architectural masterpieces was the establishment of the city of Fez and its buildings, particularly the Qarawiyin Mosque.
(245-289 /868-902 )

. . 262 /876 . 879 . .
The Saffarid State (245-289 A.H./868-902 A.D.) : The Saffarids ruled Khurasan. After the fall of the Tahirid state, the Saffarid state was founded by Ya`qub bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar who attacked Baghdad but was defeated by the army of Al-Mu`tamid, under the command of his brother Al-Muwaffaq in Dir Al-`Aqul 262 A.H/876 A.D. He was succeeded by his brother `Amr bin Al-Laith in 879 A.D., who gained the pleasure of Al-Mu`tamid and Al-Mu`tadid. Finally, he was captured by Isma`il bin Ahmad Al-Samani who handed him over to Al-Mu`tadid.
(254-292 /868-905 )

. . . .
The Tulunid State (254-292 A.H./868-905 A.D.) : A state which ruled Egypt and Syria independently of the Abbasids. It was founded by Ahmad bin Tulun whose son, Khumarawaih, succeeded him. After the murder of Khumarawaih, it weakened until it was brought to an end by the Abbasids. It was remarkable for its Islamic architectural accomplishments, the most important monument was the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo.


. 1666 .
The `Alawis of Maghrib : It is the ruling dynasty in Morocco that succeeded the Sa`dids. It was founded by Al-Sharif Muhammad bin `Ali and his son Al-Rashid upon occupying Fez in 1666 A.D.
(351-582 /962-1187 )

. . . .
The Ghaznawids (351-582 A.H./962-1187 A.D.) : These were Turkish Mamluk descendants who ruled eastern Iran and Afghanistan. Their state was founded by Albtigin, one of the Samanid leaders. Their capital was Ghaznah. They established Lahore (now capital of the Punjab). Their state was brought to an end by the Ghurids.
(591-873 /1195-1468 )

. . .
The Marinids (591-873 A.H./1195-1468 A.D.) : The Marinids were Berber descendants from Morocco. Their state was founded by `Abdul-Haqq Al-Marini after the fall of the Almohad state. Their court in Fez flourished and Ibn Khaldun, Ibn Al-Khatib and Ibn Battutah were its outstanding scholars. Al-Qarawiyin University in Fez remains as one of their greatest achievements.
(184-296 /800-909 )

. . . . . .
The Aghlabid Dynasty (184-296 A.H/800-909 A.D.) : These are the Aghlabid descendants who ruled Tunisia. Their capital was Al-Qairawan. It was founded by Ibrahim I, son of Al-Aghlab, the governor appointed by Harun Al-Rashid. One of their kings was Ibrahim II, who conquered Sicily. The last among them was Ziadatullah III. They had a great navy and many great architectural monuments. Abu `Abdullah Al-Shi`i, propagator for the Fatimids, managed to put an end to their rule.
(320-447 /932-1055 )

. 945 . . . . .
The Buyid State (320-447 A.H./932-1055 A.D.) : An Iranian family that ruled Isfahan, Shiraz, Kerman and Baghdad. It was established by Abu Shuja` Buwaih and his three sons `Imad Al-Daulah, Rukn Al-Daulah and Mu`izz Al-Daulah who entered Baghdad in 945 A.D. One of its most influential sultans was `Adud Al-Daulah. This state weakened the authority of the Abbasid Caliphs. Their ministers were poets and men of letters, most distinguished among them were Al-Muhallabi, Ibn Al-`Amid and Al-Sahib bin `Abbad. The Buyid State was eventually brought to an end by Tughrul Bey bin Seljuk.
(317-394 /929-1003 )

. . 892 . . .
The Hamdanid Dynasty (317-394 A.H./929-1003 A.D.) : Sons of the Arab Hamdanid dynasty served the Abbasids. They were put in charge of Mosul and the Jazirah. They declared their independence and extended their influence until the north of Syria. This emirate was established by Hamdan bin Hamdun, chief of the tribe of Taghlib in Mardin (892 A.D.) His son `Abdullah and grandson Saif Al-Daulah, Prince of Aleppo, extended the borders of that emirate. It was finally brought to an end by the Fatimids.
(161-288 )

.
The Rustumid State (161-288 A.H.) : A state of the Ibadi Kharijites which was founded by `Abdul-Rahman bin Rustum in the Maghrib, with its capital at Tahurt in Algeria.
(361-547 /972-1152 )

. . ϡ . 440 /1048 . . . .
The Zirid Dynasty (361-547 A.H/ 972-1152 A.D.) : The Zirid Dynasty were descendants of the Berbers of Sinhajah who were given authority by Al-Mu`izz Al-Fatimi to rule Tunisia. Their capital was Al-Qairawan. They belong to Ziri bin Mannad whose son, Bulukkin put the cornerstones of the state. They were subdued to the Fatimids until Al-Mu`izz bin Badis converted his loyalty to the Abbasids (440 A.H./1048 A.D). Al-Mustansir Al-Fatimi dispatched the nomads of Banu Hilal and Banu Salim bin Mansur, who defeated him in the Battle of Haidran and captured Al-Qairawan, Sousse and Tunisia. Eventually, the Almohads put an end to their rule. Some of their princes assumed power in Granada, Andalusia in the era of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (Kings of Petty States) until they were driven out by Yusuf bin Tashfin.
(261-390 /874-999 )

. . 892-907 . .
The Samanid Dynasty (261-390 A.H./874-999 A.D.) : An Iranian dynasty that ruled Khurasan and Transoxiana. It was named after Saman Khudah. The prominence of the state was established by Isma`il bin Ahmad 892-907 A.D., who ended the Saffarid state. Civilization and culture reached the peak under their rule with Bukhara and Samarqand rivaling Baghdad in Islamic cultural importance.

20-06-2004, 02:57 PM
(947-1071 /1540-1660 )

. . . .
The Sa`did Dynasty (947-1071 A.H./1540-1660 A.D.) : The Sa`dids were Berbers from the Sus who ruled Morocco. They ended the rule of the Wattasids and established their capital first at Fez, then at Marrakesh. It was founded by Muhammad Al-Sheikh Al-Mahdi. Some of their great palaces still stand in Marrakesh.


. 11-13 . .
The Seljuk State : These were the descendants of Turkman whose grandfather was Seljuk. They had so many offsprings who ruled Iran, Asia Minor, Iraq and Syria from the 11th to the 13th centuries A.D. They put an end to the Buyids and were finally brought to an end by Genghis Khan and his successors.
(448-541 /1056-1146 )

. . . . .
The Almoravids (448-541 A.H./1056-1146 A.D.) : The Almoravids were Berber descendants of the Limtunah, a tribe of Sinhajah. They founded an Islamic state in Morocco and ruled Andalusia and Tunisia. They were known for their covered faces and were called Al-Murabitin for living in secluded places for practicing acts of worship. Yusuf bin Tashfin was the most famous among their Sultans. He founded Marrakesh and made it the capital of his state. He defeated the Franks and put an end to the rule of Muluk Al-Tawa'if (the Kings of the Petty States). He left to `Ali, his son, a strong and vast state, but it was eventually destroyed by Almohads.
(1516-1697 )

ݡ . : 1697 .
The Al-Ma`niyun Dynasty (1516-1697 A.D.) : This state was established by Lebanese princes who ruled Al-Shauf. They extended their influence over all Lebanese territories and some parts of Syria and Palestine. Among their most famous princes were: Qurqumaz, Fakhr Al-Din II, and Ahmad, the end of whose era represented the end of the state. After the Samqaniyah Conference in 1697, the Shihabids became the rulers.
(1250-1517 )

. . . 1811. .
The Mamluk State (1250-1517 A.D.) : The Mamluks were originally Turkish, Circassian and Mongol slaves recruited by the Ayyubids. They rose to power in Egypt and constituted the two ruling-classes: the Naval Mamluks and the Mamluks of the Tower. The Mamluk Sultans extended their influence over Syria and some parts of Asia Minor. They confronted the Crusaders and Mongols. After the fall of their state at the hands of the Ottomans, their chiefs represented a source of trouble and disturbance until Muhammad `Ali eliminated them at the Massacre of the Citadel (1811 A.D.) Although their era was famous for its political anarchy, they left behind important architectural monuments including mosques, schools, and hospices, particularly in Cairo.
(515-667 /1121-1269 )

609 /1212 .
The Almohads (515-667 A.H./1121-1269 A.D.) : A Shiite state in Morocco founded by Al-Mahdi bin Tumart after the fall of the Almoravid state. The Almohads ruled Morocco and extended their influence over Andalusia. Their state collapsed in Andalusia after the Battle of Al-`Aqab, (609 A.H./1212 A.D.)
(405-547 /1015- 1152 )

. . .
The Banu Hammad Dynasty (405-547 A.H./1015-1152 A.D.) : The Banu Hammad were descendants of the Berbers of Sinhajah. They were cousins of the Banu Ziri. They ruled central Maghrib. Their state was established by Hammad bin Bulukkin who constructed a castle for himself, called Banu Hammad Castle, and made it his official capital. He announced his independence from his cousins, the Banu Ziri. Finally, the Almohads succeeded in putting an end to their rule just as they have done to the Zirids.
(1229-1454 )

. . .
The Rasulid State in Yemen (1229-1454 A.D.) : A dynasty that ruled Yemen. It was established by `Umar bin `Ali in Ta`z and his son, Yusuf, who firmly established their rule. They were finally overcome by the Banu Tahir.
(1281-1924 )

1281 . . 1453 . 1517 . . 17 18 . 19 1830 . 1924 .
The Ottoman Sultans (1281-1924 A.D.) : This empire was founded by `Uthman I, 1281 A.D., after the fall of the Seljuk state. The Ottoman empire was founded in Anatolia, and penetrated the Balkans, the Arab world and Africa. Muhammad Al-Fatih conquered Constantinople in 1453 A.D., and established it as the official capital of the empire and thus, put an end to the Byzantine rule. The Muslim Caliphate went to Selim I, who put an end to the Mamluk rule and extended his authority over Syria, Palestine and Egypt by 1517 A.D. His son, Sulyman Al-Qanuni, succeeded him. He reaffirmed the pillars of the state and extended his authority over the Muslim and Arab countries and Africa. During his reign, the empire reached its peak, with a mighty navy and army. By the end of the 17th century, the empire began to fall and its influence in the Balkans shrank particularly after the Russians gained strength in the 18th century. Then, movements seeking independence started to emerge in the 19th century. Muhammad `Ali assumed power in Egypt , and Greece became independent in 1830 A.D., followed by Romania and Serbia. The Ottomans formed a coalition with the Germans in World War I. As a result of Germany's defeat, the disintegration of the Ottoman empire was brought about with the declaration of the Turkish republic under Mustafa Kamal Ataturk, 1924 A.D.

20-06-2004, 02:58 PM

20-06-2004, 03:00 PM
1031

1031 (422 )
1031 Rise of the Muluk Al-Tawa'if : 1031 Muluk Al-Tawa'if [Kings of Petty States] reign in Spain after the decline of the Umayyad caliphate (422 A.H.)
1056

1056 (448 )
1056 Rise of the Almoravids : 1056 The Almoravid dynasty is founded by the Berber tribe of Lamtunah whose domains spread as far as Western Maghrib and Ifriqiyah (Tunisia) (448 A.H.)
1062

1062 (454 )
1062 Foundation of Marrakesh : 1062 Marrakesh is founded by Yusuf bin Tashfin, the Almoravid king (454 A.H.)
1071

1071 (464 )
1071 The Battle of Manzikert : 1071 Alp Arslan, the Seljuk sultan defeats Empror Romanus IV and takes him as a prisoner of war after a fierce battle at Manzikert. The battle marks virtual elimination of the Byzantine power in Asia Minor (464 A.H.)
1086

1086 (479 )
1086 The Battle of Al-Zallaqah : 1086 Emir Yusuf bin Tashfin defeats the Franks under the leadership of Alfonso VI in a fierce battle at a place called Al-Zallaqah (479 A.H.)
1099

1099 (492)
1099 The Crusaders Capture Jerusalem : 1099 Jerusalem falls to the Crusaders after a siege that lasted for one month (492 A.H.)
1121

1121 (515 )
1121 Rise of the Almohads : 1121 Muhammad bin Tumart establishes the Almohad dynasty in Morocco and Andalusia after the fall of the Almoravids (515 A.H.)
1148

1148 (543 )
1148 The Ghurids Assume Power : 1148 Saif Al-Din founds the Ghurid dynasty in Central Afghanistan and India (543 A.H.)
1171

1171 (567 )
1171 Rise of the Ayyubids : 1171 Sultan Saladin establishes the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt and Syria (567 A.H.)
1174

1174 (570 )
1174 Damascus Falls to the Ayyubids : 1174 Sultan Saladin annexes Damascus to his realm (570 A.H.)
1187

1187 (583 )
1187 Recapture of Jerusalem : 1187 Shortly after his sweeping victory at Hattin, Sultan Saladin conquers Jerusalem following a five-day siege. He drove the Crusaders out and entered the city peacefully doing harm to nobody (583 A.H.)
1187

1187 ǡ (583)
1187 Battle of Hattin : 1187 Sultan Saladin besieges the Crusaders in Hattin, to the west of Acre, and sweepingly defeats them. Arnat and the King of Jerusalem were taken as prisoners of war (583 A.H.)
1195

1195 (591 )
1195 Rise of the Marinids : 1195 `Abdul-Haqq Al-Marini founds the Marinid Dynasty in the Maghrib after the decline of the Almohads (591 A.H.)
1195

1195 (591 )
1195 The Battle of Alarco : 1195 After a decisive battle at Alarco, Ya`qub bin `Abdul-Mu'min, the Almohad king of the Maghrib, defeats Alfonso VIII, the Castilian king (591 A.H.)
1229

1229 (627 )
1229 Rise of the Hafsid Dynasty : 1229 Abu Zakariya Yahya declares his independence from the Almohads and founds the Hafsid dynasty in Tunisia (627 A.H.)
1238

1238 (653 )
1238 Foundation of Alhambra Palace : 1238 Muhammad bin Yusuf starts the foundation of the Alhambra Palace on a hill overlooking Granada (653 A.H.)
1238

1238 (653 )
1238 Rise of the Banu Al-Ahmar Dynasty : 1238 The Banu Al-Ahmar dynasty is founded in Granada at the hands of Muhammad bin Yusuf, known as Ibn Al-Ahmar (653 A.H.)
1249

1249 (647)
1249 Occupation of Damietta : 1249 Louis IX of France takes Damietta in the Seventh Crusade (647 A.H.)
1250

1250 (648 )
1250 Rise of the Mamluks : 1250 The Mamluk dynasty is founded in Egypt and Syria (648 A.H.)
1250

1250 (647 )
1250 Battle of Al-Mansura : 1250 The Egyptian army under Turan Shah defeats the armies of the Seventh Crusade commanded by Louis IX, King of France, who was taken prisoner of war (647 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:02 PM
1258

1258 (656)
1258 The Decline of the Abbasid Caliphate : 1258 The Abbasid caliphate comes to an end after the murder of Caliph Al-Musta`sim at the hands of Hulegu (656 A.H.)
1258

1258 (656)
1258 Fall of Baghdad : 1258 The Mongol armies under Hulegu overrun Baghdad after a siege (656 A.H.)
1260

1260 (658 )
1260 Mongols Overrun Syria : 1260 The Mongols head to Syria and dominate Damascus, Aleppo and other Syrian cities (658 A.H.)
1260

1260 ӡ (658)
1260 The Battle of `Ain Jalut : 1260 Sultan Qutuz leads a strong army and meets the Mongols, commanded by Ketbugha, in a fierce battle at `Ain Jalut [the Spring of Goliath], near Nablus. Qutuz is sweepingly triumphant and Ketbugha is murdered (658 A.H.)
1281

1281 (680 )
1281 Rise of the Ottoman Empire : 1281 `Uthman I founds the Ottoman empire in Anatolia after the fall of the Seljuks (680 A.H.)
1291

1291 (690)
1291 Recapture of Acre : 1291 Khalil bin Qalawun, the Mamluk sultan, recaptures Acre and the Syrian coastal areas from the Crusaders (690 A.H.)
1291

1291 (690)
1291 The End of the Crusades : 1291 After the fall of Acre and all the Syrian coastal areas, the Christian rule in the East came to an end (690 A.H.)
1354

1354 .
1354 Gallipoli Falls : 1354 Ottoman forces take the Gallipoli Peninsula.
1356

1356 .
1356 The Ottomans Cross into Europe : 1356 Sultan Orkhan extends the Ottoman sway from Angora in Central Anatolia to Europe, crossing to Thrace in the Balkan.
1363

1363 .
1363 Timur Begins Conquests in Asia : 1363 Timur begins to develop an armed horde that will conquer much of the world starting with regions neighboring Samarkand.
1389

1389 .
1389 The Ottomans Conquer Europe : 1389 The Ottoman Sultan Murad I proceeds to the west and, at the Battle of Kussovo, puts an end to the Serbian Empire which was a coalition of Serbs, Bosnians, Albanians.
1390

1390 .
1390 The Ottomans Dominate Anatolia : 1390 Ottoman sultan Bayezid I gains victory over the Turkish rulers of East Anatolia and annexes five Turkish emirates to his domains.
1393

1393 .
1393 The Ottomans Conquer Bulgaria : 1393 The Ottoman sultan Bayezid I penetrates Europe until he subdues Bulgaria.
1397

1397 .
1397 Constantinople under Ottoman Siege : 1397 Ottoman forces under Bayezid I lay siege to Constantinople.
1401

1401 (803)
1401 Timur Conquers Baghdad : 1401 Timur annexes Iraq to his domains and sacks Baghdad (803 A.H.)
1402 (805 )

1402 (805 )
1402 The Battle of Ankara : 1402 Timur leads a powerful army in a decisive battle at Ankara against Sultan Bayezid I, who was defeated and captured (805 A.H.)
1453

1453 () (21 857 )
Constantinople Falls to the Ottomans 1453 : Sultan Muhammad II, known as The Conqueror, conquers Constantinople and makes it the capital of the Ottoman empire (21 Jumada I, 857 A.H.)
1472

1472 (877 )
1472 Rise of the Wattasid Dynasty : 1472 Abu Zakariya Muhammad founds the Wattasid dynasty in the Rif region of the Maghrib and extends his authority to Fez (877 A.H.)
1492

1492 (892)
1492 The Fall of Granada : 1492 Granada, the last Muslim emirate in Spain, falls to the Aragon marking the end of the Muslim rule in Andalusia (892 A.H.)
1501

1501 (907 )
1501 Rise of the Safavid Dynasty : 1501 Shah Isma`il establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia with Tabriz as its capital (907 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:04 PM
1508

1508 .
1508 Baghdad Falls to the Safavid : 1508 The Safavids of Persia, under Shah Isma`il, conquers Baghdad.
1516

1516 (922 )
1516 Damascus Falls to the Ottomans : 1516 Sultan Selim I starts the Ottoman conquests in the Arab world and extends his authority to Damascus following the Battle of Marj Dabiq (922 A.H.)
1516

1516 (922 )
1516 The Battle of Marj Dabiq : 1516 Sultan Selim I sets out to Syria and defeats the Mamluk forces, commanded by Qansawh Al-Ghuri, at the Battle of Marj Dabiq (922 A.H.)
1517

1517 .
1517 Arabia Falls to the Ottomans : 1517 The sharif of Mecca surrenders to the Turks and the Ottoman sultan Selim I secures control of the holy places in Arabia
1517

1517 (923)
1517 The Battle of Al-Raidaniyah : 1517 Sultan Selim I proceeds to dominate Egypt. At Al-Raidaniyah, he faces uncompromising resistance by Tuman-Bay, the last Mamluk sultan, who proves himself a brave knight, but victory goes to Selim I (923 A.H.)
1521

1521 .
1521 The Conquest of Belgrade : 1521 Belgrade falls in August to the Ottoman sultan Suleyman the Magnificent after a three-week siege.
1534

1534 (940)
1534 Iraq Falls to the Ottomans : 1534 Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent annexes Iraq to the Ottoman domination (940 A.H.)
1548

1548 .
1548 Tabriz Falls to the Turks : 1548 The Ottoman Turks, under Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent, extend their authority to Tabriz, Persia.
1551

1551 .
1551 The Conquest of Tripoli : 1551 The Ottoman Turks in North Africa proceed to the west until they reach Tripoli, Libya.
1590

1590 .
1590 Ottoman Expansions in Asia : 1590 The Ottoman Sultan Murad III extends his empire in Asia to the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea by acquiring Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Shirwan.
1669

1669 .
1669 The Conquest of Crete : 1669 The Ottoman Turks extend their domination in the Mediterranean to the island of Crete.
1711

1711 .
1711 Recapture of Azov : 1711 Russia's Peter the Great advances with his allies on the Pruth River but is surrounded there by superior Ottoman forces. Peter is forced to return Azov to the Turks.
1739

1739 .
1739 Recapture of Belgrade : 1739 Ottoman forces approach Belgrade and force the Roman Emperor Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Belgrade. Austria yields Belgrade and northern Serbia.
571

571 - - .
571 The Prophet's Birth : 571 Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is born in Mecca.
610

610 .
610 Beginning of the Mission : 610 Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) starts calling people to embrace Islam.
614

614 .
614 Burning Jerusalem : 614 Jerusalem is burnt by the Persians.
622

622 .
622 The Hijrah : 622 The Prophet and his Companions emigrate from Mecca to Medina.
624

624 (2)
624 Diversion of the Qiblah : 624 The Qiblah (direction faced in Prayer) is diverted from Jerusalem to the Sacred Mosque in Mecca (2 A.H.)
624

624 ǡ (2)
624 The Expedition of Al-'Abwa' (2 A.H.) : 624 The Prophet (peace be upon him) leaves Medina, heading to fight against the Quraish and Banu Dumarah tribes. He makes a treaty with the Banu Dumarah.
624

624 ( 2 )
624 The Expedition of Al-Sawiq : 624 The Prophet (peace be upon him) leaves Medina to confront an expedition of the polytheists led by Abu Sufyan (Dhul-Hijjah, 2 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:04 PM
624

624 (2 )
624 The Battle of Badr : 624 The Prophet (peace be upon him) sets out with his companions and meets the polytheists of Mecca. At Badr, the Muslims sweepingly defeat the polytheists, killing most of the Quraish chiefs (2 A.H.)
625

625 (4 )
625 The Battle of Dhat Al-Riqa` : 625 The Prophet (peace be upon him) commands an expedition to the tribes of Ghatfan and Banu Sulaim (4 A.H.)
625

625 (3)
625 The Battle of Uhud : 625 The Muslims combat polytheists of the Quraish at Mount Uhud (3 A.H.)
627

627 (5 )
627 The Battle of Banu Quraizhah : 627 The Prophet (peace be upon him) launches this battle to take revenge on the Banu Quraizhah, who had breached their agreement with him and made alliance with the Quraish at the Battle of the Trench (5 A.H.)
627

627 (5 )
627 The Battle of Daumat Al-Jandal : 627 The Messenger (peace be upon him) sets out with a thousand Muslims to fight the troops gathered in Daumat Al-Jandal with the purpose of attacking Medina (5 A.H.)
627

627 (5)
627 The Battle of the Trench : 627 The allied polytheists of Arabia fail to penetrate the trench dug by the Muslims to protect Medina against their attack (5 A.H.)
628

628 (6)
628 Treaty of Al-Hudaibiah : 628 The Prophet (peace be upon him) signs a treaty with the polytheists of Mecca (6 A.H.)
628

628 (7 )
628 The Battle of Khaibar : 628 The Prophet (peace be upon him) marches to the Jews at Khaibar because they incited some tribes against the Muslims
630

630 ǡ (9 )
630 The Battle of Tabuk : 630 The Prophet (peace be upon him) leads a great army and marches towards Mu'tah to avenge the Muslim loss at the Battle of Mu'tah. He concludes some treaties with the bordering cities (9 A.H.)
630

630 (8 )
630 The Battle of Mu'tah : 630 The Prophet (peace be upon him) sends Zaid bin Harithah at the head of an army to retaliate from the Ghassanid governor Shurahbil, who had mocked the Prophet's message and killed his messenger (8 A.H.)
630

630 (8)
630 The Conquest of Mecca : 630 The Prophet (peace be upon him) leads a 10,000-men army and marches to conquer Mecca in response to the Quraish revocation of the armistice they had previously signed with the Muslims (8 A.H.)
630

630 (8)
630 The Battle of Hunain : 630 The Muslims, commanded by the Prophet, fought the polytheist tribe of Hawazin and its allies at a battle after which the Muslims achieve a glorious victory (8 A.H.)
631

631 (10 )
631 The Year of Delegations : 631 Islam becomes the formal religion of all Arabia (10 A.H.)
632

632 - - (11)
632 The Farewell Pilgrimage : 632 The Prophet (peace be upon him) accompanies his Companions, men and women, in a blessed journey to perform the Pilgrimage to the Sacred House in Mecca (11 A.H.)
633

633 (11)
633 The Apostasy Movement : 633 Caliph Abu Bakr dispatches his armies to fight the Apostates in a series of battles (the Riddah Wars) that brought about complete elimination of the Apostates (11 A.H.)
633

633 (12)
633 The Battle of Dhat Al-Salasil : 633 Commander Khalid bin Al-Walid sets out to Iraq at the head of an army and achieves a great victory over the Persians (12 A.H.)
633

633 (11)
633 The Prophet's Demise : 633 The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) dies, and the Muslims elect Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq to be the first Muslim caliph (11 A.H.)
634

634 (13)
634 `Umar bin Al-Khattab Becomes Caliph : 634 Caliph Abu Bakr dies, and the Muslim community pledges allegiance to `Umar bin Al-Khattab as Emir of the Believers (13 A.H.)
634

634 (13)
634 The Battle of Ajnadin : 634 The Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid combats the Byzantine forces in a fierce battle in Palestine, that ended with the victory of the Muslims (13 A.H.)
635

635 (14)
635 The Battle of Al-Qadisiyah : 635 Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas leads the Muslim army in a three-day fierce battle with the Persians, who were bitterly defeated (14 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:05 PM
636

636 (15)
636 The Battle of Al-Yarmuk : 636 The Muslim army, under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, defeats the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmuk in Palestine (15 A.H.)
637

637 (16)
637 The Hijri Calendar : 637 The reign of Caliph `Umar bin Al-Khattab witnesses the beginning of dating the Muslim era from the first day of the lunar year in which the Hijrah took place (16 A.H.)
638

638 ( ) (16)
638 The Conquest of Jerusalem : 638 Caliph `Umar bin Al-Khattab extends the Muslim authority to Jerusalem after signing a treaty with its patriarch (16 A.H.)
639

639 (18)
639 The Conquest of Egypt : 639 `Amr bin Al-`As sets out at the head of an army and starts conquering Egypt (18 A.H.)
640

640 (19 )
640 The Conquest of Caesarea : 640 Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan conquers Caesarea after a six-month siege (19 A.H.)
641

641 (21 )
641 The Conquest of Alexandria : 641 According to the Babylon Treaty, the Muslims capture Alexandria, bringing Egypt under Muslim domination (21 A.H.)
641

641 (20 )
641 The Battle of Heliopolis : 641 The Muslim army besieges the Egyptian Babylon Fort for six months, after which the besieged forces surrender and the Muslims capture the Fort (20 A.H.)
642

642 ϡ (21)
642 The Battle of Nahawand : 642 Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman leads the Muslim army in a decisive battle with the Persians. Muslims achieve great victory, conquer the Nahawand Fort and completely annihilate the Persian Magus empire (21 A.H.) 644
644 (23 )

644 ǡ (23)
644 `Uthman bin `Affan Becomes Caliph : 644 `Umar bin Al-Khattab dies and the Muslims declare their fealty to `Uthman bin `Affan as the third Muslim caliph (23 A.H.)
649

649 (29)
649 The Conquest of Khurasan : 649 The Muslim army, under the command of Al-Ahnaf bin Qais, conquers Khurasan after defeating the Persian forces (29 A.H.)
653

653 (32)
653 Compilation of the Holy Qur'an : 653 Caliph `Uthman orders the standardization of Qur'anic recitation according to that of the Quraish. He sends copies of the standard Mushaf to provinces of the Muslim empire (32 A.H.)
654

654 (34 )
654 The Battle of Dhat Al-Sawari : 654 `Abdullah bin Sa`d bin Abi Al-Sarh leads the Muslim fleet in a victorious sea battle with the Byzantines and dominates the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean (34 A.H.)
656

656 (35 )
656 `Ali bin Abi Talib Assumes the Caliphate : 656 The Muslim community pledges allegiance to `Ali bin Abi Talib, after the death of Caliph `Uthman (35 A.H.)
656

656 (36 )
656 The Battle of the Camel : 656 `A'ishah accompanies the army of Talhah bin `Ubaidullah and Al-Zubair bin Al-`Awwam and the people of Basra to meet `Ali bin Abi Talib, who was backed by the people of Kufa (36 A.H.)
657

657 (37)
657 The Battle of Siffin : 657 In an attempt to suppress the rebellion of Mu`awiah, Imam `Ali leads his army and confronts the forces of Mu`awiah at Siifin, to the west of the Euphrates in a battle that ends with Arbitration (37 A.H.)
658

658 (38 )
658 The Battle of Nahrawan : 658 Imam `Ali confronts the Kharijites at Nahrawan in a decisive battle that end with complete destruction of the Kharijites (38 A.H.)
661

661 (41 )
661 Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan Becomes Caliph : 661 Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan assumes the office of Muslim caliphate after the death of Imam `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him 41 A.H.)
670

670 (50)
670 The Conquest of Ifriqiyah : 670 `Uqbah bin Nafi` marches to Ifriqiyah (Tunisia) at the head of a 10,000-man army and conquers the region without any resistance (50 A.H.)
673

673 (54 )
673 The Conquest of Transoxiana : 673 Commander Qutaibah bin Muslim marches to the east and starts conquering the regions of Transoxiana until he reaches the delta of the Oxus river (54 A.H.)
673

673 (53 )
673 Introduction of Minarets : 673 Maslamah bin Makhlad introduces minarets in the architecture of mosques (53 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:06 PM
674 (55)

674 (55)
674 The Conquest of Crete : 674 The Muslim fleet continues its expansions in the Mediterranean and conquers the island of Crete (55 A.H.)
678

678 () (58 )
678 The Conquest of Algeria : 678 Abu Al-Muhajir Dinar, governor of Ifriqiyah, attacks the strongholds of the Urbah tribe in Central Maghrib and dominates Tlemcen (58 A.H.)
691

691 (72)
691 Foundation of the Dome of the Rock : 691 The reign of `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan witnesses the foundation of the mosque of the Dome of the Rock, at Jerusalem, in the same place where Caliph `Umar bin Al-Khattab performed Prayer (72 A.H.)
692

692 (73)
692 Minting Gold Dinars : 692 Caliph `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan orders the minting of gold dinars for the first time during the Muslim era (73 A.H.)
699

699 ǡ (80 )
699 The Battle of Wadi Al-`Adhara (Valley of the Virgins) : 699 Commander Hassan bin Al-Nu`man leads a huge army to Gabes, where he defeats the forces of the Berber Kahinah in a fierce battle, but the Kahinah flees (80 A.H.)
700

700 (81)
700 Arabicization of the Diwans : 700 Caliph `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan orders the arabicization of the Diwans (state ministries), which were following the Persian order (81 A.H.)
701

701 (82)
701 Foundation of Tunis : 701 Hassan bin Al-Nu`man founds Tunis and builds the notable mosque of Al-Zaitunah and an arsenal for building fleets (82 A.H.)
702

702 ( ) (82 )
702 The Battle of Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of the Kahinah) : 702 Commander Hassan bin Al-Nu`man follows the retreating forces of the Berber Kahinah. He defeats them at Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of Kahinah) and kills the Kahinah, adding a further victory to his achievements (82 A.H.)
703

703 (84)
703 Foundation of Wasit : 703 Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi founds the city of Wasit between Basra and Kufa, Iraq (84 A.H.)
708

708 (89)
708 The Conquest of Sind : 708 The first Muslim conquests in India are made by the General Muhammad bin Al-Qasim, who crosses Mekran, invades the Indus Valley, and conquers Sind (89 A.H.)
709

709 (89 )
709 The Conquest of Bukhara : 709 Qutaibah bin Muslim, governor of Khurasan, penetrates the regions of Transoxiana and conquers Bukhara and other cities after fierce battles (89 A.H.)
711

711 (92 )
711 The Battle of Wadi Bakkah (Valley of Bakkah) : 711 General Tariq bin Ziad leads a 12,000-men army in an eight-day fierce battle with the Visigoth army. The battle takes place at Wadi Bakkah, near Rio Barbate and ends with complete destruction of the Visigoth (92 A.H.)
712

712 (93 )
712 The Conquest of Samarkand : 712 Samarkand is annexed to Muslim territories in Central Asia by Qutaibah bin Muslim after the surrender of its king (93 A.H.)
713

713 (94 )
713 The Battle of Al-Sawaqi (94 A.H.) : 713 The unified armies of Musa bin Nusair and Tariq bin Ziad meet in a fierce battle with Roderic, the Visigoth king. The battle results in the Muslim capture of Toledo after the death of Roderic and marks the decline of the Visigoth monarchy (94 A.H.)
717

717 (99 )
717 `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz assumes the caliphate : 717 `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz becomes caliph after a demand of pledge of allegiance to him had been made by his predecessor Sulaiman bin `Abdul-Malik (99-101)
732

732 () (114)
732 The Battle of Poitiers : 732 Charles Martel's victory and `Abdul-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi's death at the Battle of Balat Al-Shuhada' (Poitiers) (114 A.H.)
749

749 (132 )
749 The Battle of Grand Zab : 749 `Abdullah bin `Ali Al-`Abbasi defeats the armies of Marwan bin Muhammad, the last Ummayyad caliph (132 A.H.)
750

750 (132 )
750 The Abbasid Caliphate : 750 The Abbasids succeed the Ummayyad dynasty and assume power over the Muslim empire (132-656 A.H.)
756

756 () (138 )
756 The Umayyad Emirate in Cordoba : 756 `Abdul-Raman I (Al-Dakhil) departs for Spain and founds the Ummayyad emirate in Cordoba (138 A.H.)
762

762 (145)
762 Foundation of Baghdad : 762 The reign of Abu Ja`far Al-Mansur witnesses the founding of Baghdad with its great Mosque of Baghdad (145 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:07 PM
785

785 (169)
785 Foundation of the Mosque of Cordoba : 785 The Mosque of Cordoba is being established during the reign of `Abdul-Rahman I, emir of Cordoba (169 A.H.)
786

786 (170)
786 Harun Al-Rashid Becomes Caliph : 786 Harun Al-Rashid assumes the Abbsid caliphate and leads a reformation that brings about a comprehensive tremendous revival of arts, sciences and trade (170 A.H.)
788

788 363 /974 (172)
788 Rise of the Idrisid Dynasty : 788 Idris bin `Abdullah declares his independence from the Abbasid domination and founds the Idrisid dynasty which ruled in Western Maghrib and Tlemcen until 363 A.H.\974 A.D.(172 A.H.)
800

800 () 296 / 909 (184)
800 Rise of the Aghlabid Dynasty : 800 Ibrahin I bin Al-Aghlab, governor of Ifriqiyah, founds the Aghlabid dynasty with Al-Qairawan as its capital. The Aghlabid rule lasted until 296 A.H.\909 A.D.(184 A.H.)
809

809 (193 )
809 The Conquest of Rhodes : 809 Humaid bin Ma`iuf Al-Hamadhani, commander of the Muslim fleet in the Mediterranean, leads successful raids on Rhodes subjecting it to Muslim rule (193 A.H.)
813

813 (198 )
813 Al-Ma'mun Becomes Caliph : 813 `Abdullah Al-Ma'mun becomes caliph and pays much of his attention to arts and sciences, causing tremendous advances in sciences and the Islamic intellectual life (198 A.H.)
815

815 (200 )
815 The Battle of Al-Nahr : 815 The Muslim fleet, under Al-Hakam bin Hisham, the Umayyad caliph in Andalusia defeats the Frankish army and conquers Sardinia (200 A.H.)
820

820 259 /872 (205 )
820 Rise of the Tahirid Dynasty : 820 Commander Tahir bin Al-Husain eliminates the Kharijite revolution and establishes the Tahirid dynasty which ruled in Khurasan until 259 A.H.\872 A.D (205 A.H.)
836

836 (221)
836 Foundation of Samarra : 836 Caliph Al-Mu`tasim orders the building of the city of Samarra on River Tigris, in Iraq, and makes it the state capital (221 A.H.)
836

836 (221 )
836 Moving the Abbasid Capital : 836 The Abbasid caliph Al-Mu`tasim moves the state capital from Baghdad to Samarra (221 A.H.)
838

838 (223 )
838 The Battle of Amoriah : 838 Caliph Al-Mu`tasim lead a strong army and defeats the Romans and conquers Amoriah, the birthplace of the Roman emperor (223 A.H.)
868

868 292 /905 (254 )
868 Rise of the Tulunid Dynasty : 868 Ahmad bin Tulun declares his independence from the Abbasid domination (254 A.H.)and founds the Tulunid dynasty which ruled in Egypt and Syria until 292 A.H.\905 A.D
868

868 (254 )
868 The Safarid Dynasty : 868 The Safarid dynasty is founded in Khurasan at the hands of Ya`qub bin Al-Laith Al-Saffar (254 A.H.)
874

874 (260 )
874 Rise of the Samanid Dynasty : 874 Isma`il bin Ahmad establishes the rule of the Persian Samanid dynasty in Khurasan and Transoxiana (260-390 A.H.)
875

875 (261)
875 Two Great Mosques : 875 This year witnesses the building of two great mosques: Mosque of Ahmad bin Tulun in Fustat, Egypt and the Great Mosque of Shiraz, Iran (261 A.H.)
909

909 (297 )
909 Rise of the Fatimid Dynasty : 909 `Ubaidullah Al-Mahdi founds the Fatimid dynasty in Tunisia. Later, the state capital moves to Cairo, Egypt (297 A.H.)
929

929 () (316 )
929 The Umayyad Caliphate in Andalusia : 929 `Abdul-Rahman III (Al-Nasir) establishes the Umayyad Caliphate in Andalusia (316 A.H.)
929

929 (317 )
929 Rise of the Hamdanid Dynasty : 929 Hamdan bin Hamdun, chieftain of the Taghlib tribe founds the Hamdanid dynasty which ruled in Mosul and Aleppo (317-394 A.H.)
932

932 (320 )
932 Rise of the Buyid Dynasty : 932 Abu Shuja` Buwaih establishes the Buyid dynasty which dominated Isfahan, Shiraz, Kerman and Baghdad (320 A.H.)
935

935 (323 )
935 Rise of the Ikhshidid Dynasty : 935 The Ikhshidid dynasty is founded in Egypt and Syria by Muhammad bin Tughj (323-358 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:07 PM
962

962 (351 )
962 Rise of the Ghaznawids : 962 Alptegin, a Turkish commander, founds the Ghaznawid state in Iran and Afghanistan (351 A.H.)
969

969 (358)
969 The Fatimid Conquest of Egypt : 969 Jauhar Al-Siqilli, the Fatimid commander under Al-Mu`iz Li Din Allah, annexes Egypt to the Fatimid domination (358 A.H.)
970

970 (359 )
970 Foundation of Cairo : 970 Commander Jauhar Al-Siqilli founds Cairo as the Fatimid capital, then establishes Al-Azhar Mosque (359 A.H.)
644

( ) (23 )
644 The Conquest of Libya : 644 `Amr bin Al-`As conquers Barca, Tripoli and other coastal cities of Libya, then dispatches `Uqbah bin Nafi` to conquer the southern cities (23 A.H.)

20-06-2004, 03:09 PM

20-06-2004, 03:09 PM
(11 /632 )

.
The Wars against the Apostates (11 A.H./632 A.D.) : Abu Bakr set out many Muslim armies to confront the apostates and those who refused to pay the Zakah (alms). The Muslim forces, being well-deployed, were successful in completing their task and eliminating the apostates.
(3 /625 )

.
The Battle of Uhud (3 A.H./625 A.D.) : The Quraish marched out of Mecca for revenge for their defeat at Badr. The Muslim army was encamped at Mount Uhud. The Muslims were victorious in the beginning, but when the archers left their positions, the tide of the battle turned, and the polytheists of the Quraish escaped the defeat.
(2 /624 )

: " " " " .
The Expedition of Al-Abwa' (2 A.H./624 A.D.) : This was the first expedition led by the Messenger in the Islamic era. Jihad [Fighting in the Cause of Allah] has been instituted by Islam for one of two reasons: first, to defend Muslims, their women, property or country; and second, to defend the Call to Allah if it is obstructed by someone; if the believers are persecuted; or if the preachers are impeded from conveying their call. Allah the Almighty says in the Holy Qur'an, "Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors." (Surah Al-Baqarah, No. 2, verse 190). The obligation of Jihad was instituted in the second year after the Hijrah when the Quraish continued its hostility to the new religion, persecuting the believers and stopping in the way to the spread of Islam. The permission to fight was initialized by the Qur'anic verse, "To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily, Allah is Most Powerful for the ir aid." (Surah Al-Hajj, No. 22, verse 39). The Prophet (peace be upon him) left Medina - appointing Sa`d bin `Ubadah as his deputy - and headed to the Quraish and Banu Damrah. He mad a treaty with the Banu Damrah.
(6 /628 )

1400 .
The Expedition of Al-Hudaibiah (6 A.H./628 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) and about 1400 of his followers headed for Mecca to perform `Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage). The polytheists of Mecca prepared to block the peaceful party from performing the `Umrah. The Prophet sent `Uthman bin `Affan as his envoy to the Quraish. However, the Quraish's capture of `Uthman led the Prophet (peace be upon him) to mobilize an army to fight them. Mediation efforts resulted in the Hudaibiah Treaty between the Quraish and Muhammad (peace be upon him).
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Al-Khandaq (the Trench) (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Quraish launched another attack on Medina to suppress the rising power of the Prophet and his followers. They allied with several Arab tribes in Hijaz. The Muslims dug a trench at the northern edge of Medina to protect the city. The polytheists could not penetrate the trench and went back in failure.
( 2 )

( ) () .
The Expedition of Al-Sawiq (2 A.H.) : It was reported to the Messenger that Abu Sufyan was preparing to attack the Muslims to take revenge after the defeat of the Quraish at the Battle of Badr. The Prophet made his preparation to meet them but when he reached Qarqarat Al-Kadr, he found that Abu Sufyan and his troops had retreated back to Mecca, leaving behind some of their provisions.
(2 /624 )

.
The Battle of Badr (2 A.H./624 A.D.) : The Battle of Badr took place between the Quraish and the Muslims near the Well of Badr, which was located near Mecca. The Prophet decided that interrupting the trade of the Quraish would be an effective counterattack to their aggression against Muslims. He commanded the capture of a Quraish trade caravan passing near Medina, but the leader of the caravan, Abu Sufyan, managed to escape and called for assistance. The Quraish gathered over one thousand soldiers who marched north to confront the Muslims at Badr. Though the army of the Quraish was three times the size of the Muslim army, they were defeated and the Muslims achieved a glorious victory.
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Banu Quraizhah (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Messenger (peace be upon him) launched this battle to take revenge on the Banu Quraizhah who betrayed the Messenger and allied with the Quraish at the Battle of the Trench. The Messenger attacked and seized them. They were obliged to surrender and agree on the verdict of Sa`d bin Mu`adh - who was their ally. Sa`d's verdict was to kill their warriors and capture their women and children.
(9 /630 )

ǡ .
The Battle of Tabuk (9 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) gathered a great army and marched to Mu'tah. The army arrived at Tabuk and camped there. When the Byzantines were informed about this powerful army, they feared to encounter it and preferred to seek the protection inside their forts. Having intimidated the enemy and displayed the Muslim power, the Prophet (peace be upon him) concluded some treaties with bordering cities to the effect that they would stay in their land and enjoy freedom of religion in return for paying Jizyah [Tribute]. Then the Prophet went triumphantly back to Medina.
(8 /630 )

.
The Battle of Hunain (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Muslims, commanded by the Prophet, fought the Hawazin, commanded by Malik bin `Auf, at the Valley of Hunain. At first the Muslims were about to be defeated. However, the Prophet and the true believers proved patient and steadfast in fight, and they were victorious in the end.
(7 /628 )

.
The Battle of Khaibar (7 A.H./628 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) marched to the Jews at Khaibar because they incited some tribes against the Muslims. He conquered their city and concluded a treaty with the Jews of Khaibar to the effect that they would stay in their lands in return for paying Jizyah [tribute].
(5 /627 )

.
The Battle of Daumat Al-Jandal (5 A.H./627 A.D.) : The Prophet was informed that some troops were attacking anyone who passed through Daumat Al-Jandal, so he went there with a thousand Muslims to fight them, but they fled away and the Messenger returned back to Medina.
(4 /625 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Riqa` (4 A.H./625 A.D.) : The Prophet commanded an expedition to the tribes of Ghatfan and Banu Sulaim as a reaction for their killing of most of the teaching mission he sent to them. Warriors of the two parties met but no fight took place.
(12 /633 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Salasil (12 A.H./633 A.D.) : The Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid marched to Iraq and defeated the Persians under the command of Hurmuz.
(8 /630 )

.
The Battle of Mu'tah (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent a message to the Ghassanid governor Shurahbil calling him to Islam. Shurahbil, however, mocked the message and killed the Prophet's messenger Al-Harith bin `Umair. In response to this brutal aggression, the Prophet (peace be upon him) sent Zaid bin Harithah at the head of an army to the Ghassanids, who asked the help of the Byzantines and were supported with a powerful army. The battle was fought in Mu'tah. Zaid bin Harithah was killed and was replaced by `Abdullah bin Rawahah and Ja`far bin Abi Talib who were also killed. Khalid bin Al-Walid voluntarily took command of the Muslim army and immediately realized that resuming the battle would mean the ruin of the Muslims. A skillful plan for withdrawal was quickly implemented.
() (50 /670 )

.
Conquest of Ifriqiyah (Tunisia) (50 A.H./670 A.D.) : After a series of successful raids in Sudan, `Uqbah bin Nafi` led a Muslim army of ten thousand warriors, and headed to Ifriqiyah (Tunisia). Irresistibly advancing, he stopped at the Qairawan Valley, where he built the city of Qairawan.
(21 /641 )

.
Conquest of Alexandria (21 A.H./641 A.D.) : The Babylon Treaty stipulated the handing of Alexandria over to the Muslims. The Byzantine forces left Alexandria and the whole of Egypt fell to the Muslims.
(58 /678 )

() () .
Conquest of Algeria (58 A.H./678 A.D.) : Abu Al-Muhajir Dinar, Emir of Ifriqiyah (Tunisia), went to fight the Berber tribe of Urbah, which was motivated by the Byzantines to stop Muslim conquests in Africa. The tribe's chief, however, peacefully surrendered and embraced Islam. Abu Al-Muhajir then advanced, seized Tlemcen, and ruined the Berber-Byzantine alliance.
(89 /708 )

.
Conquest of Sind (89 A.H./708 A.D.) : Al-Hajjaj, governor of Iraq, directed an army under the leadership of Muhammad bin Al-Qasim Al-Thaqafi to conquer Sind (in India). Muhammad crossed Makran (Baluchistan), defeated Dahir the King of Sind, invaded the Indus Valley, and conquered Sind.
(857 /1453 )

.
Conquest of Constantinople (857 A.H./1453 A.D.) : On the 29th of May 1453 A.D., the fall of Constantinople was the greatest enterprise undertaken during the reign of Sultan Mehmet II (known as Mehmet the Conqueror).

20-06-2004, 03:10 PM
(89 /709 )

.
Conquest of Bukhara (89 A.H./709 A.D.) : Bukhara, Chorasmia, Sijistan, Samarkand and other Transoxiana cities were all conquered by Qutaibah bin Muslim, Emir of Khurasan. He won one battle after the other until the whole region became Muslim territories; then he advanced until he reached the borders of China.
(583 /1187 )

.
Conquest of Jerusalem (583 A.H./1187 A.D.) : Shortly after his sweeping victory at Hattin, Saladin (Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi) conquered Jerusalem following a five-day siege. He drove the Crusaders out and entered the city peacefully doing harm to nobody, in contrary to what the Crusaders had done when they first invaded Jerusalem.
(29 /649 )

.
Conquest of Khurasan (29 A.H./649 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Al-Ahnaf bin Qais, conquered Khurasan after defeating the Persian forces. Al-Ahnaf then chased the Persian King Yezdigird III.
(193 /809 )

.
Conquest of Rhodes (193 A.H./809 A.D.) : Having violated an earlier peace treaty signed with the Muslims, Cyprus was once more subject to Muslim conquest. Humaid bin Ma`yuf Al-Hamdani, commander of the Muslim fleet in the Mediterranean, led successful raids on Cyprus, Crete and Rhodes in 193 A.H.
(93 /712 )

.
Conquest of Samarkand (93 A.H./712 A.D.) : Samarkand was annexed to Muslim territories in Asia by Qutaibah bin Muslim after the surrender of its king.
(104 /723 )

.
Conquest of Caesarea (104 A.H./723 A.D.) : Caesarea was conquered by `Uthman bin Haiyan Al-Murri during the caliphate of Yazid bin `Abdul-Malik.
(19 /640 )

.
Conquest of Caesarea, Palestine (19 A.H./640 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan, conquered Caesarea after a six-month siege.
(23 /644 )

( ) .
Conquest of Libya (23 A.H./644 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under `Amr bin Al-`As, conquered Barca, Tripoli and other coastal cities of Libya. Then `Amr dispatched `Uqbah bin Nafi` to conquer the southern cities.
(54 /673 )

() () 87 .
Conquest of Transoxiana (54 A.H./673 A.D.) : `Ubaidullah bin Ziad, Emir of Iraq and Muslim territories in the East, crossed the Oxus River and conquered some cities in Bukhara (southern Uzbekistan). He was the first Arab to cross the Oxus River. Transoxiana was further conquered in 87 A.H., by Qutaibah bin Muslim, commander of the Muslim army during the reign of the Caliph Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik. Arab conquests in Transoxiana reached the delta of the Oxus River. Maslamah, the caliph's brother, led the armies toward the northeast and conquered Azerbaijan. With these conquests, Islam and Arabic gained considerable ground, and trade routes with China were also opened.
(8 /630 )

ǡ .
Conquest of Mecca (8 A.H./630 A.D.) : The Quraish revoked the armistice they had previously signed with the Prophet (peace be upon him). In response, ten thousand of the Prophet's followers marched to Mecca. Witnessing the power of the Muslims, the chiefs of Mecca surrendered and no fight took place. The Prophet granted amnesty to the Quraish, circumambulated the Ka`bah and demolished all idols.
(13 /634 )

.
The Battle of Ajnadin (13 A.H./634 A.D.) : The Muslim army under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid met the Byzantine forces in a fierce battle in Palestine that ended with the victory of the Muslims.
(805 /1402 )

.
The Battle of Ankara (805 A.H./1402 A.D.) : Beginning in 804 A.H./1402 A.D., conflicts arose between Timur and the Ottoman Sultans. These conflicts reached their peak at the decisive Battle of Ankara, which he led against Sultan Bayezid II, who was defeated and captured along with his son and some of his commanders. Later, a compromise was reached.
(591 /1195 )

.
The Battle of Alarco (591 A.H./1195 A.D.) : A decisive battle in which Ya`qub bin `Abdul-Mu'min, the Almohad king, defeated Alfonso VIII, Castilian king, at Alarco and restored four Muslim cities after forty years of occupation.
(36 /656 )

.
The Battle of the Camel (36 A.H./656 A.D.) : Talhah bin `Ubaidullah and Al-Zubair bin Al-`Auwam, along with `A'ishah, rejected `Ali bin Abi Talib's claim to the caliphate and went to Basra, where they found support for their cause. `Ali, supported by the people of Kufa, headed for Basra and fought them in the Battle of the Camel. `Ali won the battle, and Al-Zubair and Talhah were killed. As for `A'ishah, she was escorted back to Mecca with all due respect.
(930 /1517 )

.
The Battle of Al-Raidaniyah (930 A.H./1517 A.D.) : Following his remarkable victory in Marj Dabiq, Sultan Selim I proceeded towards Egypt in 1517 A.D. At Al-Raidaniyah, he faced uncompromising resistance by Tuman-Bay, the last Mamluk sultan, who proved himself a brave knight, but victory went to Selim I.
(132 /749 )

( ) .
The Battle of The Grand Zab (132 A.H./749 A.D.) : The Zab is a place between Mosul and Irbil where `Abdullah bin `Ali, an Abbasid propagator, defeated Marwan bin Muhammad, the last Umayyad caliph in Syria. Marwan fled to Egypt, signaling the end of the Umayyad dynasty and the rise of the Abbasid State.
(479 /1086 )

.
The Battle of Al-Zallaqah (479 A.H./1086 A.D.) : In this year, Emir Yusuf bin Tashfin crossed the Mediterranean with a powerful army and set out for Andalusia to deter the advance of the Christian Restoration Movement. Yusuf defeated the Christian forces under the leadership of Alfonso VI at the Battle of Al-Zallaqah, and then returned to the Maghrib.
(94 /713 )

.
The Battle of Al-Sawaqi (94 A.H./713 A.D.) : Leading a huge fleet and over eighteen thousand warriors across the Mediterranean, Musa bin Nusair invaded Western Andalusia to complete Tariq bin Ziad's mission. They both fought against Roderick at the decisive Battle of Al-Sawaqi, where Roderick was killed and Andalusia became a Muslim state.
(14 /635 )

.
The Battle of Al-Qadisiyah (14 A.H./635 A.D.) : Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas led the Muslim army to fight the Persians in Iraq. After three days of ferocious fight, the Muslims defeated the Persians, killed their commander, Rustum, and conquered Ctesiphon.
(647 /1250 )

.
The Battle of Al-Mansurah (647 A.H./1250 A.D.) : At this battle, the Egyptian army under Turan Shah defeated the armies of the Seventh Crusade commanded by Louis IX, King of France, who was taken captive and imprisoned in Dar bin Luqman in Mansurah.

20-06-2004, 03:11 PM
(200 /815 )

.
Battle of Al-Nahr (Sardinia) (200 A.H./815 A.D.) : After conquering many islands in the Mediterranean, the Muslim fleet conquered Sardinia under Al-Hakam bin Hisham, the Umayyad caliph in Andalusia.
(38 /658 )

.
The Battle of Nahrawan (38 A.H./658 A.D.) : Having failed to convince the Kharijites of his eligibility to the caliphate, `Ali bin Abi Talib fought them at the city of Nahrawan, killing their leader `Abdullah Al-Rasibi and leading to greatly weakening their power.
(15 /636 )

.
The Battle of Yarmuk (15 A.H./636 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmuk in Palestine. The Emperor Heraclius left Syria, which fell totally under the Muslim control.
(82 /702 )

( ) .
The Battle of Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of Kahinah) (82 A.H./702 A.D.) : After his sweeping victory over Kahinah at the Battle of Wadi Al-`Adhara, Hassan bin Al-Nu`man chased her in Massif Aures. A fierce battle took place at Bi'r Al-Kahinah (Well of Kahinah), where Hassan completed his victory and Kahinah was killed.
(114 /732 )

() .
The Battle of Tours (Balat Al-Shuhada') (114 A.H./732 A.D.) : Leading a 90,000-man Muslim army, `Abdul-Rahman Al-Ghafiqi crossed the Pyrenees, captured Bordeaux, and defeated an army under Eudo, Duke of Aquitaine. The Muslim army was then defeated by the Frankish leader Charles Martel (Charles the Hammer) at the Battle of Tours near Poitiers. `Abdul-Rahman was killed, the Muslims retreated to the Pyrenees, and their advance into Europe was terminated.
(583 /1187 )

.
The Battle of Hattin (583 A.H./1187 A.D.) : It was one of the greatest Muslim victories over the Crusaders. Willing to rid the Muslim world completely of the Crusaders, Saladin (Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi) besieged them in Hattin, to the west of Acre, at night and showered them with arrows during the daytime. He was sweepingly triumphant, and Arnat and the King of Jerusalem were taken captives.
(34 /655 )

.
The Battle of Dhat Al-Sawari (34 A.H./655 A.D.) : The Muslim Egyptian and Syrian fleets were unified under the commander `Abdullah bin Sa`d bin Abi Al-Sarh to meet the Byzantine fleet led by Emperor Constantius III. The Muslim fleet was victorious, spreading its control over the east of the Mediterranean.
(37 /657 )

.
The Battle of Siffin (37 A.H./657 A.D.) : `Ali summoned Mu`awiah once more to swear allegiance to him, but he refused. He marched to Syria with his forces while Mu`awiah's army proceeded towards Kufa. The two factions confronted each other at Siffin, to the west of the Euphrates. `Ali was about to win the battle when Mu`awiah made use of a stratagem worked out by `Amr bin Al-`As. A cavalry detachment rode out from the army of Mu`awiah with copies of the Qur'an tied to their lances, requested arbitration and cried, "Let the Word of Allah decide the matter among us."
(223 /838 )

ǡ .
The Battle of Amoriah (223 A.H./838 A.D.) : Deciding to repel the Byzantine Emperor Teofel, who had attacked a number of Muslim cities bordering the Byzantine Empire, Caliph Al-Mu`tasim mobilized a large army under his own command. Al-Mu`tasim met the Byzantines at Ankara, where he had a sweeping victory and then advanced towards Amoriah, the Emperor's place of birth, to annex it along with Ankara to Muslim territories.
( 658 /1260 )

.
The Battle of `Ain Jalut (the Spring of Goliath) (658 A.H./1260 A.D.) : The Battle of `Ain Jalut took place between the Egyptian army and the Mongols in Syria. The Egyptians defeated the Mongols and saved Egypt, Syria and Europe from the Mongol menace.
(464 /1071 )

ǡ () .
The Battle of Manzikart (464 A.H./1071 A.D.) : Hearing of the Byzantine intention to invade Muslim territories in Asia, Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan assembled a great army and met the Byzantine army under the command of Emperor Romanus Diogenes at Manzikart, north-west of Lake Van. Alp Arslan destroyed the Byzantine army, captured Romanus Diogenes and penetrated into the interior of Anatolia.
(922 /1516 )

.
The Battle of Marj Dabiq (922 A.H./1516 A.D.) : Due to deterioration in Ottoman-Mamluk relations, Sultan Selim I marched towards Syria and Egypt in order to eliminate the Mamluks. Sultan Selim I fought Qansawh Al-Ghuri, the Mamluk sultan, on the plain of Marj Dabiq, Syria in 1516 A.D. Sultan Al-Ghuri was killed during the battle. Consequently, the Ottoman sultan seized Homs, Hamat and Damascus.
(21 /642 )

ϡ .
The Battle of Nehawand (21 A.H./642 A.D.) : The Muslim army, commanded by Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman, met with the Persian troops and conquered the Fort of Nehawand. The Persian army was defeated and their king fled, enabling the Muslims to annex his country to the Muslim state. This battle was called "The Victory of Victories", for it gave the Muslims a final victory over the Persians and sealed the fate of the Sassanid dynasty that had ruled Persia for four centuries.
(20 /641 )

() .
The Battle of Heliopolis (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : The Muslim army, under the command of `Amr bin Al-`As, won victory over the Byzantines in Egypt, and the Byzantine forces besieged in the Fortress of Babylon [Babilyun] surrendered. Patriarch Cyrus, the Byzantine civil governor over Egypt, was obliged to sign the Babylon Treaty with the Muslims to end the war.
(80 /699 )

(75 ) .
The Battle of Wadi Al-`Adhara (Valley of the Virgins) (80 A.H/699 A.D.) : After his defeat and retreat to Barca in 75 A.H., Hassan bin Al-Nu`man returned to Gabes with a tremendous army to fight the Berber female chieftain Kahinah (Soothsayer). They met near Gabes, where Hassan won a sweeping victory, while Kahinah fled to Massif Aures.
(92 /711 )

.
The Battle of Wadi Bakkah (92 A.H./711 A.D.) : Under the command of Tariq bin Ziad, a Muslim army composed of twelve thousand warriors invaded the Iberian Peninsula and defeated the Visigoth king Roderick at the Battle of Wadi Bakkah near Rio Barbate. Cordova and the capital at Toledo fell to Tariq, who took control over half the peninsula and moved on toward Seville.

20-06-2004, 03:13 PM




(1 /622-623 )

.
The Constitution of Medina (1 A.H./622-623 A.D.) : The Prophet (peace be upon him) declared Muslim Muhajirin [Immigrants] and Ansar [Helpers] as brothers. He wrote a pact laying down the rules for the Islamic Community.
(6 /628 )

1400 . ( 9 ) . 10 . .
The Hudaibiah Treaty (6 A.H./628 A.D.) : In 6 A.H./627 A.D., the Prophet (peace be upon him) and about 1400 of his followers headed for Mecca to perform `Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage). The polytheists of Mecca, however, prepared to block the peaceful party from performing `Umrah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) reached Hudaibiah (9 miles from Mecca), and sent `Uthman Ibn `Affan as his envoy to the Quraish. The Quraish's capture of `Uthman, however, led the Prophet (peace be upon him) to mobilize an army to fight the Quraish. Mediation efforts resulted in the Hudaibiah Treaty between the Quraish and Muhammad (peace be upon him). Among the articles of the Hudaibiah Treaty were an armistice between the two parties for ten years, and the Muslims' performance of `Umrah was to be postponed to the following year. The Hudaibiah Treaty gave Islam an opportunity to flourish inside and outside the Arabian Peninsula.
(588 /1192 )

. . . 588 /1192 .
The Treaty of Al-Ramlah (588 A.H./1192 A.D.) : During the Third Crusade, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had drowned in Asia Minor on his way to Syria. Salah Al-Din defeated the Crusading armies in the Battle of Hittin. Disputes between the kings of France and England erupted. So, Richard the Lion-Hearted, King of England, saw no alternative but negotiation. Thus, he concluded the treaty of Al-Ramlah with Salah Al-Din in 588 A.H./1192 A.D., by which the Muslims recaptured Jerusalem.
(626 /1228-1229 )

.
The Treaty of Jaffa (626 A.H./1228-1229 A.D.) : Negotiations between King Al-Kamil and King Frederick II, who led the Sixth Crusade, concluded with an agreement called the Treaty of Jaffa that would be in effect for 10 years. It stipulated that Jerusalem was to be under the Crusaders' control, but Al-Aqsa Mosque and its sanctuary should remain in the hands of Muslims where they should be allowed to perform the rites of Islam.
(1 /622-623 )

. .
A Non-Aggression Treaty with the Jews (1 A.H./622-623 A.D.) : A non-aggression pact was concluded between the Prophet and the Jews in order to guarantee their support in defending Medina against any external danger. Unfortunately, the Jews revoked their pledge.
(648 /1250-1251 )

ء .
Aybag's Treaty with Louis IX (648 A.H./1250-1251 A.D.) : A compromise between King Louis IX of France and King `Izz Al-Din Aybag was reached to be in effect for 10 years. It stipulated releasing the captive king, Louis IX, in return for 300,000 dinars, the Crusaders' evacuation from Damietta, and the release of the Muslim captives in return for the release of the captive Crusaders.
1919

. .
The Treaty of April (1919 A.D.) : The Treaty of April (1919 A.D.) was signed by Italy and Sulaiman Al-Baruni, the head of the Libyan National Movement. In this treaty, Italy recognized the sovereignty of Tripoli over its internal affairs.
(21 )

. .
The Treaty of Alexandria (21 A.H.) : The Treaty of Alexandria was signed by the Muslim commander `Amr Ibn Al-`As and Al-Muqauqas, the Byzantine governor of Egypt. This treaty stipulated an ultimatum of one year to evacuate the Byzantine army from Alexandria, and guaranteeing religious freedom to the people of Alexandria, provided that they pay an annual tribute.
(600/1203-1204 )

.
King Al-`Adil's Treaty with `Amuri II (600 A.H./1203-1204 A.D.) : King Al-`Adil concluded a six-year peace treaty with `Amuri II, king of Jerusalem. By the terms of this treaty Al-`Adil relinquished his claim to Sidon and Al-Ludd.
(20 /641 )

( ) () .
The Babylon Treaty I (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : After the Battle of Heliopolis (`Ain Shams) and the defeat and surrender of the Byzantines who had been under siege inside the fortress of Babylon, the Byzantine governor Kirus (Al-Muqauqas) was obliged to accept a draft treaty for ending the war. Kirus headed for Constantinople to present the draft to Emperor Heraclius who rejected it, accused Kirus of treachery, and eventually exiled him.
(20 /641 )

( ) .
The Babylon Treaty II (20 A.H./641 A.D.) : Kirus was restored to his position in Egypt after the death of Heraclius in order to negotiate peace with the Muslims. He concluded the second Babylon Treaty with the Muslims. One of the articles of the treaty was the evacuation of the Romans from Alexandria and handing it over to the Muslims.
(721 /1321-1322 )

.
A Treaty between Granada and Argonne (721 A.H./1321-1322 A.D.) : The Andalusian King of Granada, Abu Al-Walid Isma`il Ibn Faraj Ibn Nasr, made a co-operation and friendship treaty with Khaimi II, king of Argonne, that remained in effect for five years.
1252 /1837

. .
The Tafna Treaty (1252 A.H./1837 A.D.) : The Tafna Treaty was signed by Algerians led by `Abdul-Qadir Al-Jaza'iri and the French. According to this treaty, France recognized the sovereignty of `Abdul-Qadir over the west of Algeria, and `Abdul-Qadir, in return, recognized the sovereignty of France over the areas under its control.
1325

. 1325 . .
The Treaty of St. Petersburg (1325 A.H.) : The Afghan nationalist movement against the British gained momentum during the reign of `Abdul-Rahman, the grandson of Dost Muhammad. Russia intervened in the conflict, which ended with the Treaty of St. Petersburg in 1325 A.H., with the recognition of Afghanistan's independence and sovereignty.
(585/1189-1190 )

( ). 190 .
Salah Al-Din's Treaty with the Roman Emperor (585 A.H./1189-1190 A.D.) : Upon being informed of the preparations for the third Crusade, Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi (Saladin) concluded a treaty with the Roman Emperor Isaac II Angeles. The treaty stipulated that Salah Al-Din should return 190 Byzantine captives in return for the Emperor's promise to offer protection to the Muslim community living in Constantinople and also to grant permission to Muslims to perform Prayers in the old mosque of Constantinople.
1912

ǡ .
The Treaty of Lausanne (1912 A.D.) : It stipulated that the Ottoman State and Italy should declare a cease-fire in Libya, the Ottoman Sultan should relinquish his rights in Libya, and that Tripoli and Barca should be granted internal independence, while maintaining only a de facto sovereignty for the Sultan.
(305 /917-918 )

.
A Truce with the Byzantines (305 A.H./917-918 A.D.) : The deputy of Emperor Constantine VII came to Baghdad seeking a truce. The Caliph Al-Muqtadir and his attendants received him with a very magnificent celebration at the Caliphate Palace.

20-06-2004, 03:18 PM

20-06-2004, 03:22 PM


(1) . (2) .
Ab Dar : 1) A footman (servant) who prepares beverages 2) An official who hands over water to the emir for drinking or washing


: - - : - - " " . . . .
Abad : Inhabited. A Persian word used as a suffix for the names of cities and towns largely in India.


: " " : " " : .
Ajdal : A word of "Berber" origin which means a pasture land encircled by walls, lying beside the sultan's palace, and used solely for his horses and cattle.


9 : "" 9 " " " " .
Akhir Al-Nahr : The name of a star


( : " " : ) .
Adhiryun : Calendula in Arab medical writings during middle ages, calendula was considered a tunic and cure-all drug. In popular belief it was thought to have more wonderful powers.


: : .
Azad : A pious and unworldly person


. : . . : .
Afrak : A Berber term meaning a cloth border that separates the sultan's tent from the soldier's tents


: : (). : . : "".
Afrin : Bravo!


: "" " " : .
Akadir : A Berber word meaning: a barricaded enclosure which was used for storing grains and as a refuge in emergencies


" " " " "" : " " " " (: ) " " (: ).
Amdji, Also Khawaja Kanlaq : An official employed in the Ottoman central administration to copy reports and make drafts of minor reports


: " " ( : " " ) .
Abazah : Turkish word for "Abkhaz"


" " " " ( ) .
Abkhaz : Also: Afkhaz, a term referring to Karaj (present Georgia) or its inhabitants


"" "" " " .
Abin, Abn And Aven : An Andalusian Arabic slang meaning: "son of"


- - .
Abna' Al-Daulah : A term by which members of the Abbasid dynasty were called in the early period of the Abbasid rule


: " " () - .
Abu Qalumun : 1) A textile of special brilliance 2) A kind of bird 3) A precious stone


.
Abu Kalb : The name given by the Arabs to a currency from venice
()

.
Ajnad (Al-Halaqah) : The second grade of the regular army. It was formed during the "Ayyubid" period of freeborn mercenaries and Mamluks of previous sultans


: . .
Ajnad Al-Halaqah : Non-Mamluk soldiers who were called to service only in time of war


: .
Ahbas Al-Sabil : Charitable endowments


Arbab Al-Khayal : Chinese shadow players

20-06-2004, 03:23 PM


"" "" .
Arbab Al-Dau' : Lighting workers


.
Arba` Al-Kil : Nile boats used to carry timber


.
Asbaslar : Army commander


" " " " : .
Ustadar Al-`Aliah : Master of the sultan's household


: " .
Asfal Al-Ard : The Egyptian delta


.
Ashkarlat : (Cloth) scarlet


: : .
Ashab Al-Arba` : Night guards in a town's quarters


: " " - : " " .
Ashab Al-Qudub : Emirs who rode at official processions of the Fatimid caliphs carrying "Qudub Al-Fiddah" (silver lances)


: " " .
Afkhaz : See: "Abkhaz"


. . . .
Umara' Al-`Asharat : An emir who owned ten Mamluk cavaliers. They were members of the third rank in the hierarchy of the Mamluk emirs.


" " : : : : .
Amir Akhur : One who supervises the stables of a sultan or an emir


: .
Amir Arba`in Or Amir Tablakhanah : A military rank given to an emir who owned forty Mamluks. Its holder was known also as Amir Tablakhanah as he was permitted to have Tablakhanah beaten at his house's gates like the sultan and the emirs of a hundred Mamluks.
()

.
Amir Jandar : Chief court squire


.
Amir Khamsah : A military rank conferred upon an emir who owned five Mamluks. This rank was given to the sons of emirs as a mark of respect to their fathers.


" " " " .
Amir Silah : The emir in charge of the royal armory


() .
Amir-Shikar : Prince of game-keepers


.
Amir Tabr : Emir of battle-ax holders


: .
Amir `Ashrah : A military rank given to an emir who owned ten Mamluks. Many holders of that title were governors of small districts and other minor officials.


: .
Amir `Alam : Chief of the royal Tablakhanah


" " : .
Amir Mi'ah : A supreme military rank from the Seljuk period up to and including the Mamluk period. It was given to any emir who owned one hundred Mamluks, also known as a Muqaddim Alf [Commander of One Thousand], as he also commanded one thousand soldiers of the Halaqah.

20-06-2004, 03:24 PM


. .
Amir Majlis : 1) Emir in charge of discipline and protocol of the sultan's council 2) Also supervising medical workers


: " ".
Amin Al-Mulk : See: "Sahib Al-Majlis"


.
Ahl Farsh : Inhabitants of a large area who are incapable of protecting themselves against dangers
( )

( ) .
Aibak : Aybeg


: .
Iqta` Al-Halaqah : The fiefs of the soldiers of the Halaqah


" " .
Iqta`at Al-Halaqah : The fiefs of the Halaqah
( )

: " " .
Ikaf (Al-Himar) : (Pl. Ukuf) donkey's saddle


: .
Al-Athar Al-`Ulwiyah : The title given by the Arabs to the Arabic translation of Aristotle's work on meteorology


" " : ( : ) ( : ). . . . . " " , : .
Al-Alah, Also Al-Adah : Auxiliary sciences needed for religious studies


.
Al-Amid : A cargo loaded ship


: .
Al-Abazirah : Seed merchants


: .
Al-Atabik : Tutor, regent, the major senior Mamluk emir
()

: : .
Al-Atban (Muqarrar) : A tax imposed on fodder harvest


: : : . : : : .
Al-Ajlab : The Mamluk slaves bought by the sultan or emirs


: : " " "" .
Al-Ahbas : Allotments dedicated to certain purposes
()

: : .
Al-Ahdath : Cheap, low, bastard


: .
Al-Ahkar : Enclosures


"" : .
Al-Ahwash : Probably this is the plural of "Hawash", which means the base people


: " " .
Al-Adah : See: Al-Alah


: "" .
Al-Urdu : A royal Mongol camp

20-06-2004, 03:24 PM


: : .
Al-Azwar : Swamp; marsh


: : .
Al-Asbab : Intimate friends and supporters (during the Mamluk period)


: . : .
Al-Ustadar : An emir of high ranking post, in charge of the distribution of the monthly allowances (of horse-fodder, clothes . . . etc.) to the sultan's Mamluks


"" : (1) " " : "" "". (2) "" "" - - .
Al-Ustadhin : At the Fatimid court, there was a group of slaves, both white and black, who enjoyed tremendous power and influence. Their majority were "Saqalibah". They were of two ranks: those of the higher rank were called "Al-Ustadhin Al-Muhannakin", who for med an inner and exclusive circle and had the right to bear the title of emir. They were so called because of the turban they wore, i.e. "Al-Hanak", which they wrapped under their lower jaw. Those of the lower rank were called: "Al-Ustadhin", and hel d less important jobs.


: .
Al-Ustuwanah : (Pl. Asatin), pillar or column


.
Al-Ustul : Fleet; marine


: : .
Al-Ashum Al-Khatta'iyah : Bone arrows shot from bone bows


.
Al-Ashkari : Title for the Byzantine emperor, used by Muslim historians from the 7th century A.H. onwards (perhaps from "Lascaris", the name of a family which controlled the Byzantine Empire of Nicea from 1204 to 1261)
()

: .
Al-Ashkuri (Bilad) : The Byzantine Empire


: : : - - .
Al-Ashkif : Armed skiff


: .
Al-Asbahbudh : The title of the kings of Tabaristan


.
Al-Atlab : Commander; regiment


: : : "" : .
Al- A`lam Al-Thalathah : The royal flags
()

" " "" .
Al-Afranti (Al-Dinar) : Frankish coin, also called Al-Dinar Al-Suri because it bears the image of the ruler who issued it


. .
Al-Afrutah : Christian fleet


: "".
Al-Afshin : The title of the kings of Ashrusinah


: : "" .
Al-Aqba` : Hood


: : .
Al-Aqta` : One whose hand has been amputated or a deaf man


: , , ,
Al-Akadish : Hybrid


: .
Al-Ukrah : Peasants

20-06-2004, 03:25 PM


: .
Al-Akwar : A chest or sack put on the back of a horse or dromedary


, , .
Al-Amayir : Code


: "" : ".
Al-Amhari : A title for the king of Abyssinia in medieval times
()

: " "
Al-Umara' Al-Barraniyah : The emirs who do not belong to the Khaskiyah


: " " : " " .
Al-Umara' Al-Mutawwaqun : See: Al-Tauq


.
Al-Amir Al-Battal : An emir whose fief was confiscated


.
Al-Anbirur : Emperor


: .
Al-Anjar : 1) An anchor 2) A ship


: - : .
Al-Andab : A sack or a small bag


: " " : .
Al-Anayat : Young Mamluks who were brought up with older Mamluks in the service of the same sultan or emir


: : : "" : .
Al-Ahra' : Emergency storage barns
( )

: " " .
Al-Ahra' (Al-Sultaniyah) : These were silos where the sultan's grain was stored for emergencies


: (1) . (2) .
Al-Auraq : 1) Promissory note 2) Public announcement


: : : "" : .
Al-Ushaqi : A stable boy charged with horse training


: - - .
Al-Ushaqiyah : (Sing. Ushaqi), also Ujaqi, groom
()

.
Al-Ushariyah : One of the twelve Turcoman tribes


: .
Al-Autiah : The sandals


.
Al-Ibriq : Brig


" ".
Al-Ikhraq : Punishment; chastisement


- : . .
Al-Ikhshid : The title of the kings of Farghanah, (king of kings

20-06-2004, 03:30 PM


: : : .
Al-Ikhwan : A table or tray or board or plate


: .
Al-Idwah : Water skin


1099 .
Al-Isbitariyah : Hospitaller Knights


: "": " " : .
Al-Itlaqat : Land exempted from taxes


: " .
Al-I`adah : Reader: a university teacher, especially one ranking next below a professor


: .
Al-Ifrinti : A Frankish gold coin


.
Al-Iqamat : Army provisions


: - - "" (: ) (: ) "" "" "" .
Al-Iqta` : The fief


: - - .
Al-Ilja' : Provisional transference of land owned by villagers to a powerful neighbor in return for protection


.
Al-Imam : Imam: a title of the caliph, also given to scholars


: "" "" : "" "". : "".
Al-Inyat : See: Khushdash


: " " .
Al-Ighar : 1) Paying a sum of money in one installment by the landowner, and thus be exempted from taxation 2) Paying taxes directly to the sultan, thus avoiding rapaciousness of the tax collectors. It is also called "Daman Al-Kharaj".


: : : .
Al-Iljiyah : Ambassadors


: .
Al-Irtifa` : Kharaj [taxes]


" " .
Al-Istifa' : The work done by Al-Mustaufi


: " ".
Al-Isfihsilar : Commander-in-chief of the Fatimid army


: : "" : (1) . (2) (3) (4) (5) .
Al-Iltizam : Compulsory service
()

.
Al-Inkitar : The king of England


.
Al-Babiyah : Babes


: "" : "" : .
Al-Badzahr : Stone which is supposed to possess the property of neutralizing poisons

20-06-2004, 03:31 PM


: "" .
Al-Badhanj : Skylight: a chimney-like tube used for ventilation
()

"" "" "" "".
Al-Barubiyah : Land previously sown with wheat and barley


.
Al-Bazdar : Falconer


: .
Al-Basiliqat : Large iron balls attached to warships by a chain. They were swung at enemy ships.


.
Al-Bashih : Shackles placed around one's neck or his ankles


.
Al-Bashurah : Bastion, bulwark


.
Al-Baq : A fertile land previously sown with leguminous crops


: .
Al-Baizah : A Mongol term for a small gold tablet with inscription of a lion's head granted to high ranking Mongol officials or carriers of state messages


.
Al-Bukhati : Bactrian camel
()

"" .
Al-Bakhati (Al-Jamal) : Bactrian camel


"" : .
Al-Bakhshiyah : Buddhist monks


"" - "" () - . .
Al-Budanah : A wrapper (or coveralls) woven in Egypt from gold threads, that needed no tailoring. It was mainly made for the caliph.


: .
Al-Badhlat Al-Minah : Clothes ornamented with colored glazed glass


.
Al-Bara'ah : Receipt given to those who have paid their taxes


: .
Al-Barasim Al-Bahariyah : Marine equipment


: "" .
Al-Baraligh : Royal dispatches concerning high ranking state guests


: - : .
Al-Birjas : A target on the top of a pole
( )

" " : "".
Al-Burjiyah : Mamluks quartered at the various towers of Cairo citadel


.
Al-Burdidariyah : Usher


: : .
Al-Bardhun : Mule, Turkish horse

20-06-2004, 03:32 PM


: .
Al-Burshum : Veil


: : : : : .
Al-Bartil : Bribe


: . : .
Al-Barak : 1) Traveler's luggage 2) Army's provision


.
Al-Birkistiwan : Caparison


.
Al-Barkil : 1) Marine trader, marine adventurer 2) A barque


: .
Al-Burnus : Tall cap worn in the early Islamic period, hood


.
Al-Barid : A length measure that equals twelve miles


: .
Al-Baz : (Pl. Buruz) clothes made of linen or cotton
()

" " "" .
Al-Basha'ir : Announcing good news


: .
Al-Bisht : A woolen robe worn by Bedouins


: .
Al-Bashkhanah : A mosquito net


.
Al-Bushmat : Crust or biscuit



Al-Bashmaqdar : The sultan's slippers carrier


: "" .
Al-Battal : Unemployed emirs, soldiers or civil servants, whether because of retirement or being fired
()

.
Al-Battalin (Al-Ajnad) : Unemployed soldiers or emirs who have been deprived of their posts and fiefs as a punishment or because of age


.
Al-Butsah : Botsah: a Spanish kind of ships


- - . .
Al-Baghlitaq : Sleevless or a short-sleeved tunic


: : .
Al-Buqjah : Royal currency stamp


.
Al-Baqt : A tribute imposed on Nubians


.
Al-Buqyar : Turban, carpet

20-06-2004, 03:33 PM


: : .
Al-Baktar : A chain-mail hauberk


: : "": .
Al-Buklah : Container or receptacle
()

: "" . : .
Al-Balasiyah (Al-Ajnad) : Soldiers who were in the service of governors of sub-districts for the collection of taxes


: .
Al-Balaliq : Sarcastic popular songs


"" : .
Al-Ballanat : Female supervisors of the sultan's bath
()

: .
Al-Bulq (Al-Abqar) : Spotted, especially in cows


: (: ) .
Al-Bunduqdari : The sultan's or emir's hazelnut sac carrier
()

: "" " " "" .
Al-Bunduqiyah (Al-Darahim) : Venetian currency


: .
Al-Bunud : Flags or large banners


: : .
Al-Bahlawan : A distinguished wrestler


: "".
Al-Bawaqi : See: Al-Qibalah


: : .
Al-Buzah : A fermented beverage made of barely flour, water and sugar


: : " " : : .
Al-Bayadhiq : Lightly armed infantrymen


" " .
Al-Bayadiyah : A Turcoman tribe


: : .
Al-Baidah : Helmet


: .
Al-Bai` Bi Al-Halaqah : Public auction


.
Al-Bikar : War; combat


: : .
Al-Bikariyat : A metal plate shaped as a circle


: : "" : () : .
Bimaristan : Hospital, mental asylum


.
Al-Biutat : Fully-furnished dwellings

20-06-2004, 03:34 PM


: : " " : " " : "" "" " .
Al-Taj Al-Sharif : The name of a turban from the Fatimid period. Also see: "Shadd Al-Taj"


.
Al-Tazik : A Mongol term used to refer to Arabs or Persians


.
Al-Taya : Large Nile sailing vessel used to carry freight and timber


: .
Al-Tabyit : To attack an enemy at night


: : "" : .
Al-Tatariyat : A garment resembling the "caftan"


: : .
Al-Tajridah : A military campaign


. .
Al-Tajris : A disgraceful show of a criminal


: : .
Al-Tijfaf : Bard, horse armor


Tahdir : Disposition


: .
Al-Takht : 1) Cloth used for carrying or storing clothes 2) Bedstead 3) Couch 4) Bunk 5) Stand, platform 6) Press


: : : " " : : : : " " : .
Al-Takhfifah : A small turban


, .
Al-Tadhakir : Royal note-reassure


" : . . . . ".
Al-Tarabi : Children of prisoners of war who were raised up and educated in the Fatimid court


, .
Al-Tarasim : To keep under surveillance


.
Al-Trakimin : The Turcomans


: : : : .
Al-Tarawij : Harvested grains before due time


.
Al-Tirak Al-Ahliyah : Estates left by non-Mamluks


.
Al-Turkash : Quiver


: " " : .
Turcoman : Turkish tribal nomads


"" "" "".
Al-Tasabbub : Payment given for a temporary job

20-06-2004, 03:35 PM


90 .
Al-Tis`iniyah : A royal military unit of the Abbasid period who were paid every 90 days


.
Al-Taswigh : Exemption from taxes owed on income from a fief


: .
Al-Tasyir : Exile


.
Al-Tashahir : Bands for a horse's breast


.
Al-Tashrif : Robes of honor bestowed by the sultan
()

: . ( )
Al-Tashrifah : Emir formal head dress



Al-Tasqi` : Registration of real-estate for imposing taxes


: .
Al-Tadmir : Training race horses


.
Al-Tadmin : Endorsement for the payment of taxes or tax-farming


, .
Al-Ta`abi : Pieces of cloth



Ta`arij : Difference


Ta`aliq : Memorandum


: - . . . - : "".
Al-Ta`zir : Punishment not stipulated by the Shari`ah"



Al-Tafsilah : A robe


: .
Al-Taqawi Al-Mukhalladah : Stamped royal seeds


(1) . (2) .
Al-Taqlid : A decree giving a person the right to utilize a fief without ownership


"" .
Al-Takarirah : Inhabitants of "Tekror", a territory lying south west of Egypt


: : " " ( / ) " . "
Al-Tix : The duke


: . .
Al-Takafawer : A crowned Armenian king
()

" " ().
Al-Takfur : Little Armenia (Cilicia)

20-06-2004, 03:35 PM


: .
Al-Tillis : A sack used for keeping grains and fodder


" " : .
Al-Tamassuk : A receipt


: : .
Al-Tanna' : Fief-holders who live on their fief


Al-Tanazul `An Al-Iqta` : Renunciation of fiefs


: .
Al-Tawabit Al-Abraj : Open top boxes placed at the upper part of masts to shoot missiles at enemy ships


, .
Al-Tuamin : A Mongol army regiment composed of ten thousands soldiers


: .
Al-Tausit : Cutting a condemned person into two halves from his waist


.
Al-Tauqi` : Act of nomination


: "".
Al-Tauqi`i : See: Al-Nashanji


: .
Al-Thaqal : Traveler's baggage


: "".
Al-Thiab Al-Zutiyah : Clothes worn by the "Zuts"


"" : "" : .
Al-Jashinkair : A royal household official who tasted the sultan's food to make sure it was not poisoned


.
Al-Jaliq : A frisky and playful horse


: : .
Al-Jaliah : The People of the Book


.
Al-Jalish : A big flag crowned by a braid of hair


: " " .
Al-Jami` Al-`Atiq : Literally means: the ancient mosque. The term, however, refers to the mosque of `Amr bin Al-`As built in the ancient Fustat, present Cairo.


.
Al-Jamikiyah : Payment (salary)


"" "" .
Al-Jandariyah : Court-squires


, , , - - , .
Al-Jawish : 1) Soldier of inferior rank who served as a messenger 2) A soldier who used to march in front of royal processions


" " "": : .
Al-Jawishiyah : Also known as shawishiyah. They were junior officers of the modern N. C.O. In the Ayyubid period, they were charged with issuing the "call to arms" and encouraging soldiers to fight in battles. In the Mamluk sultan's period, four persons of that category marched in front of the sultan's horse at official processions. They also worked as messengers.

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Al-Jibayat : Taxes not stipulated by the Shari`ah


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Al-Jitar : A gilded parasol


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Al-Jara'ihiyah : Surgeons


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Al-Jararif : See: "Kashf Al-Jusur"


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Al-Jurrafah : Serfdom


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Al-Jurubban : A pocket in a cuirass or a coat of mail


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Al-Jarkhiyah : Crossbowmen
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Al-Jarkas : Circassia


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Al-Jurm : Also Al-Jurmah, long open armed rowing boat or dinghy, used in Yemen for unloading cargo from ships, and for towing ships which have run aground


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Al-Jurmah : See: "Jurm"


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Al-Jurukh : Crossbows


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Al-Jarib : Land measurement unit


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Al-Jaridah : A phrase that means: (traveling) without baggage


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Al-Juzdan : Portfolio


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Al-Jazirah : See: "Al-Huf Al-Sharqi"


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Al-Jisr : Dike, roadway


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Al-Jistal : Regional financial supervisor


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Al-Jusur Al-Baladiyah : Canal embankments built by peasants or fief-holders


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Al-Jusur Al-Sultaniyah : Public embankments built by the sultan


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Al-Jushar : Cattle and horses accompanying an army at war